string(24) "-------POST 3306--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(195) "Hutchinson, P.,Mirzoyants, A.,Leyton, A. (2019). Empowering youth for social change through the Shujaaz multimedia platform in Kenya International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 24(1), 102-116" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02673843.2018.1475287 " ["citation"]=> string(195) "Hutchinson, P.,Mirzoyants, A.,Leyton, A. (2019). Empowering youth for social change through the Shujaaz multimedia platform in Kenya International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 24(1), 102-116" ["intervention"]=> string(830) "The Shujaaz program, implemented in Kenya, aimed to improve the lives of Kenyan youth by norming and stimulating positive health behaviors, and incentivizing income generation activities. The overall focus of the Shujaaz strategy was to serve as a platform for young people to form a community, where they can discuss pressing issues, especially sensitive or taboo topics, such as money, sex, relationships, and contraception. The project used an integrated omni-channel design that included a free-of-charge nationally distributed comic (705,000 copies a month), a weekly syndicated radio show, and digital media (Facebook, SMS, Twitter, WhatsApp) to tell stories of fictional characters and real people representative of youth from different parts of the country as they encounter and resolve challenging life and health issues." ["summary"]=> string(195) "At the endline, digital media exposure was associated with an 18.1 percentage point increase in ever using condoms and a 13.8 percentage point increase in the use of modern contraceptive methods." ["year"]=> int(2019) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(214) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3307--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(276) " Camara, B. S.,Delamou, A.,Sidibé, S.,Béavogui, A. H.,Bouedouno, P.,Sylla, M. M.,Yentema, O.,Kouanda, S. (2018). Impact of an Antenatal Counseling on Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in the Postpartum in Rural Guinea African journal of reproductive health, 22(4), 16-25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(68) "https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajrh/article/viewFile/181703/171093 " ["citation"]=> string(276) " Camara, B. S.,Delamou, A.,Sidibé, S.,Béavogui, A. H.,Bouedouno, P.,Sylla, M. M.,Yentema, O.,Kouanda, S. (2018). Impact of an Antenatal Counseling on Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in the Postpartum in Rural Guinea African journal of reproductive health, 22(4), 16-25" ["intervention"]=> string(487) "The intervention, implemented in Guinea, sought to increase the use of postpartum FP methods in rural Guinea. The intervention trained nurses to conduct reinforced antenatal counseling to pregnant women instead of the standard routine antenatal counselling. The reinforced antenatal counseling (intervention) consisted of providing, in addition to routine counseling conducted in groups, a specific counseling, that is one session of face-to-face individual counseling with the provider." ["summary"]=> string(185) "Findings showed that at the ninth month postpartum, use of modern FP was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (5.7% and 1.1%, respectively; p=0.024)." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(217) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3308--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(368) " Unger, J. A.,Ronen, K.,Perrier, T.,DeRenzi, B.,Slyker, J.,Drake, A. L.,Mogaka, D.,Kinuthia, J.,John-Stewart, G. (2018). Short message service communication improves exclusive breastfeeding and early postpartum contraception in a low- to middle-income country setting: a randomised trial BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 125(12), 1620-1629" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(177) "https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1471-0528.15337?casa_token=0iNYT59RUPEAAAAA:XV4eShHGUFa1U_9PlJG3dpcqndJw4PmxNRC0yq2ROdURfHx_RE3l8Ot-qMDNT1wJ-4nkNUWHXOi0MA " ["citation"]=> string(368) " Unger, J. A.,Ronen, K.,Perrier, T.,DeRenzi, B.,Slyker, J.,Drake, A. L.,Mogaka, D.,Kinuthia, J.,John-Stewart, G. (2018). Short message service communication improves exclusive breastfeeding and early postpartum contraception in a low- to middle-income country setting: a randomised trial BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 125(12), 1620-1629" ["intervention"]=> string(784) "The Mobile WACh (Women Adolescents and Children) project, based in Kenya, was a mobile health intervention that employed short message services (SMS) to educate, provide reminders for visits and medications, improve communication between healthcare workers and patients, and improve self-efficacy, all potentially leading to better outcomes including increased use of contraceptives. The automated SMS system incorporated a personalised approach that provided gestational age-appropriate educational and counselling messaging. All messages included participant name, clinic and nurse name, an educational message, and actionable advice on topics including ANC, pregnancy complications, family planning, infant health, exclusive breastfeeding, infant immunisation, and visit reminders." ["summary"]=> string(177) "Contraceptive use was significantly higher in both intervention arms by 16 weeks (one-way SMS: 72% and two-way SMS: 73%; P = 0.03 and P = 0.02 versus 57% control, respectively)." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(214) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3309--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(233) " McConnell, M.,Rothschild, C. W.,Ettenger, A.,Muigai, F.,Cohen, J. (2018). Free contraception and behavioural nudges in the postpartum period: Evidence from a randomised control trial in Nairobi, Kenya BMJ Global Health, 3(5) #Pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(79) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195134/pdf/bmjgh-2018-000888.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(233) " McConnell, M.,Rothschild, C. W.,Ettenger, A.,Muigai, F.,Cohen, J. (2018). Free contraception and behavioural nudges in the postpartum period: Evidence from a randomised control trial in Nairobi, Kenya BMJ Global Health, 3(5) #Pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(507) "This intervention based in Kenya used behavioral economics to improve postpartum modern contraceptive use. The intervention provided vouchers for free contraceptive methods (value of $0.92-$6.45) and subsequently sent women SMS reminders to a sub-group of women. All women received counselling and educational materials on postpartum family planning, including information on appropriate methods for the postpartum period and a recommendation to initiate postpartum family planning six weeks after delivery." ["summary"]=> string(222) "The combination of the standard voucher with an SMS reminder increased the probability of reporting utilization of a modern contraceptive method by 25 percentage points (95% CI 6 % to 44 %) compared with the control group." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(3) { [0]=> int(214) [1]=> int(223) [2]=> int(224) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) [2]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3310--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(194) " Bang, K. S.,Chae, S. M.,Lee, I.,Yu, J.,Kim, J. (2018). Effects of a Community Outreach Program for Maternal Health and Family Planning in Tigray, Ethiopia Asian Nursing Research, 12(3), 223-230" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(72) "https://www.asian-nursingresearch.com/article/S1976-1317(18)30191-9/pdf " ["citation"]=> string(194) " Bang, K. S.,Chae, S. M.,Lee, I.,Yu, J.,Kim, J. (2018). Effects of a Community Outreach Program for Maternal Health and Family Planning in Tigray, Ethiopia Asian Nursing Research, 12(3), 223-230" ["intervention"]=> string(984) "The Maternal-child health outreach project was a community outreach program for maternal health in Ethiopia that aimed to increase knowledge, attitudes, couple communication and use of family planning. Maternal health education was provided to the women using two different approaches, village level education and small group education. Village-level education sessions focused on FP, safe delivery, and postpartum care. The small group sessions were given about FP, antenatal care and institutional birth, and postnatal management and neonatal/child care. To encourage paternal participation in FP, one education session was also given to male community leaders in the intervention area. Mass media was used to improve the women's awareness of maternal health in addition to on-the-job training sessions for various groups of health-care professionals, including nurses, basic emergency obstetric care nurses, midwives, and health extension workers, to improve their quality of care." ["summary"]=> string(349) "Contraceptive use increased from 31.3% to 61.8% in the intervention group. In the intervention group, rates of contraceptive use, antenatal care, institutional birth, and postpartum checkups increased, whereas the comparison group showed decreases in antenatal care and postpartum checkups and increases in contraceptive use and institutional birth." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(3) { [0]=> int(390) [1]=> int(228) [2]=> int(213) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(391) [2]=> int(230) [3]=> int(231) } string(51) "insertando Non RCT or weak or unclear randomization" array(1) { [0]=> int(450) } string(24) "-------POST 3311--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(249) " Speizer, I. S.,Corroon, M.,Calhoun, L. M.,Gueye, A.,Guilkey, D. K. (2018). Association of men's exposure to family planning programming and reported discussion with partner and family planning use: The case of urban Senegal PLoS ONE, 13(9), #Pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(74) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6155530/pdf/pone.0204049.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(249) " Speizer, I. S.,Corroon, M.,Calhoun, L. M.,Gueye, A.,Guilkey, D. K. (2018). Association of men's exposure to family planning programming and reported discussion with partner and family planning use: The case of urban Senegal PLoS ONE, 13(9), #Pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(889) "The Senegal ISSU program used proven, promising, and emerging program approaches for engaging men with the goal of increasing modern contraceptive use in six cities and particularly among the urban poor. The ISSU project, with government support and engagement, undertook a multi-component program that included improving the quality and availability of contraceptive services by trained providers, integrating service delivery, and developing a reliable contraceptive supply system to reduce stockout of methods. The program also undertook a number of activities to increase demand for modern FP including mass media campaigns on the radio and television; community outreach activities that included one-on-one interactions at a person’s home and community drama productions; and engaging religious leaders to speak favorably about FP in their sermons as well as part of a radio series." ["summary"]=> string(289) "Multivariate models demonstrate that religious leaders speaking favorably about FP, (Beta coefficient (B)= 0.09), exposure to community outreach activities with a FP focus (e.g., house to house (B=0.10) and community religious dialogues (B=0.10) are associated with reported modern FP use." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(233) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(4) { [0]=> int(228) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(234) } array(6) { [0]=> int(235) [1]=> int(236) [2]=> int(231) [3]=> int(230) [4]=> int(237) [5]=> int(238) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3312--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(258) " Daniele, M. A. S.,Ganaba, R.,Sarrassat, S.,Cousens, S.,Rossier, C.,Drabo, S.,Ouedraogo, D.,Filippi, V. (2018). Involving male partners in maternity care in burkina faso: A randomized controlled trial Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 96(7), 450-461" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(75) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022615/pdf/BLT.17.206466.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(258) " Daniele, M. A. S.,Ganaba, R.,Sarrassat, S.,Cousens, S.,Rossier, C.,Drabo, S.,Ouedraogo, D.,Filippi, V. (2018). Involving male partners in maternity care in burkina faso: A randomized controlled trial Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 96(7), 450-461" ["intervention"]=> string(975) "The facility-based intervention in Burkina Faso involved male partners of pregnant women in maternity care services in order to improve postpartum contraceptive use among other outcomes. Male partners were invited to participate in three one-hour educational sessions in French or a local language at their primary health centre, delivered by auxiliary midwives and midwives who attended a one-day training workshop. The sessions comprised: (i) an interactive group session between 20 weeks’ gestation and term for male partners only, to discuss men’s role; (ii) a counselling session between 20 weeks’ gestation and term for each couple individually to provide information and advice on topics related to pregnancy, birth, the postpartum period and FP; and (iii) a postnatal couple counselling session before postpartum discharge, to discuss further the postpartum period and FP. Participants were invited by several means, including letters and follow-up phone calls." ["summary"]=> string(150) "In the intervention arm, effective modern contraception use eight months postpartum (RD: 6.4%; 95% CI: 0.5 to 12.3) was higher than the control group." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(239) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(240) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3313--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(276) " Zerfu, T. A.,Ayele, H. T.,Bogale, T. N. (2018). Effect of Deploying Trained Community Based Reproductive Health Nurses (CORN) on Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Use in Rural Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Community Trial Studies in Family Planning, 49(2), 115-126" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(252) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325269726_Effect_of_Deploying_Trained_Community_Based_Reproductive_Health_Nurses_CORN_on_Long-Acting_Reversible_Contraception_LARC_Use_in_Rural_Ethiopia_A_Cluster_Randomized_Community_Trial_Effect_of_Deploying_ " ["citation"]=> string(276) " Zerfu, T. A.,Ayele, H. T.,Bogale, T. N. (2018). Effect of Deploying Trained Community Based Reproductive Health Nurses (CORN) on Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Use in Rural Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Community Trial Studies in Family Planning, 49(2), 115-126" ["intervention"]=> string(844) "The community-based intervention in Ethiopia aimed to improve Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) use in rural Ethiopia and consisted of placing trained community based reproductive health nurses within health centers or health posts. The nurses provided counseling to encourage women to use LARC and distributed all contraceptive methods. The innovative counseling approach had three components that addressed specific issues: barrier identification, method shift, and comfort analyses. Barrier identification counseling was provided to all women who were not using or stated they were not using modern FP methods. Method shift counseling was provided to all women who were using short-acting modern FP and/or natural methods. Comfort analysis counseling was provided to women who were using one of two LARC methods (IUCD or implants)." ["summary"]=> string(772) "The overall percentage of women using LARC methods increased by 45.9%, from 17.4 (95% CI: 14.8, 20.4) to 27.5 (95% CI: 24.4, 30.9) in the health post-based intervention arm. Similarly, LARC use increased by 45.7%, from 13.2 (95% CI: 10.9, 15.9) to 24.3 (95% CI: 21.2, 27.5) in the health center based intervention arm. A decline in LARC method use of 18.8%, from 7.6 (95% CI: 5.9, 9.8) to 6.4 (95% CI: 4.8, 8.4) was observed in the control arm (this decline was not statistically significant). As compared to the control group, the Difference In Difference estimates indicated a 11.3 and 12.3 percentage point increase in the utilization of LARC methods in the health post and health center intervention arms, and both estimates were statistically significant at p < 0.05." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(1) { [0]=> int(240) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3314--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(236) " Subramanian, L.,Simon, C.,Daniel, E. E. (2018). Increasing contraceptive use among young married couples in Bihar, India: Evidence from a decade of implementation of the PRACHAR project Global Health Science and Practice, 6(2), 328-342" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(65) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024625/pdf/328.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(236) " Subramanian, L.,Simon, C.,Daniel, E. E. (2018). Increasing contraceptive use among young married couples in Bihar, India: Evidence from a decade of implementation of the PRACHAR project Global Health Science and Practice, 6(2), 328-342" ["intervention"]=> string(1029) "The Promoting Change in Reproductive Behavior of Adolescents (PRACHAR) Project in India aimed to increase contraceptive use among young married couples aged 15-24. The intervention targeted individuals (young men and women ages 12–24) with training on sexual and reproductive health life skills for unmarried youth and reached married youth with newlywed ceremonies- combining education and entertainment. Female lay health workers (called “change agents”) conducted home visits and group meetings. Male change agents reached husbands of young women through regular small-group meetings. Mothers-in-law were reached with home visits and small groups, and the wider community was engaged through community meetings, street theater performances, wall paintings, puppet shows, and information, education and communication (IEC) materials. Government and private-sector contraceptive services were mapped and received small enhancements (e.g., training) from PRACHAR, with referrals to these services made by the change agents." ["summary"]=> string(860) "As published in Daniel et al. (2008), the odds of current contraceptive use increased nearly 4 times as much from baseline to endline among young married women in Phase I intervention areas than among those in comparison areas (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.84; P<.001, adjusted for age, education, caste, and parity). The adjusted effect size for Phase I is larger than that of PRACHAR's 2-year “single-intervention” models in Phase II (i.e., the 2-year “home visit only” model with an aOR of 2.00, P<.01, adjusted for age, parity, education, caste, and standard of living index; the 2-year comprehensive model [not statistically significant]; and the 2-year “volunteers only” model [also not statistically significant]),16 as well as the Phase III government-NGO model of similar duration (aOR=1.34; P<.001, adjusted for age, education, and caste)." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(277) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(278) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(245) [5]=> int(224) } array(6) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(391) [3]=> int(236) [4]=> int(386) [5]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3315--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(257) " Benson, A.,Calhoun, L.,Corroon, M.,Gueye, A.,Guilkey, D.,Kebede, E.,Lance, P.,O'Hara, R.,Speizer, I. S.,Stewart, J.,Winston, J. (2018). The Senegal urban reproductive health initiative: a longitudinal program impact evaluation Contraception, 97(5), 439-444" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(66) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5948164/pdf/main.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(257) " Benson, A.,Calhoun, L.,Corroon, M.,Gueye, A.,Guilkey, D.,Kebede, E.,Lance, P.,O'Hara, R.,Speizer, I. S.,Stewart, J.,Winston, J. (2018). The Senegal urban reproductive health initiative: a longitudinal program impact evaluation Contraception, 97(5), 439-444" ["intervention"]=> string(564) "The Senegal Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (called Initiative Sénégalaise de Santé Urbaine – ISSU) included demand generation activities as well as supply-side interventions with the goal of increasing use of modern FP in targeted urban sites in Senegal. Demand generation activities included working with Muslim religious leaders to become FP champions, mass media activities including FP messages in various types of radio and television, newspapers and magazines in addition to community-based activities such as training community-health volunteers." ["summary"]=> string(352) "By endline, there was increased exposure to radio and television programming, religious leaders speaking favorably about contraception, and community-based initiatives. In the same period, modern contraceptive use increased from 16.9% to 22.1% with a slightly larger increase among the poor (16.6% to 24.1%) and non users decreased from 81.1% to 75.5%." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(233) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(6) { [0]=> int(228) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(245) [5]=> int(234) } array(5) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(231) [2]=> int(230) [3]=> int(237) [4]=> int(238) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3316--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(289) " Wendot, S.,Scott, R. H.,Nafula, I.,Theuri, I.,Ikiugu, E.,Footman, K. (2018). Evaluating the impact of a quality management intervention on post-abortion contraceptive uptake in private sector clinics in western Kenya: A pre- and post-intervention study Reproductive Health, 15(1), #Pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(70) "https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186%2Fs12978-018-0452-4.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(289) " Wendot, S.,Scott, R. H.,Nafula, I.,Theuri, I.,Ikiugu, E.,Footman, K. (2018). Evaluating the impact of a quality management intervention on post-abortion contraceptive uptake in private sector clinics in western Kenya: A pre- and post-intervention study Reproductive Health, 15(1), #Pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(356) "The facility-based intervention, conducted in Kenya, sought to improve post-abortion contraceptive uptake in private sector clinics-including hormonal user dependent methods, LARC methods, and permanent methods. The intervention targeted providers and comprised a one-day training session, a counselling job-aide, and monthly supportive supervision visits." ["summary"]=> string(255) "Same-day uptake of post-abortion FP was higher at post-intervention compared to baseline (aOR 1.94, p < 0.001), as was same-day uptake of LARC (aOR 1.72, p < 0.001). There was no overall increase in uptake of post-abortion FP two weeks following abortion." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3317--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(225) " Ramesh, J.,Chandrababu, R. (2018). Community-based educational intervention on necklace method as a natural family planning amongst reproductive age group women in India International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 5(1), 29-32" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(68) "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352013217300534 " ["citation"]=> string(225) " Ramesh, J.,Chandrababu, R. (2018). Community-based educational intervention on necklace method as a natural family planning amongst reproductive age group women in India International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 5(1), 29-32" ["intervention"]=> string(391) "This community-based intervention in India aimed to improve use of the s+J12tandard days method of contraception. The intervention developed a visual tool called CycleBeads and educated, counseled and motivated women of reproductive age regarding this modern, natural and safe contraceptive method that is 95% effective in bringing wanted pregnancy by determining fertile and unfertile days." ["summary"]=> string(250) "The levels of knowledge (t ¼ 14.571, P ¼ 0.023) and practice (t ¼ 14.571, P ¼ 0.026) significantly improved after administering the community-based educational intervention. Knowledge and practice positively correlated with each other (P < 0.05)." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(249) } array(1) { [0]=> int(277) } array(1) { [0]=> int(278) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3318--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(281) " Mochache, V.,Irungu, E.,El-Busaidy, H.,Temmerman, M.,Gichangi, P. (2018). "Our voices matter": a before-after assessment of the effect of a community-participatory intervention to promote uptake of maternal and child health services in Kwale, Kenya BMC Health Serv Res, 18(1), 938" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(85) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280535/pdf/12913_2018_Article_3739.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(281) " Mochache, V.,Irungu, E.,El-Busaidy, H.,Temmerman, M.,Gichangi, P. (2018). "Our voices matter": a before-after assessment of the effect of a community-participatory intervention to promote uptake of maternal and child health services in Kwale, Kenya BMC Health Serv Res, 18(1), 938" ["intervention"]=> string(857) "The Dialogue Model is a structured, community participatory intervention that is anchored on the critical pedagogy theory. It utilizes problem-posing techniques to stimulate societal reflection and raise critical awareness (conscientization) of the situation to provoke reflective action. Ultimately, it seeks to promote a deeper understanding of local factors that lead communities, households and individuals to seek to remain healthy so that external interventions can be effective. The intervention was implemented in Matuga sub-county, Kwale with the aim of promoting uptake of select MCH services specifically, FP, antenatal care and facility-based delivery. Community health volunteers were provided with training on how to effectively conduct a Dialogue Model session. It consisted of regular sessions in community units linked to health facilities." ["summary"]=> string(256) "Intervention facilities reported a 15% increase in the uptake of FP. This increase was statistically significant: pre-intervention (Mean (M) = 1014; Standard deviation (SD) = 381) versus post-intervention (M = 1163; SD = 400); t (18) = − 0.603, P = 0.04)" ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(390) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(238) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3319--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(324) " Ingabire, R.,Nyombayire, J.,Hoagland, A.,Da Costa, V.,Mazzei, A.,Haddad, L.,Parker, R.,Sinabamenye, R.,Mukamuyango, J.,Smith, J.,Umutoni, V.,Mork, E.,Allen, S.,Karita, E.,Wall, K. M. (2018). Evaluation of a multi-level intervention to improve postpartum intrauterine device services in Rwanda Gates Open Res, 2(#issue#), 38" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(82) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266741/pdf/gatesopenres-2-14022.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(324) " Ingabire, R.,Nyombayire, J.,Hoagland, A.,Da Costa, V.,Mazzei, A.,Haddad, L.,Parker, R.,Sinabamenye, R.,Mukamuyango, J.,Smith, J.,Umutoni, V.,Mork, E.,Allen, S.,Karita, E.,Wall, K. M. (2018). Evaluation of a multi-level intervention to improve postpartum intrauterine device services in Rwanda Gates Open Res, 2(#issue#), 38" ["intervention"]=> string(639) "We developed a multi-level intervention to increase uptake of the postpartum IUD, defined as insertion up to six weeks post-delivery, in Kigali, Rwanda. High-volume hospitals and health centers were selected for implementation of postpartum IUD counseling and service delivery. Formative work informed development of a postpartum IUD counseling flipchart to be delivered during antenatal care, labor and delivery, infant vaccination visits, or in the community. Two-day didactic counseling, insertion/removal, and follow-up trainings were provided to labor and delivery and FP nurses followed by a mentored practicum certification process." ["summary"]=> string(617) "Thirty-nine providers were trained to deliver the service (with pre-test scores averaging 7.5/10, post-test scores averaging 9/10, and no post-test failures), and 90% of those were certified by July 2018. In the six months prior to the intervention (February 2017-July 2017), 46 postpartum IUDs were inserted in the selected health facilities (average of 7.7 insertions/month). During our 12-month intervention, 2,575 postpartum IUD were inserted (average of 214.6 insertions/month). The percent increase comparing monthly postpartum IUD insertions between February 2017-July 2017 to August 2017-July 2018 was 2,687%." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(250) } array(1) { [0]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3320--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(195) " Green, E. P.,Augustine, A.,Naanyu, V.,Hess, A. K.,Kiwinda, L. (2018). Developing a Digital Marketplace for Family Planning: Pilot Randomized Encouragement Trial J Med Internet Res, 20(7), e10756" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092593/ " ["citation"]=> string(195) " Green, E. P.,Augustine, A.,Naanyu, V.,Hess, A. K.,Kiwinda, L. (2018). Developing a Digital Marketplace for Family Planning: Pilot Randomized Encouragement Trial J Med Internet Res, 20(7), e10756" ["intervention"]=> string(504) "The investigational intervention which aimed to increase FP methods use was a digital health marketplace for FP called Nivi. At the time of the study, any woman (or man) in Bungoma County could send a toll-free SMS text message to the Nivi service to ask a question about reproductive health or trigger a free callback to complete an automated FP counseling session via interactive voice response. After a period of time, clients were prompted to provide details about their experience with FP providers." ["summary"]=> string(184) "Assignment to the treatment group (ie, assignment to receive encouragement to try the intervention) led to an increase of 12.7 percentage points in the likelihood of contraception use." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(214) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3321--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(250) " Najmi, H.,Ahmed, H.,Halepota, G. M.,Fatima, R.,Ul Haq, M.,Yaqoob, A.,Latif, A.,Ahmad, W.,Khursheed, A. (2018). Community-based integrated approach to changing women's family planning behaviour in Pakistan, 2014-2016 Public Health Action, 8(2), 85-90" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(79) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6012962/pdf/i2220-8372-8-2-85.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(250) " Najmi, H.,Ahmed, H.,Halepota, G. M.,Fatima, R.,Ul Haq, M.,Yaqoob, A.,Latif, A.,Ahmad, W.,Khursheed, A. (2018). Community-based integrated approach to changing women's family planning behaviour in Pakistan, 2014-2016 Public Health Action, 8(2), 85-90" ["intervention"]=> string(390) "The Sukh Initiative is a multipronged approach with door-to-door services using community health workers to provide quality FP/reproductive health services at both public and private facilities and a 24/7 FP helpline service that provides youth skill-based education to the demand for FP services, especially among women who have already expressed a desire to limit or space their children." ["summary"]=> string(418) "The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 10.7%, from 42.3% at baseline to 53.0% mid-intervention, with an increase in use of modern contraceptive methods of 9.2%. A significant association was found between door-to-door counselling and the use of contraceptive methods (OR 3.4, 95%CL 2.9–4.1). However, support group meetings and 24/7 helpline use did not show any association with use of contraceptive method." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(277) } array(1) { [0]=> int(278) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3322--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(273) " Patel, S. J.,Subbiah, S.,Jones, R.,Muigai, F.,Rothschild, C. W.,Omwodo, L.,Ogolla, T.,Kimenju, G.,Pearson, N.,Meadows, A.,Nour, N. M. (2018). Providing support to pregnant women and new mothers through moderated WhatsApp groups: a feasibility study Mhealth, 4(#issue#), 14" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(78) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5994467/pdf/mh-04-2018.04.05.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(273) " Patel, S. J.,Subbiah, S.,Jones, R.,Muigai, F.,Rothschild, C. W.,Omwodo, L.,Ogolla, T.,Kimenju, G.,Pearson, N.,Meadows, A.,Nour, N. M. (2018). Providing support to pregnant women and new mothers through moderated WhatsApp groups: a feasibility study Mhealth, 4(#issue#), 14" ["intervention"]=> string(375) "Women between age 18–40 years who used WhatsApp and reported their gestational age to be less than 30 weeks were considered eligible for inclusion. The sample size was limited to 50 women, or 5 WhatsApp groups each consisting of 10 women of similar gestational age. The study coordinator asked questions from this list at her discretion to stimulate conversation in groups." ["summary"]=> string(219) "20% of participants took up a postpartum contraceptive method as compared to 15% of the general population (P=0.38). Uptake of LARC was 14% among participants, which was twice as high as the general population (P=0.04)." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(214) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) [2]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3323--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(290) " Lafort, Y.,Lessitala, F.,Ismael de Melo, M. S.,Griffin, S.,Chersich, M.,Delva, W. (2018). Impact of a "Diagonal" Intervention on Uptake of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services by Female Sex Workers in Mozambique: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Study Front Public Health, 6(#issue#), 109" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(53) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915464 " ["citation"]=> string(290) " Lafort, Y.,Lessitala, F.,Ismael de Melo, M. S.,Griffin, S.,Chersich, M.,Delva, W. (2018). Impact of a "Diagonal" Intervention on Uptake of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services by Female Sex Workers in Mozambique: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Study Front Public Health, 6(#issue#), 109" ["intervention"]=> string(618) "The targeted component comprised the strengthening and expansion of the peer outreach activities, the provision of additional services at the Night Clinic, and clinical outreach. The number of peer educators, comprising both Mozambican and foreign female sex workers, was increased, a micro-planning approach was adopted based on the Avahan model, the geographical range and scope of services was expanded, and additional training conducted. At the Night Clinic, lubricants, female condoms, contraceptive implants, emergency contraception and referral for cervical cancer screening were added to the scope of services." ["summary"]=> string(309) "Substantial and—after adjusting for relevant confounders—significant increases were observed in consistent condom use with all partners (55.3–67.7%), ever having used a female condom (37.9–54.5%), currently using a modern contraceptive method (hormonal, IUD, tubal ligation or condoms) (84.5–95.4%)." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(254) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(255) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(224) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(395) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3324--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(269) " Aung, T.,Thet, M. M.,Sudhinaraset, M.,Diamond-Smith, N. (2018). Impact of a social franchise intervention program on the adoption of long and short acting family planning methods in hard to reach communities in Myanmar J Public Health (Oxf), #volume#(#issue#), #Pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(68) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459358/pdf/fdy005.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(269) " Aung, T.,Thet, M. M.,Sudhinaraset, M.,Diamond-Smith, N. (2018). Impact of a social franchise intervention program on the adoption of long and short acting family planning methods in hard to reach communities in Myanmar J Public Health (Oxf), #volume#(#issue#), #Pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(741) "Between 2014 and 2016, Population Services International (PSI) implemented a multi-pronged intervention to increase contraceptive use by leveraging its social marketing clinics and providers, and providing additional community outreach. PSI developed demand generation activities through community health workers who conducted 28,550 health education sessions on reproductive health. Providers also gave health education sessions to an estimated 4,166 participants through 193 sessions. During these health education sessions, community health workers handed out a brochure that described different types of contraceptive methods and eligibility for each method. Personnel also discussed pros and cons of each method, including side effects." ["summary"]=> string(306) "Having recently adopted a long acting method was significantly associated with a woman reporting that she saw or received a PSI contraceptive pamphlet (OR = 2.05, P < 0.01). After controlling for socio-demographic factors, this relationship was still significant, although attenuated (OR = 1.92, P < 0.01)." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(258) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(277) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(238) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3325--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(274) " Camara, B. S.,Delamou, A.,Sidibe, S.,Beavogui, A. H.,Bouedouno, P.,Sylla, M. M.,Yentema, O.,Kouanda, S. (2018). Impact of an Antenatal Counseling on Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in the Postpartum in Rural Guinea African Journal of Reproductive Health, 22(4), 16-25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(68) "https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajrh/article/viewFile/181703/171093 " ["citation"]=> string(274) " Camara, B. S.,Delamou, A.,Sidibe, S.,Beavogui, A. H.,Bouedouno, P.,Sylla, M. M.,Yentema, O.,Kouanda, S. (2018). Impact of an Antenatal Counseling on Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in the Postpartum in Rural Guinea African Journal of Reproductive Health, 22(4), 16-25" ["intervention"]=> string(826) "The reinforced antenatal counseling (intervention) consisted of providing, in addition to routine counseling, a specific counseling, that is one session of face-to-face individual counseling with the provider. The session was scheduled to last 15 to 20 minutes and used contraceptive samples and a toolbox to guide the counseling session. The specific counseling focused on postpartum FP methods (modern and traditional methods). Counseling in the control group consisted of routine antenatal counseling provided at health centres in Guinea. It consisted of collective information sessions (regardless woman‘s age or the age of pregnancy), held at every ANC visit, in the waiting room of the health centre. Each session covered different topics including nutrition, childbirth preparedness, immunization and family planning." ["summary"]=> string(484) "Findings showed that at the ninth month postpartum, use of modern FP was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (5.7% and 1.1%, respectively; p=0.024). However, 67.6% and 65.7% of women in the intervention group and the control group, respectively, abstained from sexual intercourse at the sixth month postpartum and had the intention to do so until the child walks. At the ninth month postpartum such women represented 70.5% and 59.5%, respectively." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(217) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) } array(1) { [0]=> int(450) } string(24) "-------POST 3326--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(267) " Adedini, S. A.,Babalola, S.,Ibeawuchi, C.,Omotoso, O.,Akiode, A.,Odeku, M. (2018). Role of Religious Leaders in Promoting Contraceptive Use in Nigeria: Evidence From the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative Global Health, Science and Practice, 6(3), 500-514" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(57) "http://www.ghspjournal.org/content/ghsp/6/3/500.full.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(267) " Adedini, S. A.,Babalola, S.,Ibeawuchi, C.,Omotoso, O.,Akiode, A.,Odeku, M. (2018). Role of Religious Leaders in Promoting Contraceptive Use in Nigeria: Evidence From the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative Global Health, Science and Practice, 6(3), 500-514" ["intervention"]=> string(580) "The NURHI model aimed at increasing contraceptive uptake through three major components— advocacy, demand creation, and service delivery. The project team identified and prepared important advocacy documents to guide the dialoging activities to be delivered by religious leaders and influential people of the community. In addition to receiving messages through the religious leaders’ interventions, community members were exposed to community-based media activities that focused on behavior change, improved availability and access to FP, and improved quality of FP services." ["summary"]=> string(365) "Significantly higher contraceptive uptake among women who had exposure to FP messages from religious leaders relative to those with no exposure (odds ratio=1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.54 to 1.87; P<.001). This association remained significant (OR=1.33; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.51; P<.001) after adjustment for background characteristics and other selected variables." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(3) { [0]=> int(228) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(234) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(237) [2]=> int(230) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3327--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(264) " Galarraga, O.,Harries, J.,Maughan-Brown, B.,Cooper, D.,Short, S. E.,Lurie, M. N.,Harrison, A. (2018). The Empower Nudge lottery to increase dual protection use: a proof-of-concept randomised pilot trial in South Africa Reproductive Health Matters, 26(52), 1510701" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(74) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242330/pdf/nihms-995210.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(264) " Galarraga, O.,Harries, J.,Maughan-Brown, B.,Cooper, D.,Short, S. E.,Lurie, M. N.,Harrison, A. (2018). The Empower Nudge lottery to increase dual protection use: a proof-of-concept randomised pilot trial in South Africa Reproductive Health Matters, 26(52), 1510701" ["intervention"]=> string(900) "Intervention includes conditional lottery incentives, whereby participants have a chance to win a prize if they fulfill some protective requirement. Participants in the intervention group had a chance to receive: (a) one lottery ticket subject to confirmation of the continued use of modern contraceptive methods at three months; and (b) another lottery ticket subject to confirmation of dual protection use at six months. All participants received condoms (male and female), and brief counselling/basic information about dual protection from the project nurse. Women who continued method use, as determined by a clinical specialist, at the month three visit, received their first lottery ticket. The second ticket was provided at the end of the study (month six) to those with successful dual protection: those who had renewed (or not discontinued) their contraception method, and who were STI-free." ["summary"]=> string(396) "At three months, assignment to the lottery intervention was associated with higher odds of returning for study visits (OR: 6.0; 95%CI: 2.45 to 14.7, p < 0.01), higher condom use (OR: 4.5; 95%CI: 1.43 to 14.1; p < 0.05), and higher use of dual protection (OR: 3.16; 95%CI: 1.01 to 9.9; p < 0.05). Only 60% of the study population returned after three months and only 38% returned after six months." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(260) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(223) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3328--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(383) " Doyle, K.,Levtov, R. G.,Barker, G.,Bastian, G. G.,Bingenheimer, J. B.,Kazimbaya, S.,Nzabonimpa, A.,Pulerwitz, J.,Sayinzoga, F.,Sharma, V.,Shattuck, D. (2018). Gender-transformative Bandebereho couples' intervention to promote male engagement in reproductive and maternal health and violence prevention in Rwanda: Findings from a randomized controlled trial PloS One, 13(4), e0192756" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(74) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5884496/pdf/pone.0192756.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(383) " Doyle, K.,Levtov, R. G.,Barker, G.,Bastian, G. G.,Bingenheimer, J. B.,Kazimbaya, S.,Nzabonimpa, A.,Pulerwitz, J.,Sayinzoga, F.,Sharma, V.,Shattuck, D. (2018). Gender-transformative Bandebereho couples' intervention to promote male engagement in reproductive and maternal health and violence prevention in Rwanda: Findings from a randomized controlled trial PloS One, 13(4), e0192756" ["intervention"]=> string(527) "In Rwanda, the MenCare+ program was known as Bandebereho, or “role model”, as it aimed to transform norms around masculinity by demonstrating positive models of fatherhood. The Bandebereho couples’ intervention engaged men and their partners in participatory, small group sessions of critical reflection and dialogue. Sessions addressed: gender and power; fatherhood; couple communication and decision-making; interpersonal violence; caregiving; child development; and male engagement in reproductive and maternal health." ["summary"]=> string(764) "The Bandebereho intervention led to substantial improvements in multiple reported outcomes. Compared to the control group, women in the intervention group reported: less past year physical (OR 0.37, p<0.001) and sexual interpersonal violence (OR 0.34, p<0.001); and greater attendance (IRR 1.09, p<0.001) and male accompaniment at antenatal care (IRR 1.50, p<0.001); and women and men in the intervention group reported: less child physical punishment (women: OR 0.56, p = 0.001; men: OR 0.66, p = 0.005); greater modern contraceptive use (women: OR 1.53, p = 0.004; men: OR 1.65, p = 0.001); higher levels of men’s participation in childcare and household tasks (women: beta 0.39, p<0.001; men: beta 0.33, p<0.001); and less dominance of men in decision-making." ["year"]=> int(2018) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(250) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } string(19) "insertando Outreach" array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(451) } array(2) { [0]=> int(235) [1]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3329--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(244) " Shelus, V.,Ashcroft, N.,Burgess, S.,Giuffrida, M.,Jennings, V. (2017). Preventing pregnancy in Kenya through distribution and use of the cyclebeads mobile application International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 43(3), 131-141" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(107) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/10.1363/43e4617.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A208b94c3bf2ca8b1ac0137d7a3af35ad " ["citation"]=> string(244) " Shelus, V.,Ashcroft, N.,Burgess, S.,Giuffrida, M.,Jennings, V. (2017). Preventing pregnancy in Kenya through distribution and use of the cyclebeads mobile application International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 43(3), 131-141" ["intervention"]=> string(381) "Intervention included mHealth, CycleBeads® mobile phone application (app), a digital platform to support women who use the Standard Days Method as a FP method. A digital marketing campaign targeting women of reproductive age in Nairobi was conducted to promote the app; the campaign consisted primarily of Facebook advertising, with supporting social media and website activities." ["summary"]=> string(295) "Among those preventing pregnancy, 42% had never before used a method. By midline, all participants knew when fertile days occurred, and most (97%) knew the method’s cycle-length requirements. Women reported high rates of condom use (88%), abstinence (68%) and withdrawal (46%) on fertile days." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(249) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(214) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3330--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(247) " Sapkota, S.,Rajbhandary, R.,Lohani, S. (2017). The Impact of Balanced Counseling on Contraceptive Method Choice and Determinants of Long Acting and Reversible Contraceptive Continuation in Nepal Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(9), 1713-1723" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(43) "http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/26955996 " ["citation"]=> string(247) " Sapkota, S.,Rajbhandary, R.,Lohani, S. (2017). The Impact of Balanced Counseling on Contraceptive Method Choice and Determinants of Long Acting and Reversible Contraceptive Continuation in Nepal Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(9), 1713-1723" ["intervention"]=> string(712) "The intervention included a Balanced Counseling approach with the goal to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional FP counseling previously identified in the program; for example, lack of consideration of woman’s individual reproductive goals, and not providing comprehensive choices based on identified needs. Balanced counseling was carried out by trained health care workers which emphasized individual women’s circumstances and broader reproductive health goals/needs, as well as the importance of considering these factors when helping women select an appropriate FP method. Women who sought FP, safe abortion and post-abortion FP services at the nine selected sites were invited to participate." ["summary"]=> string(359) "The proportion of clients choosing LARCs, increased from 15% at baseline to 40% after Balanced Counseling training. The overall LARC continuation rate was 82% at 12 months; the implant continuation rate was higher than the IUD rate (85 vs. 73%, p = 0.000). LARC continuation rates at one, three and six-month follow-ups were 97.9, 95.7 and 90.7% respectively." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(1) { [0]=> int(240) } array(1) { [0]=> int(277) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3331--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(350) " Measurement, Learning,Evaluation Project Nigeria, Team,Atagame, K. L.,Benson, A.,Calhoun, L.,Corroon, M.,Guilkey, D.,Iyiwose, P.,Kebede, E.,Lance, P.,O’Hara, R.,Ojogun, O. T.,Speizer, I. S.,Stewart, J. F.,Winston, J. (2017). Evaluation of the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI) Program Studies in Family Planning, 48(3), 253-268" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896011/pdf/SIFP-48-253.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(350) " Measurement, Learning,Evaluation Project Nigeria, Team,Atagame, K. L.,Benson, A.,Calhoun, L.,Corroon, M.,Guilkey, D.,Iyiwose, P.,Kebede, E.,Lance, P.,O’Hara, R.,Ojogun, O. T.,Speizer, I. S.,Stewart, J. F.,Winston, J. (2017). Evaluation of the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI) Program Studies in Family Planning, 48(3), 253-268" ["intervention"]=> string(618) "Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI) focused on de-medicalizing and demystifying FP use, increasing understanding of and appreciation for planning one’s family, supporting a person’s contraceptive use, and improving knowledge and perceptions of methods in the urban contexts where the program operated. This effort was undertaken through interpersonal communication in the home, on the street, at work, in clinics, and in locations where women or men congregate. It was also done using radio and television. NURHI was adopted by six cities: Abuja, Ibadan, Ilorin, and Kaduna, Benin City and Zaria." ["summary"]=> string(754) "At baseline, 71% of all women and 75% of poor women were non-users of modern FP. About one-fifth of women were using modern methods and 8% were using traditional methods. Four years later at endline, modern method use had significantly increased to 31% for all women and 29% for poor women; traditional method use had increased to about 11% in both groups. The main methods used at baseline were condoms (30%) and traditional methods. Injectables were used by 17% of all women and 19% of poor women at baseline. At endline, the method mix is slightly different with a larger contribution of implants (6–7% at endline compared to less than 1% at baseline). Condom use declined while implant use increased; implants were a focus of NURHI along with IUDs." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3332--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(307) " Mmbaga, E. J.,Kajula, L.,Aarø, L. E.,Kilonzo, M.,Wubs, A. G.,Eggers, S. M.,De Vries, H.,Kaaya, S. (2017). Effect of the PREPARE intervention on sexual initiation and condom use among adolescents aged 12-14: A cluster randomised controlled trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania BMC Public Health, 17(1), #Pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(85) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5392916/pdf/12889_2017_Article_4245.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(307) " Mmbaga, E. J.,Kajula, L.,Aarø, L. E.,Kilonzo, M.,Wubs, A. G.,Eggers, S. M.,De Vries, H.,Kaaya, S. (2017). Effect of the PREPARE intervention on sexual initiation and condom use among adolescents aged 12-14: A cluster randomised controlled trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania BMC Public Health, 17(1), #Pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(946) "PREPARE (Promoting sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in southern and eastern Africa – mobilizing schools, parents and communities) aimed to impact key mediators of the behaviour change process such as self-efficacy, social norms, attitude and action planning for the purpose of delaying sexual debut and increase consistent condom use among sexually active adolescents, which may reduce unwanted pregnancies and transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. The intervention consisted of three components, one implemented by teachers, one by peer educators, and one by health care providers during adolescents’ visits to youth friendly health service clinics. The sessions which were part of an after-school life skills training curriculum, were designed to be interactive and teachers were available to offer support when needed. The teacher-led lessons were integrated in the primary school science curriculum." ["summary"]=> string(1172) "An effect on condom use behaviour was observed among male adolescent (p = 0.004), but not among female (p = 0.463). For males, the incidence of sexual initiation in the intervention arm decreased from 11.5/100 person years at risk (PYAR) at month six to 7.3/100 PYAR at the 12 month follow up. For the control arm, the incidence of sexual initiation at six months was 13.2/100 PYAR and that at 12 months was 10.9/100PYAR. The rate of sexual initiation at 12 months following the PREPARE intervention was almost 2 times higher among the control schools as compared to the intervention schools [Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 1.9, p = 0.027]. A similar analysis for female adolescents revealed the incidence of sexual initiation to have changed from 11.7/ 100 PYAR to 7.4/100 PYAR at month six and 12, respectively for the intervention arm. An increase in the incidence of sexual initiation was observed in the control arm changing from 9.6/100 PYAR to 10.7/100 PYAR from month six–12, respectively. As it was the case for males, females from the control arm were 1.6 times more likely to initiate sex as compared to those from the intervention arm (ARR = 1.6, p = 0.019)." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(264) } array(4) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(231) [2]=> int(265) [3]=> int(266) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3333--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(237) " Lemani, C.,Tang, J. H.,Kopp, D.,Phiri, B.,Kumvula, C.,Chikosi, L.,Mwale, M.,Rosenberg, N. E. (2017). Contraceptive uptake after training community health workers in couples counseling: A cluster randomized trial PLoS ONE, 12(4), #Pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(74) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5407810/pdf/pone.0175879.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(237) " Lemani, C.,Tang, J. H.,Kopp, D.,Phiri, B.,Kumvula, C.,Chikosi, L.,Mwale, M.,Rosenberg, N. E. (2017). Contraceptive uptake after training community health workers in couples counseling: A cluster randomized trial PLoS ONE, 12(4), #Pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(768) "The intervention aimed at increasing uptake of FP and other reproductive health services by training health surveillance assistants in couples counseling. The couples counseling training gave participants an opportunity to discuss Malawian gender norms, as well as FP benefits for men, women and infants. It contained didactic instruction on communication and couple counseling techniques and practical sessions on applying these techniques to couples with FP challenges. The training also encouraged contraceptive choice, but emphasized condoms plus another method to maximize both pregnancy prevention, as well as protection from HIV and STIs. Health surveillance assistants then asked to visit women from their catchment areas at their homes and counsel them on FP." ["summary"]=> string(874) "115 (26%) from the couples counseling group had male partners present during their first visit, compared to only six (2%) from the other group (RD: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.33, p<0.01). Nearly all (99.5%) initiated a modern FP method, with no difference between groups (p = 0.09). Women in the couples counseling group were 8% more likely to receive male condoms (RD: 0.08, 95% CI: -7% to 23%, p = 0.28) and 8% more likely to receive dual methods (RD: 0.08, 95% CI: -0.065, 0.232, p = 0.274). FP continuation was high: more than 90% of those followed during the three-month and six-month follow-up visits received a FP method during the follow-up visit. However, there was no significant difference in continuation at six months between women in the couples counseling (97.4%) and women in the routine counseling group (94.2%) (RD: 0.033, 95% CI: -0.001 to 0.068, p = 0.064)." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(267) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(236) [1]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3334--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(215) " Weidert, K.,Gessessew, A.,Bell, S.,Godefay, H.,Prata, N. (2017). Community health workers as social marketers of injectable contraceptives: A case study from Ethiopia Global Health Science and Practice, 5(1), 44-56" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(56) "http://www.ghspjournal.org/content/ghsp/5/1/44.full.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(215) " Weidert, K.,Gessessew, A.,Bell, S.,Godefay, H.,Prata, N. (2017). Community health workers as social marketers of injectable contraceptives: A case study from Ethiopia Global Health Science and Practice, 5(1), 44-56" ["intervention"]=> string(803) "The intervention aimed to increase access to and use of injectable contraceptives, particularly in settings where unmet need is high, access is low, and geographic or social barriers to use of services exists by training of health workers (professionals, peer outreach, pharmacists, etc.) to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling to women in the community for a small fee and referrals to the health post for other methods, door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Social marketing, an approach that integrates marketing concepts with other approaches such as subsidized products to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good, was used to create awareness of the product and generate demand for services." ["summary"]=> string(467) "There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this increase. Changes in quality of FP markers from baseline suggested services improved between baseline and endline: nearly 50% more women reported being told about side effects and what to do if they experience side effects, and 25% more women said they were told about other methods of contraception." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(1) { [0]=> int(240) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(278) [4]=> int(224) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(231) [2]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3335--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(322) " More, N. S.,Das, S.,Bapat, U.,Alcock, G.,Manjrekar, S.,Kamble, V.,Sawant, R.,Shende, S.,Daruwalla, N.,Pantvaidya, S.,Osrin, D. (2017). Community resource centres to improve the health of women and children in informal settlements in Mumbai: a cluster-randomised, controlled trial The Lancet Global Health, 5(3), e335-e349" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(66) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316560/pdf/main.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(322) " More, N. S.,Das, S.,Bapat, U.,Alcock, G.,Manjrekar, S.,Kamble, V.,Sawant, R.,Shende, S.,Daruwalla, N.,Pantvaidya, S.,Osrin, D. (2017). Community resource centres to improve the health of women and children in informal settlements in Mumbai: a cluster-randomised, controlled trial The Lancet Global Health, 5(3), e335-e349" ["intervention"]=> string(504) "Community organisers in the intervention centres aimed to address maternal and neonatal health, child health and nutrition, reproductive health, and prevention of violence against women and children through home visits, group meetings, day care, community events, service provision, and liaison. The resource centres targeted women of reproductive age and children younger than five years, but any other residents living in an allocated cluster were free to participate in activities and access services." ["summary"]=> string(132) "Met need for FP was greater in the intervention clusters than in the control clusters (odds ratio [OR] 1·31, 95% CI 1·11–1·53)." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(277) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(390) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3336--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(330) " Vu, L.,Burnett-Zieman, B.,Banura, C.,Okal, J.,Elang, M.,Ampwera, R.,Caswell, G.,Amanyire, D.,Alesi, J.,Yam, E. (2017). Increasing Uptake of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infection, and Family Planning Services, and Reducing HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among Youth Living With HIV in Uganda Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(2), S22-S28" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(60) "https://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(16)30351-2/pdf " ["citation"]=> string(330) " Vu, L.,Burnett-Zieman, B.,Banura, C.,Okal, J.,Elang, M.,Ampwera, R.,Caswell, G.,Amanyire, D.,Alesi, J.,Yam, E. (2017). Increasing Uptake of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infection, and Family Planning Services, and Reducing HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among Youth Living With HIV in Uganda Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(2), S22-S28" ["intervention"]=> string(1312) "To reduce perceived stigma, mitigate some barriers to care-seeking, and encourage antiretroviral therapy adherence, fertility awareness, safe conception, preventing HIV and STI transmission to sex partners the Link Up project trained and employed peer educators, to reach youth living with HIV through informal networks of peer support groups. At support group meetings, the peer educators provided health education and counseling services and created linkages to facility-based HIV and sexual and reproductive health services. To foster a supportive atmosphere and reduce social barriers to care-seeking that youth living with HIV often experience, the project trained physicians and nurses in participating facilities to better respond to the complex needs of youth living with HIV. Finally, Link Up peer educators distributed referral vouchers that were redeemable for HIV care and SRH services at these health facilities to youth living with HIV who needed these services. The vouchers were designed with input from young people in Uganda to accomplish three goals: (1) be attractive to young Ugandans and generate demand for services by removing cost barriers; (2) help young people navigate the health care system; and (3) capture an easy-to-remember unique identifying code to monitor service utilization." ["summary"]=> string(515) "Multivariate analyses showed significant increases at end line, compared with baseline, in self-efficacy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.8 [1.3e2.6]), comprehensive HIV knowledge [AOR: 1.8 [1.3e2.6]), HIV disclosure (AOR: 1.6 [1.01e2.6]), condom use at last sex (AOR: 1.7 [1.2e2.5]), sexually transmitted infection uptake (AOR: 2.1 [1.5e2.9]), ART uptake (AOR: 2.5 [1.6e4.0]), ART adherence (AOR: 2.5 [1.3e4.9]), CD4 testing (AOR: 2.4 [1.5e3.6]), and current use of a modern contraceptive method (AOR: 1.7 [1.1e2.7])." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(268) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(224) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3337--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(278) " Gullo, S.,Galavotti, C.,Kuhlmann, A. S.,Msiska, T.,Hastings, P.,Marti, C. N. (2017). Effects of a social accountability approach, CARE's Community Score Card, on reproductive health-related outcomes in Malawi: A cluster-randomized controlled evaluation PLoS ONE, 12(2), #Pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(74) "https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171316 " ["citation"]=> string(278) " Gullo, S.,Galavotti, C.,Kuhlmann, A. S.,Msiska, T.,Hastings, P.,Marti, C. N. (2017). Effects of a social accountability approach, CARE's Community Score Card, on reproductive health-related outcomes in Malawi: A cluster-randomized controlled evaluation PLoS ONE, 12(2), #Pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(524) "The Community Score Card, developed by CARE Malawi in 2002 as a social accountability tool, aims to empower community members, health service providers, and other government officials to identify and overcome obstacles to health coverage, quality and equity in resource limited settings. The Community Score Card is conducted with the community via focus group discussions with community members (separated into groups such as men, women, youth, etc.) to identify and prioritize issues they are facing in accessing services." ["summary"]=> string(126) "The project estimated a 57% greater current use of modern FP in the intervention area (B = 0.57, 95% CI 0.17–0.96, P < .01)." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(267) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(2) { [0]=> int(390) [1]=> int(269) } array(5) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(231) [3]=> int(230) [4]=> int(238) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3338--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(254) " McDougal, L.,Atmavilas, Y.,Hay, K.,Silverman, J. G.,Tarigopula, U. K.,Raj, A. (2017). Making the continuum of care work for mothers and infants: Does gender equity matter? Findings from a quasi-experimental study in Bihar, India PLoS ONE, 12(2), #Pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(94) "https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171002&type=printable " ["citation"]=> string(254) " McDougal, L.,Atmavilas, Y.,Hay, K.,Silverman, J. G.,Tarigopula, U. K.,Raj, A. (2017). Making the continuum of care work for mothers and infants: Does gender equity matter? Findings from a quasi-experimental study in Bihar, India PLoS ONE, 12(2), #Pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(781) "Activities to strengthen outreach involved training, mobilizing, and monitoring of government frontline workers (including accredited social health activists, auxiliary nurse midwives, and anganwadi [social service] workers) and empowering them with job aids and tools to increase quantity, quality, and ultimately, effectiveness of home visits for RMNCH screenings and services to increase demand for services. Tools included the mobile kunji, an interactive voice response-based mobile service and a printed deck of cards covering messages related to 10 life-saving RNMCH behaviors to help enhance frontline workers’ counseling of families, and mobile academy, a mobile training course for frontline workers to expand and refresh their knowledge of life-saving RMNCH behaviors." ["summary"]=> string(611) "At midline, coverage in Ananya areas was significantly higher for four or more antenatal care visits (24.2% vs. 16.9%, p<0.0001), clean cord care (33.3% vs. 24.0%, p = 0.001), skin-to-skin care (44.1% vs. 32.7%, p<0.0001), delay of first bath (67.0% vs. 55.8%, p<0.0001) and postpartum contraceptive use (19.2% vs. 11.3%, p<0.0001). After accounting for secular trends and prior to adjusting for covariates, there were significant increases in clean cord care (OR = 1.54, p = 0.01), skin-to-skin care (OR = 1.62, p = 0.03) and postpartum contraceptive use (OR = 2.27, p<0.01) attributable to the Ananya program." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(277) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(214) } array(2) { [0]=> int(388) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3339--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(187) " Kaewkiattikun, K. (2017). Effects of immediate postpartum contraceptive counseling on long-acting reversible contraceptive use in adolescents Adolesc Health Med Ther, 8(#issue#), 115-123" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(72) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669788/pdf/ahmt-8-115.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(187) " Kaewkiattikun, K. (2017). Effects of immediate postpartum contraceptive counseling on long-acting reversible contraceptive use in adolescents Adolesc Health Med Ther, 8(#issue#), 115-123" ["intervention"]=> string(465) "Contraceptive counseling aimed to address the unavailability and inaccessibility of FP services by (1) improving the supply of FP services at community and facility levels, and (2) increasing the knowledge and demand for FP services. The intervention group was counseled during the immediate postpartum period (two-three days postpartum, before hospital discharge) and at four-six weeks postpartum. The control group was counseled only at four-six weeks postpartum." ["summary"]=> string(379) "Of the 233 postpartum adolescents, postpartum LARC use was 87 of 118 (73.7%) in the immediate postpartum counseling group and 49 of 115 (42.6%) in the conventional postpartum counseling group (OR 3.780, 95% CI 2.18–6.57, p<0.001). A significant predictive factor for LARC use in postpartum adolescents was immediate postpartum counseling (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.10–6.41, p<0.001)." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(271) } array(1) { [0]=> int(240) } array(1) { [0]=> int(272) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3340--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(236) " Amo-Adjei, J.,Mutua, M.,Athero, S.,Izugbara, C.,Ezeh, A. (2017). Improving family planning services delivery and uptake: experiences from the "Reversing the Stall in Fertility Decline in Western Kenya Project" BMC Res Notes, 10(1), 498" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(85) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634860/pdf/13104_2017_Article_2821.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(236) " Amo-Adjei, J.,Mutua, M.,Athero, S.,Izugbara, C.,Ezeh, A. (2017). Improving family planning services delivery and uptake: experiences from the "Reversing the Stall in Fertility Decline in Western Kenya Project" BMC Res Notes, 10(1), 498" ["intervention"]=> string(443) "The intervention, implemented by a seven-member consortium, involved: FP service delivery; regular training of service providers to deliver high quality services; monitoring and evaluation; strengthening of commodity chain delivery and forecasting; school-based and out of-school based sexuality education; and advocacy and stakeholder engagement at the community, county and national levels to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes." ["summary"]=> string(331) "Prior to implementation in 2009, CPR in Siaya was 33% and in Busia 41% By 2014, CPR for Siaya and Busia stood at 51 and 57% respectively. During the same period, TFR dropped from 5.4 to 4.2 in Siaya, and from 5.6 to 4.7 in Busia. Unmet need for FP also dropped from 32 to 23% and 26 to 21% in Siaya and Busia counties respectively." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(3) { [0]=> int(228) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(264) } array(5) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(231) [3]=> int(230) [4]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3341--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(252) " Fikree, F. F.,Abshiro, W. K.,Mai, M. M.,Hagos, K. L.,Asnake, M. (2017). Strengthening Youth Friendly Health Services through Expanding Method Choice to include Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives for Ethiopian Youth Afr J Reprod Health, 21(3), 37-48" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(68) "https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajrh/article/viewFile/163683/153158 " ["citation"]=> string(252) " Fikree, F. F.,Abshiro, W. K.,Mai, M. M.,Hagos, K. L.,Asnake, M. (2017). Strengthening Youth Friendly Health Services through Expanding Method Choice to include Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives for Ethiopian Youth Afr J Reprod Health, 21(3), 37-48" ["intervention"]=> string(735) "The project intervention comprised a two-pronged approach - service delivery limited to LARCs training for the youth-friendly service providers and their supportive supervision; and LARCs demand generation through raising awareness regarding LARCs myths and misperceptions by Ipeer educators. The service providers‘ intervention was geared to LARCs competency-based training and supportive supervision, the LARCs and youth project trained the existing peer educators associated with the respective intervention clinics. youth-friendly service providers did not receive LARCs skills training; they continued to counsel on all contraceptive methods, provide all short-acting methods on-site and refer LARCs clients to the main FP unit." ["summary"]=> string(633) "The overall contraceptive growth rate, 317.2%, in the intervention arm (pre-intervention=867; postintervention=2,750) was higher as compared to 284.4% for the non-intervention (pre-intervention=494; post-intervention=1,405) arm - a percentage increase of 11%. The number of LARCs new acceptors in the intervention arm was 781 (preintervention=116; post intervention=665) as compared to 358 in the non-intervention arm (pre-intervention=95; post intervention=263). Odds of adopting LARCs at pre-intervention (0.70); rose to 1.30 for the post-intervention phase (p-value <0.0001); comparing intervention to non-intervention study arms." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(1) { [0]=> int(240) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(278) } array(2) { [0]=> int(231) [1]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3342--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(228) " Benson, A.,Calhoun, L. M.,Corroon, M.,Lance, P.,O'Hara, R.,Otsola, J.,Speizer, I. S.,Winston, J. (2017). Longitudinal Evaluation of the Tupange Urban Family Planning Program in Kenya Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health, 43(2), 75-87" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897119/pdf/nihms955798.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(228) " Benson, A.,Calhoun, L. M.,Corroon, M.,Lance, P.,O'Hara, R.,Otsola, J.,Speizer, I. S.,Winston, J. (2017). Longitudinal Evaluation of the Tupange Urban Family Planning Program in Kenya Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health, 43(2), 75-87" ["intervention"]=> string(630) "The Kenya Urban Reproductive Health Initiative program, called Tupange (“Let’s plan”), aimed to improve access to quality FP services through a diverse set of supply-side activities that focused particularly on increasing use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs): implants and IUDs. Tupange promoted demand for contraceptives using a comprehensive outreach strategy that included organizing community activities (such as street plays and dramas); training community health workers; airing radio and television programs; holding community meetings; and distributing posters, pamphlets and other written materials." ["summary"]=> string(427) "During the four-year follow-up period, the proportion of women using modern contraceptives increased from 45% to 52%, and the proportion of users who were using long-acting or permanent methods rose from 6% to 19%. The fixed-effects model indicated that modern method use was associated with having heard Tupange-related local radio programming and marginally associated with having discussed FP with a community health worker." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(4) { [0]=> int(390) [1]=> int(244) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3343--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(210) " Smith, C.,Ly, S.,Uk, V.,Warnock, R.,Edwards, P.,Free, C. (2017). Process evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention to support post-abortion contraception in Cambodia Contracept Reprod Med, 2(#issue#), 16" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(83) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5683466/pdf/40834_2017_Article_43.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(210) " Smith, C.,Ly, S.,Uk, V.,Warnock, R.,Edwards, P.,Free, C. (2017). Process evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention to support post-abortion contraception in Cambodia Contracept Reprod Med, 2(#issue#), 16" ["intervention"]=> string(490) "Our MObile Technology for Improved FP (MOTIF) trial assessed a mobile phone-based intervention comprising six interactive voice messages +/− counsellor support to increase post-abortion contraception at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. The aim of this process evaluation was to assess participants’ (women's) interaction with the intervention from a service provider perspective to further understand what worked or didn’t work and to inform future implementation." ["summary"]=> string(416) "Women who spoke to the counsellor having requested to (by pressing ‘1’) were more than four times as likely to be using effective contraception at four months compared to women who didn’t request or speak to the counsellor (Odds Ratio 4.39; 95% CI: 1.15-16.71). There was a small, non-statistically significant increase in contraception use amongst women that spoke to the counsellor without requesting a call." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(273) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(272) } array(1) { [0]=> int(214) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3344--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(216) " Sun, W. H.,Wong, C. K. H.,Wong, W. C. W. (2017). A Peer-Led, Social Media-Delivered, Safer Sex Intervention for Chinese College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(8), e284" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569248/ " ["citation"]=> string(216) " Sun, W. H.,Wong, C. K. H.,Wong, W. C. W. (2017). A Peer-Led, Social Media-Delivered, Safer Sex Intervention for Chinese College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(8), e284" ["intervention"]=> string(330) "The peer-led intervention was delivered through Facebook, the most popular social media platform among Hong Kong college students. It aimed to increase sexual health knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors among teens and young adults. The peer educators were trained on safe sex knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills." ["summary"]=> string(220) "After adjusting for demographic data, increased online-visiting frequency was associated with better contraceptive use behavioral intention (P=.05), better behavioral skills (P=.02), and more frequent condom use (P=.04)." ["year"]=> int(2017) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(272) } array(1) { [0]=> int(214) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3345--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(287) " Achyut, P.,Benson, A.,Calhoun, L. M.,Corroon, M.,Guilkey, D. K.,Kebede, E.,Lance, P. M.,Mishra, A.,Nanda, P.,O'Hara, R.,Sengupta, R.,Speizer, I. S.,Stewart, J. F.,Winston, J.. Impact evaluation of the Urban Health Initiative in urban Uttar Pradesh, India. Contraception. 2016. 93:519-25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010782415300883 " ["citation"]=> string(287) " Achyut, P.,Benson, A.,Calhoun, L. M.,Corroon, M.,Guilkey, D. K.,Kebede, E.,Lance, P. M.,Mishra, A.,Nanda, P.,O'Hara, R.,Sengupta, R.,Speizer, I. S.,Stewart, J. F.,Winston, J.. Impact evaluation of the Urban Health Initiative in urban Uttar Pradesh, India. Contraception. 2016. 93:519-25" ["intervention"]=> string(574) "Community Health Workers visited every home in slums of target cities to offer information about FP methods, counsel on postpartum FP and accompany women to a health facility or refer women to a health facility. The Urban Health Initiative employed provider training, expanded the role of the private sector in FP service provision, used community health workers for outreach efforts, used mid- (street plays and road shows) and mass- (television and radio spots) media to promote demand for FP services, and integrated FP services with postpartum and postabortion services." ["summary"]=> string(1482) "The Urban Health Initiative was evaluated using a pre- and post- test study using a prospective cohort design. All women aged 15-49 and currently married who had spent the previous night in selected households were eligible for baseline interview (n = 16,802). At the endline follow-up, 84% of women interviewed at baseline (n = 14,026) were reinterviewed. At baseline, 49% of women were using a modern method and 15% a traditional method. By endline, there was greater modern method use (54%) and traditional method use had declined slightly (13%). Female sterilization was dominant in both panels, with the remainder of use being condoms or traditional methods. Overall, 25% of women changed their behavior; 15% became modern method users, while 10% abandoned modern method use. The remaining women either continued a modern method (38%) or remained nonusers or traditional method users (36%).The study also found women exposed to brochures (marginal effect: 6.96, p=0.001), billboards/posters/wall hangings (marginal effect: 2.09, p=0.05), and FP on the television (marginal effect: 2.46, p=0.001) were significantly more likely to be using a modern method at endline. In addition, the study found borderline significance for being exposed to a community health worker (marginal effect: 1.66, p=0.10) and living close to an improved public and private supply environment where UHI undertook activities (marginal effects and p values: 2.48, p=0.05 and 1.56, p=0.10, respectively)." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(256) [5]=> int(276) } string(24) "insertando Southern Asia" array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3346--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(392) " Azmat, S. K.,Hameed, W.,Hamza, H. B.,Mustafa, G.,Ishaque, M.,Abbas, G.,Khan, O. F.,Asghar, J.,Munroe, E.,Ali, S.,Hussain, W.,Ali, S.,Ahmed, A.,Ali, M.,Temmerman, M.. Engaging with community-based public and private mid-level providers for promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Pakistan: results from two innovative birth spacing interventions. Reprod Health. 2016. 13:25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(89) "https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-016-0145-9 " ["citation"]=> string(392) " Azmat, S. K.,Hameed, W.,Hamza, H. B.,Mustafa, G.,Ishaque, M.,Abbas, G.,Khan, O. F.,Asghar, J.,Munroe, E.,Ali, S.,Hussain, W.,Ali, S.,Ahmed, A.,Ali, M.,Temmerman, M.. Engaging with community-based public and private mid-level providers for promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Pakistan: results from two innovative birth spacing interventions. Reprod Health. 2016. 13:25" ["intervention"]=> string(682) "The Suraj model and Community Midwife model, implemented in Pakistan, aimed to promote the use of modern FP methods to promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy in rural and under-served communities. The Suraj model used social franchising in combination with a voucher scheme and employed provider training, female and male community mobilizers, vouchers for long-acting contraceptive methods, and branded clinics, posters, wall paintings and leaflets. The Community Midwife model integrated FP services into existing reproductive health services provided by community midwives. The Community Midwife model employed provider training and female and male community mobilizers." ["summary"]=> string(1664) "The two models were evaluated using a quasi-experimental (pre- and post- intervention with control) mixed method research study. Cross sectional surveys were conducted with 5,566 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) between 15-49 years of age at baseline and endline - 1995 MWRA from the Suraj intervention model, 1,435 MWRA from the Community Midwives intervention model, and 2,136 MWRAs from the control. The study found MWRA who received the Suraj intervention model had a 35% greater prevalence (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.35, 95% CI: 1.22-1.50) of current contraceptive use compared to their counterparts in the control, while adjusting for other factors. Older MWRA (35+ years, PR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39), those with education (1-8 years [PR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.07-1.38] and secondary to higher [PR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.26-1.62]), and greater number of children (3-4 [PR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.26-1.60] and 5+[PR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.34-1.76]) were more likely to use contraception than their counterparts in the control. The study found the Community Midwives intervention model increased contraceptive awareness among MWRA by a net 28% (p=< 0.001) in the intervention arm from baseline to endline. The Community Midwives model also resulted in an 8% increase in CPR between baseline and endline. However, the net effect was nullified when CPR in the control arm was taken into account. The study also found that while the Community Midwives model did not significantly affect the overall CPR (i.e. both traditional and modern methods combined), the model did significantly increase the use of a long term contraceptive method - IUDs - among MWRA by a net 3% (p=< 0.05)." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(12) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(280) [4]=> int(281) [5]=> int(282) [6]=> int(251) [7]=> int(283) [8]=> int(275) [9]=> int(256) [10]=> int(276) [11]=> int(284) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(4) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) [3]=> int(224) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3347--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(279) " Dulli, L. S.,Eichleay, M.,Rademacher, K.,Sortijas, S.,Nsengiyumva, T.. Meeting postpartum women's family planning needs through integrated family planning and immunization services: Results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Rwanda. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2016. 4:73-86" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4807750/ " ["citation"]=> string(279) " Dulli, L. S.,Eichleay, M.,Rademacher, K.,Sortijas, S.,Nsengiyumva, T.. Meeting postpartum women's family planning needs through integrated family planning and immunization services: Results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Rwanda. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2016. 4:73-86" ["intervention"]=> string(428) "This intervention, implemented in Rwanda, aimed to increase modern contraceptive method use among post-partum women by integrating FP service components into infant immunization services. The intervention employed group education sessions, a simple brochure, provider training, client counseling, and the provision of FP services to women attending immunization at the same facility and on the same day as immunization services." ["summary"]=> string(920) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized cluster trial. Participants in the trial were post-partum women, who attended public primary health care facilities for immunization services for their infants ages six to 12 months. Results showed the intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on modern method use among women who received the intervention compared with women in the control group (regression coefficient, 0.15; 90% CI: 0.04-0.26). Ultimately, the evaluation observed an 8% increase in the intervention group and a 7% decrease in the control, resulting in a 15 percentage point difference between the intervention and control groups when comparing baseline to endline results. This effect was also significant at the 2-sided test with an alpha = .05 (95% CI: 0.01-0.29). The trial also measured client/patient satisfaction and quality/skill of provider communication with clients." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(250) } array(10) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(255) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(251) [6]=> int(275) [7]=> int(249) [8]=> int(256) [9]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) [2]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3348--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(277) " Ghanotakis, E.,Hoke, T.,Wilcher, R.,Field, S.,Mercer, S.,Bobrow, E. A.,Namubiru, M.,Katirayi, L.,Mandera, I.. Evaluation of a male engagement intervention to transform gender norms and improve family planning and HIV service uptake in Kabale, Uganda. Glob Public Health. 2016." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(84) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17441692.2016.1168863?journalCode=rgph20 " ["citation"]=> string(277) " Ghanotakis, E.,Hoke, T.,Wilcher, R.,Field, S.,Mercer, S.,Bobrow, E. A.,Namubiru, M.,Katirayi, L.,Mandera, I.. Evaluation of a male engagement intervention to transform gender norms and improve family planning and HIV service uptake in Kabale, Uganda. Glob Public Health. 2016." ["intervention"]=> string(871) "The Men As Partners intervention, implemented in Uganda, compared two interventions aimed at increasing FP uptake, with a focus on dual method use (e.g. barrier method for STI + other method for FP), among HIV care and treatment clients. Thirty-two model men called ‘Emanzis’ were recruited from the community in Kabale, Uganda to lead men from their peer group through a 10-session curriculum designed to transform gender norms and motivate men to engage in FP and HIV services. The first intervention employed provider training on FP counseling and providing FP methods to women. The second intervention employed provider training on FP counseling and providing methods to women and men, individually and as couples, and also training on promoting equitable gender norms and engaging men in FP and HIV services. The second intervention also employed peer education." ["summary"]=> string(930) "The Men As Partners intervention was evaluated using a pre-post, exposure-assumed study design. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with all peer educators (n = 32) and participants before (n = 1,251) and after (n = 1,122) the intervention. The two rounds of survey data were treated independently, with no attempt to match responses at the individual or group level. The study found a statistically significant increase in respondents reporting condom use with main partners over the past three months, from 13.9% at pre-test to 32.8% at post-test. The study found the use of a contraceptive method other than condoms to prevent pregnancy in the past three months decreased over time, but the change was not statistically significant. The study also found an increase in ever having tested for HIV, couples communication with main partners about using a contraceptive method to avoid pregnancy, and visiting health facilities." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(268) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(235) [1]=> int(230) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3349--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(233) " Joshi, B.,Velhal, G.,Chauhan, S.,Kulkarni, R.,Begum, S.. Linking HIV & family planning services to improve dual methods of contraception among women infected with HIV in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Indian J Med Res. 2016. 143:464-73" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377503 " ["citation"]=> string(233) " Joshi, B.,Velhal, G.,Chauhan, S.,Kulkarni, R.,Begum, S.. Linking HIV & family planning services to improve dual methods of contraception among women infected with HIV in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Indian J Med Res. 2016. 143:464-73" ["intervention"]=> string(444) "The intervention, implemented in India, aimed to improve dual method use among HIV-positive women accessing counseling and testing services at two tertiary hospitals by linking HIV and FP services. The intervention, which included a focus on dual method use, used provider training, informational poster display, couple counseling sessions, referral services, information sharing between HIV and FP providers, and follow-up counseling sessions." ["summary"]=> string(1243) "Overall 46 (32.6%, 95% CI: 24.9-40.3) participants from the intervention group and 15 (10.6%, 95% CI: 5.5-15.7) from the control group accepted dual contraceptive methods. At the end of one year of follow up 39 (27.6%, 95% CI: 20.2-35) and 12 (8.5%, CI: 3.9-13.1) participants continued using a FP method from intervention and control groups, respectively. This difference was significant (p=<0.001). Among those who accepted other contraceptives, spacing methods were most accepted in intervention group (n = 33, 72%) compared to control (n = 7, 47%). Among spacing methods, IUDs were the most accepted method. The proportion of couples using condoms was higher in the intervention group than control and this difference was significant throughout all the follow ups. Consistent use of condoms among dual method acceptors was 100% in the intervention and 50% in the control group and this difference was significant (p=<0.05). Five cases in the control group reported non-use of condoms. Use of emergency contraceptive pills was limited to two cases in the intervention group and none in the control group. At baseline, 95 (86.4%) and 93 (76.8%) participants continued consistent condom use from intervention and control groups, respectively." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(7) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(280) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(399) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3350--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(257) " Newmann, S. J.,Rocca, C. H.,Zakaras, J. M.,Onono, M.,Bukusi, E. A.,Grossman, D.,Cohen, C. R.. Does integrating family planning into HIV services improve gender equitable attitudes? Results from a cluster randomized trial in Nyanza, Kenya. AIDS Behav. 2016." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(62) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10461-015-1279-4 " ["citation"]=> string(257) " Newmann, S. J.,Rocca, C. H.,Zakaras, J. M.,Onono, M.,Bukusi, E. A.,Grossman, D.,Cohen, C. R.. Does integrating family planning into HIV services improve gender equitable attitudes? Results from a cluster randomized trial in Nyanza, Kenya. AIDS Behav. 2016." ["intervention"]=> string(675) "The intervention, implemented in Kenya, aimed to increase contraceptive use among HIV-positive adults by improving access to services and streamlining care for patients by integrating FP into HIV services. The intervention employed provider training, counseling and health talks. Eighteen public sector HIV clinics participated in the trial: 12 HIV clinics were randomized to the integration intervention and provided FP counseling, condoms and more effective contraceptives (IUDs, implants, injections, and pills) in addition to HIV services. Six control sites provided the standard of care: provision of condoms and referral to FP clinics for more effective contraceptives." ["summary"]=> string(1643) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. A total of 480 women and 480 men who were HIV-positive or receiving HIV care, not currently pregnant (women only), were between ages 18 and 45, and were able/willing to give informed consent were surveyed. Receiving HIV care at intervention sites was associated with reporting more effective contraceptive use among women (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.00-3.79). At the intervention sites, 83.1% of women reported using a modern contraceptive compared to 72.4% in the control group. Similarly, 59.9% of women reported using a more effective contraceptive compared to 42.3% in the control group. The difference in use was statistically significant. Women living in polygynous relationships were less likely to be using more effective methods than those in monogamous relationships (AOR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.82). At the intervention sites, 87.1% of men reported using a modern contraceptive compared to 83.3% in the control group. The use of a more effective contraceptive was reported by 23.3% of men in the intervention group compared to 17.9% in the control group. Compared to men in monogamous relationships, unmarried men and men not living with partners were far less likely to report their partners using more effective methods (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.71). Men at intervention sites had stronger gender equitable attitudes than those at control sites (adjusted mean difference in scores = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.03-1.74), though gender equitable attitudes were not associated with contraceptive use among men (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.93-1.21) or women (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94-1.13)." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(399) [2]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3351--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(213) " Ngo, T. D.,Nuccio, O.,Pereira, S. K.,Footman, K.,Reiss, K.. Evaluating a LARC expansion program in 14 Sub/Saharan African countries: A service delivery model for meeting FP2020 goals. Matern Child Health J. 2016." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27154524 " ["citation"]=> string(213) " Ngo, T. D.,Nuccio, O.,Pereira, S. K.,Footman, K.,Reiss, K.. Evaluating a LARC expansion program in 14 Sub/Saharan African countries: A service delivery model for meeting FP2020 goals. Matern Child Health J. 2016." ["intervention"]=> string(827) "The Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives and Permanent Methods (LARC/PM) Expansion program was implemented in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The LARC/PM Expansion program aimed to increase women’s contraceptive choices, including expanding access to a range of LARC/PMs, and address the unmet need for FP in Sub/Saharan Africa. The intervention employed mass media (e.g. radio spots), education and awareness raising through community health workers and satisfied clients, road shows, flyers, posters, task sharing and comprehensive integrated FP counseling. LARC/PMs were delivered through three main service delivery channels: static clinics, mobile outreach units, and social franchising of private sector providers." ["summary"]=> string(802) "The LARC/PM Expansion program was evaluated using a pre-post study design, with no measurement of exposure to the intervention. The study found the use of LARC/PM services across the 11 country programs increased from 149,881 in 2008 to over 1.7 million in 2014, representing a 1037% increase. The uptake of IUDs increased by 429% and the uptake of implants by 1567%. About half (46%) of LARC users were adopters (women who had not used FP in the previous three months): 49% at mobile outreach; 45% in static clinics; 33% in social franchises. About half (46%) switched from a short-term method: 44% at mobile outreach; 45% in static clinics; 54% in social franchisees. The remaining 8% of clients were continuing users of long-acting contraception. The study also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(14) { [0]=> int(239) [1]=> int(226) [2]=> int(287) [3]=> int(210) [4]=> int(288) [5]=> int(267) [6]=> int(289) [7]=> int(259) [8]=> int(233) [9]=> int(290) [10]=> int(263) [11]=> int(268) [12]=> int(291) [13]=> int(292) } array(2) { [0]=> int(251) [1]=> int(281) } array(2) { [0]=> int(293) [1]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3352--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(289) " Raj, A.,Ghule, M.,Ritter, J.,Battala, M.,Gajanan, V.,Nair, S.,Dasgupta, A.,Silverman, J. G.,Balaiah, D.,Saggurti, N.. Cluster Randomized controlled trial evaluation of a gender equity and family planning intervention for married men and couples in rural India. PLoS One. 2016. 11:e0153190" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0153190 " ["citation"]=> string(289) " Raj, A.,Ghule, M.,Ritter, J.,Battala, M.,Gajanan, V.,Nair, S.,Dasgupta, A.,Silverman, J. G.,Balaiah, D.,Saggurti, N.. Cluster Randomized controlled trial evaluation of a gender equity and family planning intervention for married men and couples in rural India. PLoS One. 2016. 11:e0153190" ["intervention"]=> string(497) "The Counseling Husbands to Achieve Reproductive health and Marital equity (CHARM) project, implemented in India, aimed to improve contraceptive use and reduce unintended pregnancies and, secondarily, improve contraceptive communication and reduce Intimate Partner Violence perpetration and acceptability in rural areas. The intervention, which focused on married men and couples, used FP and gender equity counseling sessions with male village health care providers using informational flipcharts." ["summary"]=> string(1313) "CHARM was evaluated using a two-armed cluster randomized trial. Young married couples (n = 1081) were recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM (n = 467) and 25 clusters randomized to a control condition (n = 614)) and followed over the course of 18 months. A significant time by treatment effect on contraceptive use was seen in intent to treat analyses (p=0.02), and marginally significant differences by treatment group were seen for contraceptive use at nine and 18 month follow-ups. Further examination of the time by treatment effect revealed contraceptive use in the intervention group increased significantly from baseline at both nine month (AOR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.53-2.95) and 18 month (AOR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.88-3.61) follow ups, while the control group increased at 18 month follow up (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12-2.04), but less than that seen in the intervention group. Dose analyses further revealed that contraceptive use doubled by 18 month follow-up among those participating in male-only sessions (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.18-3.27) and in male and couple sessions (AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), relative to those receiving no intervention sessions. The trial also measured client/patient satisfaction, couple/spousal communication about FP, and IPV behavior and attitude." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(235) [1]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3353--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(218) " Sapkota, S.,Rajbhandary, R.,Lohani, S.. The impact of balanced counseling on contraceptive method choice and determinants of long acting and reversible contraceptive continuation in Nepal. Matern Child Health J. 2016." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(74) "https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0153190 " ["citation"]=> string(218) " Sapkota, S.,Rajbhandary, R.,Lohani, S.. The impact of balanced counseling on contraceptive method choice and determinants of long acting and reversible contraceptive continuation in Nepal. Matern Child Health J. 2016." ["intervention"]=> string(456) "The intervention, implemented in Nepal, aimed to increase the uptake and continuation rate of LARCs through a balanced counseling approach. The intervention employed provider training and the provision of balanced counseling to assess women’s needs and their reproductive goals, and presented them with FP options using balanced counseling cards. After method selection, the counseling was reinforced in the screening, procedure and post-operative rooms." ["summary"]=> string(943) "The intervention was evaluated using a pre- and post- test study using a observational cohort design. A total of 5,744 women received balanced counseling, of whom 1,580 women (27.5%) adopted LARC methods. Married women (n = 1,302) aged between 18 and 49 years, who accepted LARC on the day of counseling and were contactable by telephone at one, three, six and 12 months after counseling participated in evaluating the continuation rate. The study found the proportion of women choosing LARCs increased from 15% at baseline to 40% after receiving balanced counseling. This increase was mostly due to an increase in implant uptake from 9% to 31%. The overall LARC continuation rate was 82% at 12 months; the implant continuation rate was higher than the IUD rate (85% vs. 73%, p=0.000). LARC continuation rates at one, three and six-month follow-ups were 97.9%, 95.7% and 90.7% respectively. The study also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(2) { [0]=> int(281) [1]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3354--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(214) " Wegs, C.,Creanga, A. A.,Galavotti, C.,Wamalwa, E.. Community dialogue to shift social norms and enable family planning: An evaluation of the family planning results initiative in Kenya. PLoS One. 2016. 11:e0153907" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0153907 " ["citation"]=> string(214) " Wegs, C.,Creanga, A. A.,Galavotti, C.,Wamalwa, E.. Community dialogue to shift social norms and enable family planning: An evaluation of the family planning results initiative in Kenya. PLoS One. 2016. 11:e0153907" ["intervention"]=> string(349) "The Family Planning Results Initiative, implemented in Kenya, aimed to challenge and shift key community norms about gender dynamics and FP, with the ultimate goal of creating a social environment that is more supportive of equitable gender relations and the use of FP. The intervention employed community dialogues, role models and satisfied users." ["summary"]=> string(1679) "The interventino was evaluated using a pre-post study design. The study used cross-sectional household surveys to interview 590 married men (20-49 years) (n = 305 baseline, n = 285 endline) and 1,240 married women (18-45 years) (n = 650 baseline, n = 590 endline) using standardized questionnaires at baseline and endline. Adjusted regressions models identified significant associations between participation in the intervention and both current use of any method and current use of a modern method of FP for women, but not for men. The strongest associations were found among women exposed to discussions specifically about FP, these women were 78% more likely to use any method or a modern method than women who were not exposed to these discussions. Exposure to any topic covered during the intervention increased the odds of women using any method of FP by 62% and the odds of using a modern method by 60%. Based on propensity score-matched results, 36.5% and 34.0% of women used any method and a modern method, respectively, at baseline, while 51.8% and 51.2%, respectively, did so at endline. Similarly, 33.7% and 27.9% of men used any method and a modern method, respectively, at baseline; 53.8% and 52.2% did so, respectively, at endline. Women's use of injectables increased from 19.5% to 29.7%, condom use increased from 3.3% to 6.8%, and oral contraceptives use from 2.9% to 8%. Among men, condom use increased from 18.5% to 27.2%; while men reported their partners use of injectables increased from 4.7% to 18.3% and oral contraceptive use increased from 3.7% to 10.4%. The study also measured couple/spousal communication about FP and gender norms related to FP use." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(5) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3355--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(197) " Zamawe, C. O.,Banda, M.,Dube, A. N.. The impact of a community driven mass media campaign on the utilisation of maternal health care services in rural Malawi. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016. 16:21" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730729/ " ["citation"]=> string(197) " Zamawe, C. O.,Banda, M.,Dube, A. N.. The impact of a community driven mass media campaign on the utilisation of maternal health care services in rural Malawi. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016. 16:21" ["intervention"]=> string(448) "The Phukusi la Moyo campaign emphasized raising awareness of the risks associated with pregnancy, the importance of antenatal and postnatal care, the advantages of delivering at the health facility, and promoted men’s engagement in maternal health, the use of mosquito bed-nets, and uptake of malaria prophylaxis among pregnant women. The campaign employed radio, panel discussions, community discussions, drama, songs, and radio listening clubs." ["summary"]=> string(694) "The Phukusi la Moyo campaign was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. Women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who gave birth or became pregnant at least 12 months after the implementation of the campaign were eligible to enroll in the study. The evaluation found that the likelihood of using contraceptives (OR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.43-2.07), were significantly higher among women who had exposure to the campaign than those who did not. After adjusting for potential confounders (i.e. age, education, occupation, marital status, participation women’s groups), women who had exposure to the campaign were still significantly more likely to use contraceptives (AOR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.32-1.96)." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(267) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(4) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(244) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) [2]=> int(388) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3356--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(268) " Aichatou, B.,Seck, C.,Baal Anne, T. S.,Deguenovo, G. C.,Ntabona, A.,Simmons, R. (2016). Strengthening Government Leadership in Family Planning Programming in Senegal: From Proof of Concept to Proof of Implementation in 2 Districts Glob Health Sci Pract, 4(4), 568-581" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(65) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5199175/pdf/568.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(268) " Aichatou, B.,Seck, C.,Baal Anne, T. S.,Deguenovo, G. C.,Ntabona, A.,Simmons, R. (2016). Strengthening Government Leadership in Family Planning Programming in Senegal: From Proof of Concept to Proof of Implementation in 2 Districts Glob Health Sci Pract, 4(4), 568-581" ["intervention"]=> string(702) "Senegal Urban Health Initiative consisted of both supply- and demand-side interventions, introduced in October 2014 and concluding at the end of 2015. The interventions included ensuring adequate human resources and contraceptive supplies, contraceptive technology updates for providers, special free FP service days to bring services closer to where people live, FP integration into other routine services, household visits for FP education, religious sermons to clarify Islam’s position on FP, and radio broadcasts. District leadership in Diamniadio and Rufisque were actively involved in guiding and implementing interventions, and they also contributed some of their own resources to the project." ["summary"]=> string(484) "Comparing a six-month baseline period with a six-month implementation period, couple-years of protection increased from about 2,000 to about 4,000 (82% increase) in one district, and from nearly 6,000 to about 9,000 (56% increase) in the second. Monitoring data on the number of contraceptive methods provided by district facilities supported by a sister project, the Informed Push Model project, indicate overall improvement in contraceptive provision during the intervention period." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(233) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(234) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(237) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3357--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(240) " Egbe, T. O.,Atashili, J.,Talla, E.,Atanga, M. B. S. (2016). Effect of performance based financing home visiting on the use of modern methods of contraception in the kumbo east health district, Cameroon Contracept Reprod Med, 1(#issue#), 19" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(83) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693568/pdf/40834_2016_Article_30.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(240) " Egbe, T. O.,Atashili, J.,Talla, E.,Atanga, M. B. S. (2016). Effect of performance based financing home visiting on the use of modern methods of contraception in the kumbo east health district, Cameroon Contracept Reprod Med, 1(#issue#), 19" ["intervention"]=> string(447) "The intervention, based in Cameroon, aimed to promote the use of modern methods of contraception by women of childbearing age using home visits provided by nurses. Nurses were trained to provide women education in their homes about contraception and prevention of STIs. The nurses then went from house to house to educate women about their STI risks and their options and to refer them to the nearest hospital for counseling and method initiation." ["summary"]=> string(316) "Most participants in the intervention health area (60.3%) used modern methods of contraception compared to 46.6% of those in the control group (aOR: 1.75 %; 95 % CI: 1.212.53) and the most commonly used modern method of contraception was medroxyprogesterone in the intervention group and condoms in the control area." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(294) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3358--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(220) " Rokicki, S.,Cohen, J.,Salomon, J. A.,Fink, G. (2016). Impact of a Text-Messaging Program on Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Cluster-Randomized Trial in Ghana American Journal of Public Health, #volume#(#issue#), e1-e8" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(78) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5227930/pdf/AJPH.2016.303562.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(220) " Rokicki, S.,Cohen, J.,Salomon, J. A.,Fink, G. (2016). Impact of a Text-Messaging Program on Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Cluster-Randomized Trial in Ghana American Journal of Public Health, #volume#(#issue#), e1-e8" ["intervention"]=> string(411) "The text messaging program aimed to improve sexual and reproductive health, in particular among adolescents, by providing information in a private and confidential way. Two types of interventions were compared: the unidirectional intervention sent participants text messages with reproductive health information and the interactive intervention engaged adolescents in text-messaging reproductive health quizzes." ["summary"]=> string(724) "There was no significant impact of either intervention on ever having sexual intercourse, on having sexual intercourse in the past year, or on pregnancy in the past year for the full sample of participants. Conditional on having sexual intercourse in the past year, the unidirectional and the interactive programs significantly lowered the odds of self-reported pregnancy by 86% in the adjusted models (OR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.71) and 85% (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.86), respectively, compared with the control group. The interactive intervention increased the odds of using the birth control pill in the past year (OR = 13.23; 95% CI = 1.08, 161.80) although small sample sizes resulted in large confidence intervals." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(287) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(212) } array(1) { [0]=> int(214) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(295) } string(24) "-------POST 3359--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(233) " Chhabra, H. K.,Mohanty, I. R.,Mohanty, N. C.,Thamke, P.,Deshmukh, Y. A.. Impact of structured counseling on choice of contraceptive method among postpartum women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India. 2015. #volume#:#pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(60) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13224-015-0721-x " ["citation"]=> string(233) " Chhabra, H. K.,Mohanty, I. R.,Mohanty, N. C.,Thamke, P.,Deshmukh, Y. A.. Impact of structured counseling on choice of contraceptive method among postpartum women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India. 2015. #volume#:#pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(458) "The intervention in India aimed to facilitate women's decision making on the selection of contraceptive methods through structured contraception counseling. Postpartum women were counseled on the hormonal and non-hormonal methods of contraceptives. Counseling was provided using education materials on available methods, including counseling cards for both hormonal and non-hormonal methods and a physical tray displaying the various types of contraceptives." ["summary"]=> string(1614) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study sample included 117 postpartum women within eight weeks of delivery who were counseled on hormonal and non-hormonal methods of contraception. The study found that, pre-counseling, 12.8% of women selected a hormonal method, 23.1% a non-hormonal method, and 64.1% were undecided for any contraceptive method. After "structured contraception counseling" 59.9% of women chose a hormonal contraceptive method and 31.5% a non-hormonal method. Contraceptive counseling provided to women resulted in statistically significant differences between proportions of women opting for each contraceptive method before and after the counseling (p = 0.0001, McNemar’s test). Post-counseling, progesterone only pills (POP) were chosen by 38.5% of women, vaginal ring by 0.9%, injectable-DMPA by 21.4%, and IUD by 23.1%. In addition, post-counseling, non-hormonal methods were selected by 31.5% women (natural methods 5.1%, condoms 3.4%, and IUD 23.1%). Around, 7.8% of women remained indecisive about any method of contraception. Maximum difference (33.3%; p = 0.001) was noted in the proportion of women who chose POP after counseling compared to before counseling. Differences in proportions of women who opted for injectable-DMPA and IUD post-counseling and pre-counseling were 18.7% and 12.7%, respectively. In the study, counseling helped women arrive at a decision. After counseling, the highest decrease was observed in the proportion of women indecisive about a method (difference in proportions = 56.35 %, p < 0.0001)." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(6) { [0]=> int(296) [1]=> int(297) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3360--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(215) " Cooper, C. M.,Fields, R.,Mazzeo, C. I.,Taylor, N.,Pfitzer, A.,Momolu, M.,Jabbeh-Howe, C.. Successful proof of concept of family planning and immunization integration in Liberia. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2015. 3:71-84" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(51) "http://www.ghspjournal.org/content/3/1/71.abstract " ["citation"]=> string(215) " Cooper, C. M.,Fields, R.,Mazzeo, C. I.,Taylor, N.,Pfitzer, A.,Momolu, M.,Jabbeh-Howe, C.. Successful proof of concept of family planning and immunization integration in Liberia. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2015. 3:71-84" ["intervention"]=> string(336) "The intervention, implemented in Liberia, aimed to increase contraceptive use by integrating FP services within immunization services. The intervention employed provider training on postpartum FP and immunization as well as values clarification. Providers were also oriented to new materials, including job aids, posters, and brochures." ["summary"]=> string(1455) "The intervention was evaluated using a post-only cross-sectional study, examining differences by exposure to the intervention. During the nine-month pilot period, a total of 1,490 mothers accepted a FP referral from a vaccinator (426 in Lofa county, 1,064 in Bong county). Of mothers who accepted a FP referral, 84% and 88% completed the same-day referral in Lofa and Bong, respectively. Among those women who completed the referral, 93% and 96% in Lofa and Bong, respectively, accepted a contraceptive method that day. The total number of new contraceptive users at participating facilities (i.e., among Expanded Program of Immunizations-referred clients who accepted a method the same day as well as other clients) increased by 90% in Lofa (517 to 983) and by 73% in Bong (1,182 to 2,039). Among women referred from the Expanded Program of Immunizations who accepted a contraceptive method on the same day, the method mix varied between the counties. In Bong, nearly half of the same-day referred FP acceptors committed to using LAM, while about one-quarter chose injectables and nearly one-quarter chose oral contraceptive pills. In Lofa, most same-day referral FP acceptors (43%) chose injectables, while about one-quarter chose LAM and another quarter chose pills. Less than 10% of women chose implants in either county. Although IUDs were offered in most facilities in Liberia, none of the FP referral acceptors were provided an IUD on the same day." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(299) } array(5) { [0]=> int(281) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(283) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3361--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(243) " Jejeebhoy, S. J.,Prakash, R.,Acharya, R.,Singh, S. K.,Daniel, E.. Meeting contraceptive needs: Long-term associations of the PRACHAR project with married women's awareness and behavior in Bihar. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2015. 41:115-25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(125) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2015/09/meeting-contraceptive-needs-long-term-associations-prachar-project-married " ["citation"]=> string(243) " Jejeebhoy, S. J.,Prakash, R.,Acharya, R.,Singh, S. K.,Daniel, E.. Meeting contraceptive needs: Long-term associations of the PRACHAR project with married women's awareness and behavior in Bihar. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2015. 41:115-25" ["intervention"]=> string(394) "The PRACHAR Project, implemented in India, aimed to delay marriage until the bride is aged 18 or older and the groom 21 or older; delay the birth of a first child until the mother is 21 or older; and initiate contraception within three months of marrying or giving birth. The project employed female and male change agents, community outreach, counseling, group discussions, and wall paintings." ["summary"]=> string(2113) "The PRACHAR Project was evaluated using a post-only cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional survey of married women aged 15-34 of various parities was conducted. In total, 2,846 married women were interviewed—716 from comparison areas and 2,130 from the intervention areas. Relative to women who resided in comparison areas, those in intervention areas had greater odds of having ever practiced contraception (OR = 2.1), currently using contraceptives (OR = 1.7), currently using a modern method (OR = 1.5) and having initiated contraception within three months of a recent birth (OR = 1.8). Odds ratios were even greater in comparisons between women directly exposed to the intervention and those in comparison areas (OR = 1.7-2.6), but were also elevated (relative to women in the comparison area) among those who had been only indirectly exposed to the intervention (OR = 1.4-2.0). Women in intervention areas were also far more likely to practice contraception than women in comparison areas. For example, 49% of women in intervention areas had ever used contraceptives, compared with 34% of those in comparison areas; for current use, the proportions were 38% and 29%, respectively. Although contraceptive prevalence was higher among women who had been directly exposed to the intervention than among women who had been indirectly exposed, a significantly greater proportion of indirectly exposed women reported ever use and current use of contraceptives (46% and 36%, respectively) than did women in comparison areas (34% and 29%, respectively). Method-specific use patterns indicate that women in intervention areas were more likely than those in comparison areas to be using a modern method of contraception (32% vs. 26%) or a traditional method (6% vs. 3%). Women directly exposed to the intervention were more likely to have used modern or traditional methods than were women in the comparison areas and more likely to have used a modern method than those indirectly exposed to the intervention; the latter were more likely than those in comparison areas to report traditional method use (5% vs. 3%)." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(2) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(244) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3362--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(235) " Jiusitthipraphai, T.,Nirattharadorn, M.,Suwannarurk, K.. The effects of promoting self-efficacy program on the oral contraceptive used behavior among adolescent mothers. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2015. 98:444-450" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(63) "http://www.thaiscience.info/journals/Article/JMAT/10971158.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(235) " Jiusitthipraphai, T.,Nirattharadorn, M.,Suwannarurk, K.. The effects of promoting self-efficacy program on the oral contraceptive used behavior among adolescent mothers. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2015. 98:444-450" ["intervention"]=> string(509) "This intervention in Thailand promoted self-efficacy to increase oral contraceptive use among adolescent mothers. During antenatal care, mothers participated in motivational lessons, led by trained nurses, that centered on adolescent pregnancy, its impact and preventing future pregnancies by taking oral contraceptives. The lessons also focused on correctly taking methods, sources of assistance and what to do in case of a missed dose. Following the session, nursing staff followed up with clients by phone." ["summary"]=> string(1073) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample included primiparous adolescent mothers aged 15-19 years who attended antenatal care, gave birth and came for postpartum check-up at six weeks after delivery at Thammasat University Hospital from December 2013 to March 2014. Sixty adolescent mothers were selected through inclusion criteria and were divided equally into two groups with 30 participants each: the intervention group and control group. The trial found that, at 12 weeks postpartum, oral contraceptive self-efficacy scale (OCSE) and oral contraceptive used behavior scale (OCUB) of the intervention group was higher than the control group with statistical difference (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of variance (one-way MANOVA) was used to compare the differences in mean scores of OCSE and OCUB between the intervention and control groups at 12 weeks postpartum. The intervention group had higher scores of OCSE and OCUB than the control group who received standard nursing care with statistical difference (p < 0.001)." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(271) } array(1) { [0]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(301) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3363--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(219) " Kamalikhah, T.,Rakhshani, F.,Rahmati Najarkolaei, F.,Gholian Avval, M.. Evaluation of transtheoretical model-based family education among females of Zahedan (Southeast of Iran). Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015. 17:e18895" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636756/ " ["citation"]=> string(219) " Kamalikhah, T.,Rakhshani, F.,Rahmati Najarkolaei, F.,Gholian Avval, M.. Evaluation of transtheoretical model-based family education among females of Zahedan (Southeast of Iran). Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015. 17:e18895" ["intervention"]=> string(248) "The intervention, implemented in Iran, aimed to improve women's contraceptive use. The intervention employed lectures, face-to-face discussions, questions and answers, group discussions, flip charts and pamphlets to educate women on contraceptives." ["summary"]=> string(948) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. Women, aged between 15 and 49 years, who were fertile, but not pregnant, and living with the spouse were eligible to participate in the trial (n = 110). The trial found the percentage of individuals using FP methods increased from 43.2% before the intervention to 77.3% after the intervention, in the intervention group, and from 38.5% to 40.4% in the control group, respectively. Because of the yes or no format of the answers, in order to analyze before and after nominal variables, McNemar’s test was chosen, which showed that the difference was significant in the intervention group (median = 0.77, inter quartile range (IQR) = 0, p=< 0.001), yet insignificant in the control group (median = 0.46, IQR = 1, p=1).The mean of changes in knowledge, attitude (t-test) and behavior, including FP, (Chi square test) in intervention group were significantly higher than control group." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(302) } array(5) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(281) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3364--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(218) " Okigbo, C. C.,Speizer, I. S.,Corroon, M.,Gueye, A.. Exposure to family planning messages and modern contraceptive use among men in urban Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal: a cross-sectional study. Reprod Health. 2015. 12:63" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(89) "https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-015-0056-1 " ["citation"]=> string(218) " Okigbo, C. C.,Speizer, I. S.,Corroon, M.,Gueye, A.. Exposure to family planning messages and modern contraceptive use among men in urban Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal: a cross-sectional study. Reprod Health. 2015. 12:63" ["intervention"]=> string(330) "The Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (URHI), implemented in Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal, aimed to increase the contraceptive prevalence rate as reported by men in the three countries. The intervention employed mass media, Print materials, interpersonal communication, community events, and the engagement of religious leaders." ["summary"]=> string(2506) "URHI was evaluated using a post-only cross-sectional study, examining differences by exposure to the intervention. A two-stage cluster sampling design was used to select a representative sample of men - 696 men in Kenya, 2,311 men in Nigeria, and 1,613 men in Senegal. Modern contraceptive use among men was highest in Kenya (58%), followed by Nigeria (43%) and then Senegal (27%). The top three modern methods reported by men: in Kenya were male condoms (34%), injections (24%), and standard days method (SDM) (15%); in Nigeria were male condoms (50%), injections (25%), and SDM (7%); and in Senegal were male condoms (54%), daily pills (19%), and injections (13%). In the bivariate logistic regression, the intensity of program exposure was positively associated with modern method use in all three countries; however it is only the association in Senegal that is statistically significant at p=<0.001; the associations in Nigeria and Kenya were borderline significant at p=<0.10. In the multivariate logistic regression, the significant positive association observed in Senegal persisted. Specifically, with each additional exposure to a demand-generation activity, there is a 41% increase in the odds of reporting use of a modern contraceptive method among men in Senegal (AOR: 1.41; 95% CI 1.25-1.60). Men in Kenya who participated in community events were about four times as likely to use a modern contraceptive method compared to those who did not participate in such events (AOR: 3.70; 95% CI 1.97-6.97). In Nigeria, the only demand-generation activity that showed a borderline (p=<0.10) association with men’s modern method use was exposure to English language slogans (AOR: 1.39; CI 0.97-2.01). These slogans included phrases like: "Know, Talk, Go," "No dulling," and "Get it together." When these analyses were run by city, the effect of English language slogans was found to be positive and significant in Kaduna (AOR: 2.01; 95% CI 1.13-3.57) but not in Ibadan (AOR: 1.00; 95% CI 0.63-1.58). In Senegal, three of the five demand-generation activities were associated with men’s modern method use. Having seen any of television programs was positively associated with modern method use (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI 1.03-1.89). Additionally, having heard a religious leader speak in favor of FP had a positive association with modern method use (AOR: 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Exposure to a radio program had a borderline (p=<0.10) positive association with modern method use (AOR: 1.41; CI 0.98-2.04)." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(3) { [0]=> int(210) [1]=> int(259) [2]=> int(233) } array(13) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(255) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(303) [4]=> int(281) [5]=> int(282) [6]=> int(251) [7]=> int(283) [8]=> int(275) [9]=> int(249) [10]=> int(256) [11]=> int(276) [12]=> int(284) } array(2) { [0]=> int(293) [1]=> int(285) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(234) } array(2) { [0]=> int(235) [1]=> int(237) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3365--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(247) " Sarayloo, K.,Moghadam, Z. B.,Mansoure, J. M.,Mostafa, H.,Mohsen, S.. The impact of an educational program based on BASNEF model on the selection of a contraceptive method in women. Iranian Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research. 2015. 20:171-178" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(162) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275053044_The_impact_of_an_educational_program_based_on_BASNEF_model_on_the_selection_of_a_contraceptive_method_in_women " ["citation"]=> string(247) " Sarayloo, K.,Moghadam, Z. B.,Mansoure, J. M.,Mostafa, H.,Mohsen, S.. The impact of an educational program based on BASNEF model on the selection of a contraceptive method in women. Iranian Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research. 2015. 20:171-178" ["intervention"]=> string(389) "In this intervention, the BASNEF educational model was applied to help women visiting health centers in Iran select an appropriate contraceptive method. An educational session was held once a week and was conducted in the form of group and face-to-face discussions and participants were given educational booklets. The sessions also included a film show, health quizzes and a poster panel." ["summary"]=> string(745) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The study population comprised married Muslim women with a fertility age of 10-49 years who were not using any contraceptive methods or using traditional contraceptive methods and referred to the select health care centers. A total of 200 women participated in the study, with 100 women (each) randomly assigned to receive the BASNEF-based educational sessions (intervention group) or an educational booklet (control group). The trial found a significant increase in women’s contraceptive use between the intervention group (54%) and control group (9%) after the intervention (p < 0.0001), while it was the same before education in both groups (women used no contraception)." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(302) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3366--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(292) " Shabiby, M. M.,Karanja, J. G.,Odawa, F.,Kosgei, R.,Kibore, M. W.,Kiarie, J. N.,Kinuthia, J.. Factors influencing uptake of contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period among HIV infected and uninfected women at two Kenyan District Hospitals. BMC Women's Health. 2015. 15:#pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4545363/ " ["citation"]=> string(292) " Shabiby, M. M.,Karanja, J. G.,Odawa, F.,Kosgei, R.,Kibore, M. W.,Kiarie, J. N.,Kinuthia, J.. Factors influencing uptake of contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period among HIV infected and uninfected women at two Kenyan District Hospitals. BMC Women's Health. 2015. 15:#pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(278) "The intervention aimed to increase immediate postpartum contraceptive implant uptake among HIV positive and HIV negative women in Kenya. All participants received FP and method specific counseling followed by immediate insertion of contraceptive implants to those who consented." ["summary"]=> string(774) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study sample included postpartum mothers in the postnatal wards of the two hospitals after delivery and before discharge. The study found that the overall uptake of immediate postpartum contraceptive implants was 50.3%, however, HIV positive mothers were less likely to accept implant insertion than their HIV negative counterparts (OR 0.91 [95% CI: 0.82-0.998, P =0.046). Forty-three percent of HIV positive mothers and 57% of HIV negative mothers accepted immediate postpartum implant insertion. The uptake in the study is much higher than the current use of contraceptive implants in Kenya where only 1.3% of the general population is currently using contraceptive implants." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(281) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) [2]=> int(399) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3367--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(288) " Smith, C.,Ngo, T. D.,Gold, J.,Edwards, P.,Vannak, U.,Sokhey, L.,Machiyama, K.,Slaymaker, E.,Warnock, R.,McCarthy, O.,Free, C.. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia. Bull World Health Organ. 2015. 93:842-50a" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(168) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285361920_Effect_of_a_mobile_phone-based_intervention_on_post-abortion_contraception_A_randomized_controlled_trial_in_Cambodia " ["citation"]=> string(288) " Smith, C.,Ngo, T. D.,Gold, J.,Edwards, P.,Vannak, U.,Sokhey, L.,Machiyama, K.,Slaymaker, E.,Warnock, R.,McCarthy, O.,Free, C.. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia. Bull World Health Organ. 2015. 93:842-50a" ["intervention"]=> string(437) "The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) intervention, implemented in Cambodia, aimed to increase postabortion contraception use and reduce contraceptive discontinuation. The MOTIF was an mHealth intervention that employed automated voice messages sent to participants’ mobile phones to provide information on contraceptive methods, referrals for contraceptive services, and connect women with counselors, if desired." ["summary"]=> string(1604) "MOTIF was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial was conducted at four clinics that provided safe abortion services. Women older than 17 years who sought an induced abortion were eligible for inclusion if they had a mobile phone primarily for their own use, reported not wanting to become pregnant and were willing to receive automated voice messages about contraception. The trial found the proportion of women in the intervention group who reported effective contraception use was significantly higher than in the control group at four months (64% versus 46%, respectively; RR: 1.39; 95% CI 1.17-1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI 0.92-1.47). Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at four months (29% versus 9%, respectively; RR: 3.35; 95% CI 2.07-5.40; and at 12 months (25% versus 12%, respectively; RR: 2.08; 95% CI 1.27-3.42). In addition, significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraceptive use for more than 80% of the four months after the abortion (54% versus 40%, respectively; RR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.10-1.67) and for more than 80% of the 12 months after (51% versus 38%, respectively; RR: 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.70). There was some evidence that fewer women in the intervention than the control group had discontinued contraceptive use by the four-month follow-up (7% versus 16%, respectively; HR: 0.45; 95% CI 0.20-1.01) but not by the 12-month follow-up (26% versus 30%, respectively; HR: 0.82; 95% CI 0.48-1.40)." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(273) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(2) { [0]=> int(214) [1]=> int(224) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3368--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(218) " Tilahun, T.,Coene, G.,Temmerman, M.,Degomme, O.. Couple based family planning education: changes in male involvement and contraceptive use among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2015. 15:682" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-015-2057-y " ["citation"]=> string(218) " Tilahun, T.,Coene, G.,Temmerman, M.,Degomme, O.. Couple based family planning education: changes in male involvement and contraceptive use among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2015. 15:682" ["intervention"]=> string(353) "This intervention, implemented in Ethiopia, aimed to increase FP use, couples communication, and male involvement in FP. The intervention employed provider training, flyers, booklets, face-to-face discussions, mass media (radio and television), community agents, and monthly community gatherings to provide FP education and promote couple communication." ["summary"]=> string(1340) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. A total of 854 married men and their wives (427 in control and 427 in intervention group) were selected using systematic random sampling. The trial found that, after the intervention, 45.5% of the couples reported using a form of contraception. No statistically significant difference in contraceptive use was found between the intervention (47.6%) and control (43.4%) arms. The contraceptive use in the control group was the same at baseline and post-intervention (43.4%), while in the intervention group, the evaluation noted an increase from 41.9% to 47.6%. Among those who were using contraceptives at baseline, approximately one quarter was no longer using any form of contraception at the post intervention survey; this was the case in both arms. The evaluation noted a larger decrease in contraceptive use in the intervention group compared to the control group, although this was not statistically significantly larger. Among those who were not using contraceptives at baseline, we found a positive association between the intervention and use of contraception after the intervention: in the intervention group 28.6% had started using contraceptives compared to 17.2% in the control group. (AOR = 1.90; p=0.014). The trial also measured couples/spousal communication." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3369--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(255) " Abdulrazaq, A. G.,Kabir, S.,Mohammad, N. S.,Suleiman, I. H.. The effect of educational intervention on family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married women in a military barrack in northern Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2014. 18:93-101" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(35) "http://www.popline.org/node/581554 " ["citation"]=> string(255) " Abdulrazaq, A. G.,Kabir, S.,Mohammad, N. S.,Suleiman, I. H.. The effect of educational intervention on family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married women in a military barrack in northern Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2014. 18:93-101" ["intervention"]=> string(288) "The intervention, implemented in Nigeria, aimed to improve knowledge and attitudes towards contraceptives and increase use among married women of reproductive age in military barracks. The intervention employed health talks and FP demonstrations, followed by question and answer sessions." ["summary"]=> string(1156) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. A self-administered structured questionnaire was completed by married women of reproductive age living in two military cantonments. Measurements were taken at baseline, midline and endline. Stratified random sampling was used to recruit a total of 963 women, 321 women in the intervention group and 642 in the control group. The intervention found the contraceptive prevalence rate amongst women in the intervention group increased significantly from 11.8% at baseline to 22.4% at endline, a statistically significant increase in contraceptive use (McNemar’s χ2 = 125.41, p = 0.0000). However, in the control group, the increase from baseline (16%) to endline (17.3%) was not statistically significant (McNemar’s χ2 = 281.82, p = 0.09). The most common FP method in both the intervention and control groups was injectable contraceptives (36.6% baseline and 44.6% endline, 40.7% baseline and 40.4% endline, respectively). Male condoms were the least used method in both the study and control groups (4.9% baseline and 2.7% endline, and 5.6% baseline and 5.3% endline, respectively)." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(9) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(255) [2]=> int(303) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(251) [6]=> int(275) [7]=> int(256) [8]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3370--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(259) " Baumgartner, J. N.,Green, M.,Weaver, M. A.,Mpangile, G.,Kohi, T. W.,Mujaya, S. N.,Lasway, C.. Integrating family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics in Tanzania: evaluation of a facilitated referral model. Health Policy Plan. 2014. 29:570-9" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4184336/ " ["citation"]=> string(259) " Baumgartner, J. N.,Green, M.,Weaver, M. A.,Mpangile, G.,Kohi, T. W.,Mujaya, S. N.,Lasway, C.. Integrating family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics in Tanzania: evaluation of a facilitated referral model. Health Policy Plan. 2014. 29:570-9" ["intervention"]=> string(895) "The intervention, implemented in Tanzania, aimed to increase access to contraception among women and couples living with HIV and reduce their unmet need. The intervention integrated FP services into HIV services. The intervention used a facilitated referral model, which includes seven service delivery steps to systematically screen HIV care and treatment clinics (CTCs) clients for risk of unintended pregnancy, to provide informed choice counseling on contraceptive options or safer pregnancy, and to more effectively ensure linkages between HIV care and treatment and contraceptive services in facilities with co-located CTC and FP clinics. The intervention employed provider trainings on FP and HIV care, referrals, and counseling; supportive supervision for both CTC and FP staff; and job aids to help providers screen and counsel CTC clients on pregnancy risk and safer pregnancy options." ["summary"]=> string(1092) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort pre/post, exposure-known design. The trial used a quasi-experimental, pre- and post-test, repeated cross-sectional study to evaluate the impact of the model. Female CTC clients (age 18-45 years) with a CD4 count >100 at 12 HIV CTCs were interviewed at baseline (n = 323) and endline (n = 299), and CTC providers (n = 45) were interviewed at endline. The trial found that, among all clients, the adjusted decrease in the proportion of women with unmet need (3%) was not significant (p = 0.103), but among only sexually active clients, the adjusted decrease (8%) approached significance (p = 0.052). Furthermore, the proportion of sexually active clients using a contraceptive method at endline increased by an estimated 12% (p = 0.013). Dual method use increased by 16% (p = 0.004). Increases were observed for all seven steps of the model from baseline and endline. After the intervention, nearly 90% of referred clients reported they started a modern contraceptive method from the referral, compared with 65% before the intervention." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(8) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(280) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(251) [6]=> int(275) [7]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) [3]=> int(224) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(399) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3371--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(219) " Becker, S.,Taulo, F. O.,Hindin, M. J.,Chipeta, E. K.,Loll, D.,Tsui, A.. Pilot study of home-based delivery of HIV testing and counseling and contraceptive services to couples in Malawi. BMC Public Health. 2014. 14:1309" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1309 " ["citation"]=> string(219) " Becker, S.,Taulo, F. O.,Hindin, M. J.,Chipeta, E. K.,Loll, D.,Tsui, A.. Pilot study of home-based delivery of HIV testing and counseling and contraceptive services to couples in Malawi. BMC Public Health. 2014. 14:1309" ["intervention"]=> string(398) "This Malawi intervention aimed at increasing the uptake of FP and HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services by integrating couple HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) and couple FP (CFP) services in a single home visit. A pair of male and female counselors visited couples in their homes and offered CHCT and CFP services. The intervention employed provider training, counseling and outreach services." ["summary"]=> string(1032) "The intervention was evaluated using pre-post study design, with no measure of exposure to the intervention. Eligible couples were defined as a man-woman pair married or in union with the woman aged 15 to 49 years and the man aged 15 years or older. Additionally, both partners had to co-reside in the household at least one day each week and claim the household as home. Polygamous men with co-resident wives were not included. A study sample size of 180 couples was determined; this number provides estimates of proportions with a 95% confidence interval whose width (4*SE) is 0.15 (e.g., 50% ± 7.5%). Of the 167 couples offered CHCT + CFP services, 48 (29%) accepted the combined service intervention; 97 (58%) consented to CHCT only; 4 (2%) to CFP only and 18 (11%) declined any intervention (17 women declined and one man declined after the wife had accepted CHCT). The study found condom use at last sex increased from 6% to 25% among couples receiving any intervention. The trial also measured couples/spousal communication." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(267) } array(2) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3372--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(241) " Chigbu, B.,Onwere, S.,Feyi-Waboso, P.,Kamanu, C.,Aluka, C.,Ezirim, O.,Okoro, O.,Akwuruoha, E.. The impact of collaboration and family planning counseling in the community setting. Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice. 2014. 9:16-20" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(108) "http://www.jomip.org/article.asp?issn=2468-645X;year=2014;volume=9;issue=1;spage=16;epage=20;aulast=Chigbuf " ["citation"]=> string(241) " Chigbu, B.,Onwere, S.,Feyi-Waboso, P.,Kamanu, C.,Aluka, C.,Ezirim, O.,Okoro, O.,Akwuruoha, E.. The impact of collaboration and family planning counseling in the community setting. Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice. 2014. 9:16-20" ["intervention"]=> string(695) "The Women's Health Project, implemented in Nigeria, aimed to increase the uptake of modern methods of contraception by women in a rural community. In order to increase access to and generate informed demand for long-term, reversible child spacing methods, particularly IUDs and contraceptive implants, the initiative used female community health workers to provide relevant information and help mobilize women in the communities. Female community health workers referred women to private health clinics for contraceptive methods. The community mobilization initiative was accompanied by provider trainings on balanced counseling strategy and postabortion care, and the provision of FP tool kits." ["summary"]=> string(1130) "The initiative was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study compared contraceptive uptake of women at the study clinic for the three years before and during the community mobilization initiative. The study also collected data using qualitative in-depth interviews with postnatal and FP clinic attendees at the study clinic. The study found that, prior to the community mobilization initiative, there were 69 new contraceptive acceptors at the facility, and during the community mobilization initiative, there were 180 new contraceptives acceptors; this difference was statistically significant (p=0.0002). With community mobilization, the rural women's acceptance of long-term reversible methods was higher than previously. Prior to the period of community mobilization, many women (13 out of 30) who were in need of permanent family size limitation relied on injectable contraceptives. With community mobilization, the vast majority of the women (120 out of 122) in need of permanent family size limitation opted for either a long-acting reversible contraceptive method or tubal ligation." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(3) { [0]=> int(282) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3373--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(254) " Dunbar, M. S.,Kang Dufour, M. S.,Lambdin, B.,Mudekunye-Mahaka, I.,Nhamo, D.,Padian, N. S.. The SHAZ! project: results from a pilot randomized trial of a structural intervention to prevent HIV among adolescent women in Zimbabwe. PLoS One. 2014. 9:e113621" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240618/ " ["citation"]=> string(254) " Dunbar, M. S.,Kang Dufour, M. S.,Lambdin, B.,Mudekunye-Mahaka, I.,Nhamo, D.,Padian, N. S.. The SHAZ! project: results from a pilot randomized trial of a structural intervention to prevent HIV among adolescent women in Zimbabwe. PLoS One. 2014. 9:e113621" ["intervention"]=> string(613) "The Shaping the Health of Adolescents in Zimbabwe (SHAZ!) campaign, implemented in Zimbabwe, aimed to reduce HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy. The program included four main activities: 1) providing adequate and consistent HIV and sexual and reproductive health services; 2) conducting life skills-based HIV education; 3) improving economic opportunities through vocational training, guidance counseling and a micro-grant; and 4) integrated social support. The SHAZ! Intervention employed life skills education, financial literacy education, vocational training, social support, counseling, and mentoring." ["summary"]=> string(766) "The SHAZ! Intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. A convenience sample of 315 adolescent female orphans (having lost at least one parent) aged 16 to 19 was recruited through community outreach and referrals. All eligible participants were out of school, not currently pregnant, and HIV uninfected. The trial found that among participants in the intervention arm there were statistically significant changes over time in the risk of transactional sex [IOR: 50.64, 95% CI (0.50, 0.83)], and likelihood of using a condom with their current partner [IOR: 51.79, 95% CI (1.23, 2.62)] from baseline through study follow up. No statistically significant changes were reported for contraceptive use (other than condoms as described above) in either arm." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(292) } array(2) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3374--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(159) " Erulkar, A.,Tamrat, T.. Evaluation of a reproductive health program to support married adolescent girls in rural Ethiopia. Afr J Reprod Health. 2014. 18:68-76" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(63) "https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajrh/article/view/104424/94505 " ["citation"]=> string(159) " Erulkar, A.,Tamrat, T.. Evaluation of a reproductive health program to support married adolescent girls in rural Ethiopia. Afr J Reprod Health. 2014. 18:68-76" ["intervention"]=> string(602) "The Meseret Hiwott Program, implemented in Ethiopia, aimed to support girls who were married at an early age in rural areas of Amhara region by promoting more equitable relationships and increased health-promoting behaviors, including the use of FP and HIV services. The intervention had two parts: 1) a married girls’ program provided information on communication skills, self-esteem, reproductive health and gender through girls’ groups; and 2) a husbands’ program focused on non-violence, support to families, and reproductive health. The intervention employed peer support groups and mentors." ["summary"]=> string(1505) "The Meseret Hiwott Program was evaluated using a post-only cross-sectional study, examining differences by exposure to the intervention. Data were collected from a sample of ever-married girls aged 12 to 24 who resided in the three project districts/woredas. The lowest use of FP and couples’ HIV testing and counseling (HTC) were among girls who had not participated in the project (57% ever use of FP; 11% ever had couples’ HTC). The highest levels of FP and HTC use were among respondents who participated in married girls’ groups as well as their husbands in men’s groups (71% ever use of FP; 65% ever had couples’ HTC). Results for logistic regression predicting FP use and couples’ HTC suggest that the intensity of program exposure is associated with increased likelihood of FP and couples’ HTC. Respondents for whom both husband and wife participated in the groups were nearly twice as likely to have ever used FP (OR 1.9; p<0.001) compared to nonparticipants. When only the respondent participated in the married girls group, the likelihood of FP use was 1.5 times that of nonparticipants and only marginally significant (OR 1.5; p<0.10). Couples’ HTC was significantly associated with program participation. Couples for whom only the married girl took part in the groups were nearly 8 times more likely to have undergone couples’ HTC (OR 7.7; p < 0.001), while those for whom both partners took part were over 18 times more likely to have the test jointly (OR 18.3; p < 0.001)." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3375--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(263) " Farrokh-Eslamlou, H.,Aghlmand, S.,Eslami, M.,Homer, C. S.. Impact of the World Health Organization's decision-making tool for family planning clients and providers on the quality of family planning services in Iran. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2014. 40:89-95" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(207) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255954997_Impact_of_the_World_Health_Organization's_Decision-Making_Tool_for_Family_Planning_Clients_and_Providers_on_the_quality_of_family_planning_services_in_Iran " ["citation"]=> string(263) " Farrokh-Eslamlou, H.,Aghlmand, S.,Eslami, M.,Homer, C. S.. Impact of the World Health Organization's decision-making tool for family planning clients and providers on the quality of family planning services in Iran. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2014. 40:89-95" ["intervention"]=> string(573) "The intervention, implemented in Iran, aimed to improve the quality of FP services. The intervention adapted the World Health Organization’s Decision Making Tool (DMT) for Family Planning Clients and Providers, a two-sided flipchart that providers use in their counseling discussions with FP clients, to the Iranian context. The DMT is used to improve FP counseling through better client-provider interactions, the provision of accurate information and by increasing informed choice. The intervention employed provider training on the use of the DMT in client counseling." ["summary"]=> string(941) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study used baseline and endline surveys, as well as direct observation of counseling sessions. A total of 448 participants were included in the baseline survey and 547 in the endline survey. To ensure quality control of data collection, 10% of the counseling sessions were randomly selected and observed and rated at baseline and endline. The study found that, compared with baseline, clients at endline participated more actively in selecting their contraceptive methods. Clients were more likely to be provided with opportunities to make informed choices at endline compared with baseline. The proportions relating to informed choice of method by clients increased from 64% to 98% (p<0.01). There was a significant increase at endline in the proportion of sessions in which counseling resulted in a choice of a contraceptive method (p=0.04)." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(302) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3376--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(315) " Gao, X.,Xu, L.,Lu, C.,Wu, J.,Wang, Z.,Decat, P.,Zhang, W. H.,Chen, Y.,Moyer, E.,Wu, S.,Minkauskiene, M.,Van Braeckel, D.,Temmerman, M.. Effect of improving the knowledge, attitude and practice of reproductive health among female migrant workers: a worksite-based intervention in Guangzhou, China. Sex Health. 2014." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(39) "http://www.publish.csiro.au/SH/SH14061 " ["citation"]=> string(315) " Gao, X.,Xu, L.,Lu, C.,Wu, J.,Wang, Z.,Decat, P.,Zhang, W. H.,Chen, Y.,Moyer, E.,Wu, S.,Minkauskiene, M.,Van Braeckel, D.,Temmerman, M.. Effect of improving the knowledge, attitude and practice of reproductive health among female migrant workers: a worksite-based intervention in Guangzhou, China. Sex Health. 2014." ["intervention"]=> string(664) "The interventions, implemented in China, aimed to increase the use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and FP services among female migrant workers. Two interventions were implemented at factory worksites and employed brochures, posters, provision of free condoms, educational videos, referral cards, free SRH counseling hotlines, SRH lectures, peer education and provider training. The interventions provided two different sets of activities: 1) intensive package of interventions group (IPIG) which provided women with all elements listed above, and 2) standard package of interventions group (SPIG) which provided women with only brochures and free condoms." ["summary"]=> string(1293) "The intervention was evaluated using cluster randomized trial. For inclusion in this study, the factories had to employ ~1000 laborers, with at least 50% of the workers being female. In total, 32 factories met the criteria, and eight were chosen by random cluster sampling and were randomly assigned to receive one of the interventions - SPIG or IPIG. The actual sample recruited consisted of 708 female workers (477 unmarried and 231 married) in the SPIG and 638 (354 unmarred and 284 married) in the IPIG. For unmarried women, the IPIG decreased the prevalence of multiple sex partners and unwanted sex, and increased the percentages of women reporting contraception and condom use (P < 0.05). Unmarried women in the IPIG had a higher condom use rate than the SPIG (86.4% versus 57.1%). For married females, the findings showed that the prevalence of unwanted sex decreased in both the SPIG and IPIG, but only the IPIG showed a reduction in the percentage of multiple sex partners (P < 0.05). The contraception percentages improved in both groups, while the percentage of condom use significantly increased only in the SPIG (P < 0.05). In addition, the percentage of unplanned pregnancies and induced abortions decreased significantly after intervention (P < 0.05) in both the IPIG and SPIG." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(2) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3377--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(233) " Gazi, R.,Kabir, H.,Saha, N. C.. Changes in the selected reproductive health indicators among married women of reproductive age in low performing areas of Bangladesh: findings from an evaluation study. BMC Public Health. 2014. 14:478" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(76) "https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-478 " ["citation"]=> string(233) " Gazi, R.,Kabir, H.,Saha, N. C.. Changes in the selected reproductive health indicators among married women of reproductive age in low performing areas of Bangladesh: findings from an evaluation study. BMC Public Health. 2014. 14:478" ["intervention"]=> string(442) "The Demand-Based Reproductive Commodity Project (DBRCP), implemented in Bangladesh, aimed to increase the use of permanent and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods by improving the quality of sexual and reproductive health services. The project employed provider training, training of community health promoters, peer promoters, counseling, street dramas, community support groups, social and behavior change materials, and referrals." ["summary"]=> string(1561) "The DBRCP was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure assumed study design. While the project focused on currently married women of reproductive age, their husbands and their adolescent daughters, the evaluation only looked at changes among married women on selected reproductive health indicators. The study population included currently married women (13-49 years) living in the three project sites. The urban slum area had the highest contraceptive prevalence rate for all methods among the three areas; 59% at baseline and 65% at endline. The contraceptive prevalence rate for any modern method increased significantly from baseline to endline in Dhaka (51% to 58%) and in Nabiganj (20% to 30%). However, there was little change in contraceptive prevalence rate in Raipur (43% to 44%). In all areas significantly higher proportions of women used an injectable contraceptive method at endline compared to baseline. In all areas oral pills were the most commonly used contraceptive method. In the rural areas, a significantly higher proportion of women at endline compared to baseline obtained contraceptive methods from the public sector; in Raipur, this increased 37-50% (p < .001), while in Nabiganj, it increased from 41% to 50% (p < .001). Similarly in urban areas a significantly higher proportion of women obtained contraceptive methods from NGO sectors at endline compared to baseline (20% to 36%) (p < .001). In all areas, use of private sector as last source of obtaining contraceptive methods has reduced at endline compared to baseline." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(9) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(251) [6]=> int(275) [7]=> int(256) [8]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(390) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(224) } array(5) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) [4]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3378--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(243) " Huang, Y.,Merkatz, R.,Zhu, H.,Roberts, K.,Sitruk-Ware, R.,Cheng, L.. The free perinatal/postpartum contraceptive services project for migrant women in Shanghai: Effects on the incidence of unintended pregnancy. Contraception. 2014. 89:521-527" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010782414000997 " ["citation"]=> string(243) " Huang, Y.,Merkatz, R.,Zhu, H.,Roberts, K.,Sitruk-Ware, R.,Cheng, L.. The free perinatal/postpartum contraceptive services project for migrant women in Shanghai: Effects on the incidence of unintended pregnancy. Contraception. 2014. 89:521-527" ["intervention"]=> string(619) "The intervention aimed to decrease unintended pregnancy among migrant women in China by offering free, postpartum contraceptive services. Participants received contraceptive counseling, which was guided by a study pamphlet with information about the intervention; efficacy, side effects, risks and benefits of methods; timing of return to fertility and sexual activity after deliver; risks associated with unintended pregnancy; accessibility of free FP services and telephone numbers for further information. During each counseling session, the client had the option of selecting the contraceptive method of her choice." ["summary"]=> string(2056) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample included 840 migrant women who were provided free contraceptive counseling and offered a choice of contraceptive methods prior to discharge. Women were recruited into the study during hospitalization for childbirth and, after hospital discharge, telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks and at three, six, nine and 12 months for all participants. Six hundred and one women completed the 12-month follow up. The study found that, prior to hospital discharge, 54 (6.4%) women adopted contraceptive methods: 17 women underwent tubal ligation during cesarean delivery, 32 had an IUD inserted during delivery, and five chose DMPA injection. By six weeks postpartum, however, approximately 30% of women had initiated contraception and resumed sexual activity. By three months, the percentage of contraceptive users more than doubled, to 71.1%, and by 12 months, 97% were using contraception. The male condom was the most common contraceptive method used during the study period with a proportion ranging from 22.5% to 48.5%. IUD use increased significantly from six months postpartum and became the most popular method by the end of first year. The overall contraceptive prevalence at 12 months was 97%, including IUD (39.8%), male condom (39.3%), tubal ligation (8.2%), DMPA (6.8%) and other methods (3%). When compared with the two non-intervention cohorts, the median time to sexual resumption after delivery (two months) was the same in all three cohorts; however, the intervention cohort initiated contraceptive use earlier (two months versus 8.5 months and 7.5 months, respectively). The intervention cohort also had a higher prevalence of contraceptive use at the end of first year postpartum (97% versus 73.6% and 62.9%, respectively). As a result, the incidence of unintended pregnancy in the intervention cohort was much lower than that of the two non-intervention cohorts (2.2 per 100 women-years versus 12.8 and 9.6, respectively)." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(214) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3379--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(193) " Jah, F.,Connolly, S.,Barker, K.,Ryerson, W.. Gender and reproductive outcomes: The effects of a radio serial drama in Northern Nigeria. International Journal of Population Research. 2014. 24 p" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(140) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285488866_Gender_and_Reproductive_Outcomes_The_Effects_of_a_Radio_Serial_Drama_in_Northern_Nigeria " ["citation"]=> string(193) " Jah, F.,Connolly, S.,Barker, K.,Ryerson, W.. Gender and reproductive outcomes: The effects of a radio serial drama in Northern Nigeria. International Journal of Population Research. 2014. 24 p" ["intervention"]=> string(488) "Implemented in Nigeria, this initiative aimed to increase contraceptive use, reduce unintended pregnancies and increase joint spousal reproductive decision-making, including family size. Activities included developing and broadcasting a 208-episode radio serial drama, Ruwan Dare. The objectives of the radio drama were to promote small family size norms, the use of FP and effective birth spacing, delayed marriage and avoidance of obstructed labor and fistula and promote gender equity." ["summary"]=> string(860) "The initiative was evaluated using a prospective/pre-post, exposure-known study design. Data was collected using a baseline and endline survey from a regionally representative sample. Multi-stage stratified sampling was used for the sampling frame. In each four states were the initiative was implemented, five urban locations and five rural locations were randomly chosen to ensure wide representation. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with women of reproductive age (15-49) and men (15-59). A total of 671 respondents participated in the endline survey. Results from the multivariate estimations indicated positive drama effects, with the odds of listeners stating they currently use some form of FP (AOR, 2.45, 1.34-4.41, p<.01) and that they had discussed FP with others (AOR, 2.0, 1.23-3.26, p<.001) significantly higher than those of non-listeners." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3380--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(230) " Krenn, S.,Cobb, L.,Babalola, S.,Odeku, M.,Kusemiju, B.. Using behavior change communication to lead a comprehensive family planning program: the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014. 2:427-43" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(48) "http://www.ghspjournal.org/content/2/4/427.full " ["citation"]=> string(230) " Krenn, S.,Cobb, L.,Babalola, S.,Odeku, M.,Kusemiju, B.. Using behavior change communication to lead a comprehensive family planning program: the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014. 2:427-43" ["intervention"]=> string(597) "The Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI) aimed to increase contraceptive use in Nigeria by fostering dialogue about FP, increasing social approval for FP and improving accurate knowledge about contraceptives. The intervention employed radio and TV spots, print materials (posters, umbrellas, shirts, flyers), social mobilization activities (through hairdressers, tailors, barbers and professional and community associations) and integrated branding, including a "Know. Talk. Go" tagline. The motto encourages women to know her FP options, talk to her partner and go seek services." ["summary"]=> string(1671) "NURHI was evaluated using a pre-post study design. Surveys were administered to a representative of men and women of reproductive age in each of four NURHI project cities. Propensity score matching was used to create a statistically equivalent control group of women not exposed to project activities. The study found that between baseline and midterm, use of modern methods among married women increased in each city, although the change varied widely between the four cities. For example, in Abuja, 31.9% of married women were using modern contraception at baseline; the percentage increased slightly at midterm to 34.2%, but the change was not statistically significant. In Kaduna, however, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) increased by 15.5 percentage points between baseline and midterm, from 19.6% to 35.1% (p=0.001). Analysis of CPR data by women’s reported level of exposure to project activities shows that among married women not using a modern method at baseline, 19.1% were using contraception at midterm among those reporting no exposure to NURHI activities compared with 32.1% among those with low exposure. Contraceptive prevalence increased positively and linearly with greater exposure (medium exposure, 34.6%; high exposure, 43.4%). Propensity score matching showed the CPR among the matched control group would have been 25.9% had the women not been exposed to the NURHI program, compared with the actual (observed) CPR of 35.8%. These data suggest that the increase in contraceptive use (i.e., the treatment effect) attributed to exposure to the program was 9.9 percentage points. The trial also measured couples/spousal communication." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(7) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(228) [4]=> int(390) [5]=> int(213) [6]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3381--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(208) " Leon, F. R.,Lundgren, R.,Sinai, I.,Sinha, R.,Jennings, V.. Increasing literate and illiterate women's met need for contraception via empowerment: a quasi-experiment in rural India. Reprod Health. 2014. 11:74" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(87) "https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-4755-11-74 " ["citation"]=> string(208) " Leon, F. R.,Lundgren, R.,Sinai, I.,Sinha, R.,Jennings, V.. Increasing literate and illiterate women's met need for contraception via empowerment: a quasi-experiment in rural India. Reprod Health. 2014. 11:74" ["intervention"]=> string(431) "The intervention, implemented in India, aimed to reduce women’s unmet need for contraception through women's employment. The intervention employed provider training, wall paintings, health fairs, counseling, leaflets, community health workers, street theater, and puppet shows. Activities provided information about contraceptive methods, couple communication, and decision making related to FP and women’s reproductive rights." ["summary"]=> string(826) "The intervention was evaluated using a quasi-experimental study design. Married women ages 15-49 who lived in the intervention and control blocks were sampled and interviewed before and after the intervention. The study found the met need for contraception increased from 0.642 at pretest to 0.684 at posttest in the control group. On the other hand, the met need for contraception increased from 0.606 at pretest to 0.703 at posttest in the intervention group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The findings strongly suggest that, regardless of whether the woman was literate or illiterate, she was more likely to have her need for FP met at the posttest in the intervention than the control site if she had relatively more decision-making power than if she had relatively less decision-making power." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(390) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3382--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(275) " Mayi-Tsonga, S.,Obiang, P. A.,Minkobame, U.,Ngouafo, D.,Ambounda, N.,de Souza, M. H.. Introduction of postabortion contraception, prioritizing long-acting reversible contraceptives, in the principal maternity hospital of Gabon. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2014. 126 Suppl 1:S45-8" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020729214001623 " ["citation"]=> string(275) " Mayi-Tsonga, S.,Obiang, P. A.,Minkobame, U.,Ngouafo, D.,Ambounda, N.,de Souza, M. H.. Introduction of postabortion contraception, prioritizing long-acting reversible contraceptives, in the principal maternity hospital of Gabon. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2014. 126 Suppl 1:S45-8" ["intervention"]=> string(408) "The intervention, implemented in Gabon, aimed to reduce unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion through the provision of FP counseling and the availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods and the three-monthly injectable (DMPA) free of charge to women admitted to the hospital with abortion complications. The intervention employed FP counseling on a variety of contraceptive methods." ["summary"]=> string(935) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study analyzed clinical records from 383 women admitted to the hospital with complications resulting from abortion (unsafe or safe), who received postabortion care and who agreed to undergo counseling for four modern contraceptive methods (combined oral pill, DMPA, contraceptive implant and copper-T IUD). The study found 206 (53.7%) of the 383 women admitted with abortion complications knew of no systemic contraceptive methods. The best-known method was the oral pill (42.0%). Only 14 women (3.6%) knew of a long-acting reversible contraceptive method (IUD or implants) and only 2 (0.5%) said the injectable was their best-known method. Over 90% accepted a modern contraceptive method after abortion. Two-thirds (66.8%) chose the pill, 14.6% DMPA, and 9.3% a LARC method. Only 9.1% of the women refused to initiate use of any method." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(306) } string(36) "insertando Injectables contraceptive" array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(240) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(453) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3383--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> NULL ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(206) "Odeyemi, K. A.,Onajole, A. T.,Ogunowo, B. E.,Olufunlayo, T.,Segun, B.. The effect of a sexuality education programme among out- of- school adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2014. 21:122-7" ["citation"]=> NULL ["intervention"]=> string(390) "The intervention, implemented in Nigeria, aimed to reduce unplanned pregnancy and abortions by improving adolescent sexual health knowledge and education. The intervention employed entertainment-education, films, health talks, drama sketches, peer counselors, distribution of educational materials, referrals and information, education and communication materials (pamphlets and handbills)." ["summary"]=> string(1469) "The intervention was evaluated using a pre-post study, which was conducted in two major markets in Lagos, Nigeria; Sangrouse market and Mushin market. All females between the ages of 10 and 19 years who have never been to school or have stopped attending school including apprentices, shop assistants and petty traders were eligible for the study. A total of 332 respondents were interviewed in Mushin market (intervention group) while 350 respondents were interviewed in Sangrouse market (control group). The study found that participating in the intervention had a positive impact on the sexual behavior of the adolescents. Fewer numbers of adolescents in the intervention group initiated sexual intercourse during the study period than in the control group. There was a statistically significant increase in contraceptive prevalence among adolescents in the intervention group but not in the control group (p<0.05). In the intervention group, condom use at last intercourse at pretest was 32.4% and at posttest was reported as 35.8%. In the control group, condom use at last intercourse at pretest was 28% and at posttest was 29.3%. In the intervention group, current use of contraceptives in sexually active respondents at pretest was 24.8% and at posttest was reported as 35.3%. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). In the control group, current use of contraceptives in sexually active respondents at pretest was 34.6% and at posttest was 30.2%." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(6) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(245) [5]=> int(224) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3384--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(212) " Sarnquist, C. C.,Moyo, P.,Stranix-Chibanda, L.,Chipato, T.,Kang, J. L.,Maldonado, Y. A.. Integrating family planning and prevention of mother to child HIV transmission in Zimbabwe. Contraception. 2014. 89:209-14" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3965605/ " ["citation"]=> string(212) " Sarnquist, C. C.,Moyo, P.,Stranix-Chibanda, L.,Chipato, T.,Kang, J. L.,Maldonado, Y. A.. Integrating family planning and prevention of mother to child HIV transmission in Zimbabwe. Contraception. 2014. 89:209-14" ["intervention"]=> string(798) "The Peers Undertaking Reproductive and Sexual Health Education (PURSE) project, implemented in Zimbabwe, aimed to integrate enhanced FP and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services in order to help HIV-positive Zimbabwean women achieve their desired family size and spacing, as well as to maximize maternal and child health. The PURSE project consisted of three 90-minute group sessions focused on sexual negotiation skills and empowerment, information about HIV, PMTCT, and FP, and communication skills related to sex and FP. The project employed group discussions, behavior modeling, songs/dramatizations, role-playing, provider trainings in gender-based violence counseling and referral, and the provision of all modern FP options, including insertion and removal of LARC." ["summary"]=> string(993) "The PURSE project was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. HIV-positive pregnant women seeking antenatal care (ANC), between 26-38 weeks gestation, 18-40 years of age, were enrolled into an intervention (n=65) or control (n=33) groups, based on study entry date, and followed for three months post-partum. The intervention group received education sessions aimed at increasing FP use and negotiation power. Both groups received care from nurses with enhanced FP training. The trial found that women in the intervention group reported increased control over condom use (p=0.002), increased knowledge about IUDs (p=0.002), increased relationship power (p=0.01), and increased likelihood of disclosing their HIV status to a partner (p=0.04), and having that partner disclose his status to her (p=0.04), when compared to the control group. Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method use in both groups increased from 2% at baseline to >80% at three months post-partum (p<0.001)." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(292) } array(2) { [0]=> int(251) [1]=> int(281) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(244) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) [2]=> int(399) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3385--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(249) " Sheriar, N.,Joshi, R.,Mukherjee, B.,Pal, B.,Birla, A.,Ray, S. K.. Impact of structured counseling on the selection of hormonal contraceptive methods: results of a multi-centric, observational study in India. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2014. 64:241-50" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4126937/ " ["citation"]=> string(249) " Sheriar, N.,Joshi, R.,Mukherjee, B.,Pal, B.,Birla, A.,Ray, S. K.. Impact of structured counseling on the selection of hormonal contraceptive methods: results of a multi-centric, observational study in India. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2014. 64:241-50" ["intervention"]=> string(199) "The intervention, implemented in India, aimed to reduce women’s unmet need for contraception through structured contraceptive counseling. The intervention employed provider training and counseling." ["summary"]=> string(1094) "The intervention was evaluated using a pre-post study, with no measure of exposure to the intervention. Sexually active women between 18 and 40 years who consulted health care providers for contraception and who considered starting a hormonal contraceptive method or expressed interest in switching (changing) to a hormonal method were invited to participate in the study. Significant reductions were observed in the proportion of women who were indecisive (n = 260; 31.5% pre-counseling vs. n = 30; 3.6%, post-counseling [P, 0.001]) and women opting for non-hormonal method (24.6% pre-counseling vs. 6.8% post-counseling, [P, 0.001]). Of all the women counseled (n = 825), 89.6% (739/825) of women chose a hormonal contraceptive method. There was a significant difference (P, 0.001) in the women’s choice of contraceptive in the pre- and post-counseling sessions, respectively (combined oral contraceptive: 30.8 vs. 40.7%; vaginal ring: 1.8 vs. 14.1%; progestogen only pills: 1.6 vs. 7.9%; injectables: 5.9 vs. 13.6%; IUD: 3.8 vs. 13.3%). The study also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(5) { [0]=> int(296) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(275) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(284) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3386--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(241) " Speizer, I. S.,Corroon, M.,Calhoun, L.,Lance, P.,Montana, L.,Nanda, P.,Guilkey, D.. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014. 2:410-26" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4307858/ " ["citation"]=> string(241) " Speizer, I. S.,Corroon, M.,Calhoun, L.,Lance, P.,Montana, L.,Nanda, P.,Guilkey, D.. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014. 2:410-26" ["intervention"]=> string(1220) "The Urban Health Initiative, implemented in India, Kenya, Senegal and Nigeria, aimed to prevent unintended pregnancy and improve maternal and child health and wellbeing by increasing FP access and use in urbanizing areas. The initiative used multiple channels and activities to reach women and their partners with FP messages. Each country employed a different combination of interpersonal communication (IPC); television and radio; posters, leaflets and comic books; community mobilization and mid-media activities. These included: home visits by peer educators providing FP information, counseling and referrals; community outreach; small group discussion led by midwives; and activities at markets, community events and celebrations. Mid-media activities included street plays, community theater, road shows, and magic shows. Program brand/slogans/logos were used across program activities and were featured on healthcare providers' badges, umbrellas at markets, health facility posters/displays and t-shirts, bracelets and other promotional items. The initiative engaged and trained religious and community leaders to become FP champions and to lead FP discussions in their local communities and at religious events." ["summary"]=> string(1279) "The Urban Health Initiative was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. The study involved collecting longitudinal data from a representative sample of women prior to program implementation (baseline) and at midterm (two years after baseline). An endline measurement is planned (four years after baseline), but is not included in this study. A two-stage sampling design was used to obtain a representative sample of women from each of the initial and delayed intervention cities. A sample of women who were interviewed at both baseline and midline included: 4,029 women in India, 3,207 women in Kenya, 4,331 women in Nigeria, and 2,744 in Senegal. The study found that program activities that were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraception in India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal included: 1) community outreach activities, such as home visits and group discussions about FP; 2) local radio programs; and 3) branded slogans and print materials circulated widely across the city. Television programming was also found to be significantly associated with increased use of modern contraception in India and Nigeria. Exposure to more activities may have increased women’s likelihood of using contraception." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(4) { [0]=> int(233) [1]=> int(241) [2]=> int(210) [3]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(3) { [0]=> int(452) [1]=> int(293) [2]=> int(285) } array(8) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(245) [6]=> int(234) [7]=> int(224) } string(41) "insertando Adult women; Religious leaders" array(1) { [0]=> int(454) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3387--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(215) " Tawfik, Y.,Rahimzai, M.,Ahmadzai, M.,Clark, P. A.,Kamgang, E.. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014. 2:226-33" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4168614/ " ["citation"]=> string(215) " Tawfik, Y.,Rahimzai, M.,Ahmadzai, M.,Clark, P. A.,Kamgang, E.. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2014. 2:226-33" ["intervention"]=> string(241) "The intervention, implemented in Afghanistan, aimed to increase FP using a modern quality improvement (QI) method to integrated FP into postpartum care. The intervention employed provider training, FP counseling, job aids, and mobile phones." ["summary"]=> string(1541) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort study, with pre-post tests and measured exposure. A total of 1,325 women were randomly selected to participate in the study - 643 women who received postpartum family planning (PPFP) counseling and 681 women from the same two hospitals who received routine hospital postpartum care. The study found noteworthy improvement in the proportion of postpartum women who received FP counseling and left the hospital with their preferred contraceptive method. At baseline, only 12% of postpartum women who received FP counseling obtained their preferred method. Once systematic PPFP counseling was introduced with women and their husbands, the percentage increased to 36%, and when mothers-in-laws were added, to 55%. By the end of the project, 95% of postpartum women receiving FP counseling at the hospital left the hospital with their preferred method. Among the 580 postpartum women who received FP counseling and decided to use FP, most chose condoms (42%) or the lactational amenorrhea method (20%). At least 10% chose oral contraceptive pills, hormonal injectables, or IUDs. Postpartum women in the intervention group were significantly less likely than women in the control groups to be pregnant at 6, 12, and 18 months post-discharge. At 18 months, 14% of women receiving systematic PPFP counseling reported they were pregnant compared with 35% of women receiving routine hospital care in hospital. The study also measured the amount of contact/visits with health workers/providers." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(310) } array(5) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(283) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3388--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(216) " Taylor, M.,Jinabhai, C.,Dlamini, S.,Sathiparsad, R.,Eggers, M. S.,De Vries, H.. Effects of a teenage pregnancy prevention program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Health care for women international. 2014. 35:845-858" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(65) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07399332.2014.910216 " ["citation"]=> string(216) " Taylor, M.,Jinabhai, C.,Dlamini, S.,Sathiparsad, R.,Eggers, M. S.,De Vries, H.. Effects of a teenage pregnancy prevention program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Health care for women international. 2014. 35:845-858" ["intervention"]=> string(453) "Implemented in South Africa, this intervention aimed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program consisted of weekly lessons that used an interactive variety of activities including role plays, small and large group discussions, debates and videos which were implemented by young trained facilitators. Session topics included relationships, decision-making, body development, contraception, dealing with peer pressure, parenthood, human rights and others." ["summary"]=> string(738) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. The trial sample included one randomly selected Grade 8 class (their first year of high school) from 16 high schools selected from the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education’s list of 1,580 high schools. Geographical stratification was used to randomly allocate schools to the intervention or control groups. The trial found that the intervention resulted in more students expressing intentions to communicate with their partner about teen pregnancy (4.11 compared to 3.97, p<.05) and to use condoms (54.2% compared to 36.7%, p<.01). Over 60% of sexually experienced students used male condoms; the program appeared to significantly increase condom use among participants." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(260) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(311) } array(3) { [0]=> int(264) [1]=> int(244) [2]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3389--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(272) " Undie, C.,Birungi, H.,Obare, F.,Liambila, W.,Askew, I.. Community-based interventions can expand access to comprehensive reproductive health and HIV information and services for married adolescent girls. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health. 2014. 7:23-35" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(95) "http://search.proquest.com/docview/1626547804/fulltextPDF/3EB626D112974244PQ/1?accountid=11752 " ["citation"]=> string(272) " Undie, C.,Birungi, H.,Obare, F.,Liambila, W.,Askew, I.. Community-based interventions can expand access to comprehensive reproductive health and HIV information and services for married adolescent girls. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health. 2014. 7:23-35" ["intervention"]=> string(617) "The intervention, based in Kenya, aimed to promote comprehensive reproductive health, FP and HIV prevention service uptake among married adolescent girls. The intervention involved three main activities: an interactive media campaign, community health worker training and the distribution of reproductive health, FP and HIV information, education and communication materials. A radio soap opera was created that included a weekly discussion and a Facebook page. Leaflets and posters were created to accompany the radio soap opera. Lastly, community health workers were trained and conducted home visits and referrals." ["summary"]=> string(1370) "The intervention was evaluated using an FP incidence over time, exposure-known study design. The study consisted of baseline and endline household surveys of married adolescent girls age 14-19 years and their partners. A total of 472 married adolescent girls and 235 of their partners took part in the baseline survey. Following the intervention, a total of 485 married adolescent girls and 202 of their partners participated in the endline survey. The study found that, prior to the intervention, 38% of married adolescent girls were currently using an FP method, with the injectable being the most commonly used method (66%), followed by condoms (13%), and the pill and Standard Days Method (both at 9%). Following the intervention, 46% of married adolescent girls were currently using a FP method - a significant increase in FP use between baseline and endline (p = 0.005). A highly statistically significant increase was also evident in the use of implants and condoms by the end of the intervention. An increase was equally observed in the current use of the IUD (although this was not significant), while a decrease was noted in the proportion of those using other, non-modern methods of FP. Married adolescent girls exposed to the interventions were more likely to be currently using FP compared to their peers who were not exposed to the interventions (p=0.006)." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(11) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(303) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(251) [6]=> int(283) [7]=> int(275) [8]=> int(249) [9]=> int(256) [10]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(6) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(214) [5]=> int(224) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3390--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(220) " Adanikin, A. I.,Onwudiegwu, U.,Loto, O. M.. Influence of multiple antenatal counseling sessions on modern contraceptive uptake in Nigeria. European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2013. 18:381-387" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(65) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/13625187.2013.816672 " ["citation"]=> string(220) " Adanikin, A. I.,Onwudiegwu, U.,Loto, O. M.. Influence of multiple antenatal counseling sessions on modern contraceptive uptake in Nigeria. European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2013. 18:381-387" ["intervention"]=> string(458) "The intervention, based in Nigeria, aimed to increase postpartum contraceptive method uptake through multiple individual counseling sessions. Antenatal women received at least three counseling sessions during their third trimester, and postnatal women received just one individual counseling session at six weeks postpartum. The counseling covered information on the genitalia, ovulation, fertility following birth, modern FP methods and traditional methods." ["summary"]=> string(872) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial sample included a total of 216 pregnant women (gestational ages of 28 to 37 weeks), who were randomized into antenatal and postnatal contraceptive counseling groups. All participants were contacted six months postpartum by telephone or personal visit, and questioned about their contraceptive use, if any. The trial found that women who received antenatal counseling sessions used significantly more modern contraceptive methods than those who received a postnatal counseling session (57% compared to 35%; p=.002). Women who received antenatal counseling also reported significantly less use of traditional methods (p=0.04). Increased provider-patient interaction during the antenatal counseling significantly improved the actual use of contraception among previously undecided patients (p=0.014)." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(10) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(251) [6]=> int(283) [7]=> int(275) [8]=> int(256) [9]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3391--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(222) " Azmat, S. K.,Ahmed, S.,Hameed, W.,Bilgrami, M.,Khan, A.,Khan, A. A.,Mustafa, G.. Performance and measurement of a community-based distribution model of family planning services in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013. 63:S40-5" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(159) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259585082_Performance_and_measurement_of_a_community-based_distribution_model_of_family_planning_services_in_Pakistan " ["citation"]=> string(222) " Azmat, S. K.,Ahmed, S.,Hameed, W.,Bilgrami, M.,Khan, A.,Khan, A. A.,Mustafa, G.. Performance and measurement of a community-based distribution model of family planning services in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013. 63:S40-5" ["intervention"]=> string(494) "The intervention, implemented in Pakistan, aimed to decrease unmet need for contraception. The intervention used a community-based distribution (CBD) approach to deliver counseling on FP and reproductive health, and to deliver oral contraceptive pills, condoms, or injections to women of reproductive age during home visits. If requested, CBD workers referred those seeking IUDs or tubal ligation to a health center. The intervention employed outreach and FP and reproductive health counseling." ["summary"]=> string(879) "The study was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study used inception records against a cross-sectional endline survey and service delivery records to triangulate changes in contraceptive use and unmet need, and the proportion of these changes that could be attributed to the intervention. The study found that the overall rate of contraceptive use increased from 38% at inception to 51% at project-end. The use of modern contraception was 26% and increased to 41% at endline. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased in all provinces, except Baluchistan where it fell by 12%. The use of a modern method increased by 52%; increases were seen for all methods, particularly for condoms (from 9% to 15%), pills (from 2% to 6%), and injections (from 3% to 6%). Correspondingly, unmet need decreased from 23% at baseline to 19% at endline." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(7) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3392--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(261) " Azmat, S. K.,Shaikh, B. T.,Hameed, W.,Mustafa, G.,Hussain, W.,Asghar, J.,Ishaque, M.,Ahmed, A.,Bilgrami, M.. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan. PLoS One. 2013. 8:e74260" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074260 " ["citation"]=> string(261) " Azmat, S. K.,Shaikh, B. T.,Hameed, W.,Mustafa, G.,Hussain, W.,Asghar, J.,Ishaque, M.,Ahmed, A.,Bilgrami, M.. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan. PLoS One. 2013. 8:e74260" ["intervention"]=> string(713) "The intervention, implemented in Pakistan, aimed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. The intervention established a social franchise program along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUDs amongst the poor. The intervention employed social franchising; female health visitors, midwives, and nurses were trained to provide various contraceptive methods, including IUD insertion and removal; and field workers were trained to mobilize the community during house visits, provide counseling and referrals; provide vouchers for free IUDs; and branding and marketing through posters, wall paintings, leaflets, and the ‘Suraj’ logo outside all clinics." ["summary"]=> string(1472) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. Baseline and endline surveys were conducted with married women of reproductive age (MWRA, 15-49 years) living within a two to three kilometer radius of the selected service provider centers. One intervention district and one control district was selected from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 MWRA in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. The trial found that, at baseline, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in the intervention and control sites was almost similar. At endline, the CPR had increased to 48% and use of modern methods to 43.2%; the net effect showed a 19.6% increase in CPR (p<0.001) and 22.7% increase in modern use (p<0.001) after adjusting by control sites. Moreover, the intervention also significantly reduced the use of traditional methods by 3.1% (p=0.003). Among the modern methods, the highest percentage of change was observed in IUD use, with 11.4% (p<0.001). The trial also found a statistically significant increase in the lifetime use of any contraception and of any modern method by 25.2% and 28.4%, respectively. Moreover, the unmet need for contraception was reduced in both of the study arms; however, when compared with the control sites, the intervention sites showed a substantial reduction in the unmet need by 7.6% (p<0.001)." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(8) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) [5]=> int(224) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3393--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(240) " Bibi, S.,Abbasi, R. M.,Awan, S.,Qazi, R. A.,Ashfaque, S.. Impact of training on general practitioner's knowledge, attitude and practices regarding emergency contraception in Hyderabad. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013. 29:#pages#" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3858917/ " ["citation"]=> string(240) " Bibi, S.,Abbasi, R. M.,Awan, S.,Qazi, R. A.,Ashfaque, S.. Impact of training on general practitioner's knowledge, attitude and practices regarding emergency contraception in Hyderabad. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013. 29:#pages#" ["intervention"]=> string(180) "Implemented in Pakistan, the intervention aimed to improve general practitioners' knowledge, practice and attitudes on emergency contraception. Participants attended a FP training." ["summary"]=> string(709) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study sample included a total of 270 general practitioners. Participants were divided into two groups based on whether they attended a FP training course (intervention group) or not (control group). The study found that significant positive differences were noted on emergency contraception knowledge, attitude and prescription or referral in the intervention group, as compared to the control group. General practitioners in the intervention group prescribed emergency contraception more than general practitioners in the control group. This difference was statistically significant (65.5% vs. 40.9%, p<0.0001)." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(3) { [0]=> int(303) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3394--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(262) " Chin-Quee, D.,Bratt, J.,Malkin, M.,Nduna, M. M.,Otterness, C.,Jumbe, L.,Mbewe, R. K.. Building on safety, feasibility, and acceptability: the impact and cost of community health worker provision of injectable contraception. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2013. 1:316-27" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4168589/ " ["citation"]=> string(262) " Chin-Quee, D.,Bratt, J.,Malkin, M.,Nduna, M. M.,Otterness, C.,Jumbe, L.,Mbewe, R. K.. Building on safety, feasibility, and acceptability: the impact and cost of community health worker provision of injectable contraception. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2013. 1:316-27" ["intervention"]=> string(344) "The intervention, implemented in Zambia, aimed to increase women's contraceptive use by providing injectable contraceptives through community health workers (CHWs). The intervention employed provider training, counseling, provision of short term contraceptive methods (condoms, pills, injectables) by CHWs and referrals for additional services." ["summary"]=> string(1398) "The intervention was evaluated using a post-only cross-sectional study, examining differences by exposure to the intervention. All CHWs and a subset of their injectable clients (n = 5,253) who received their first injection from a CHW were interviewed. The study found the uptake of condoms, pills, and injectables (DMPA) was greater in Mumbwa than Luangwa, as the majority of FP clients (73%) were from Mumbwa district, the more populous area, with a higher contraceptive prevalence rate (40% vs. 27%). In both districts, condoms conferred the fewest couple years of protection (CYPs), while injectable conferred the most. With regard to new acceptors, 41% of CHW clients during the 13-month period were new to FP. In this group of 1,739 women, 85% chose injectables, 13% chose oral contraceptive pills, and the remaining 2% chose condoms as their first FP method. Of the continuing users, 63% reported using pills, 30% injectables, 6% condoms, and the rest unspecified. Of all the FP clients in the study, 82%, or 3,479 women, obtained injectables from a CHW some time during the 13-month period. Continuation for injectable users was always higher than for pill users (using mutually exclusive groups of women with 6, 9, and 12 month follow-up data), with a significant difference noted at the 12-month mark—63% vs. 47% (Chi-square P,.001). The study also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(291) } array(3) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(224) } array(1) { [0]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3395--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(241) " Grossman, D.,Onono, M.,Newmann, S. J.,Blat, C.,Bukusi, E. A.,Shade, S. B.,Steinfeld, R. L.,Cohen, C. R.. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment in Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial. Aids. 2013. 27 Suppl 1:S77-85" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(111) "http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2013/10001/Integration_of_family_planning_services_into_HIV.9.aspx " ["citation"]=> string(241) " Grossman, D.,Onono, M.,Newmann, S. J.,Blat, C.,Bukusi, E. A.,Shade, S. B.,Steinfeld, R. L.,Cohen, C. R.. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment in Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial. Aids. 2013. 27 Suppl 1:S77-85" ["intervention"]=> string(505) "The intervention, implemented in Kenya, aimed to improve access to FP among HIV-positive individuals in order to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV, maternal morbidity and mortality, and poor neonatal outcomes. The intervention integrated FP services into the HIV clinics. The intervention employed training HIV clinic staff to ask questions related to contraceptive use and training peer educators to conduct group educational health talks about FP to clients waiting to be seen at HIV clinics." ["summary"]=> string(818) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. The trial analyzed outcome data extracted from an electronic medical record system of women age 18-45 years who received care at participating HIV clinics. A total of 5,682 clinical encounters were included at baseline and 12,531 encounters at endline. Twelve clinics were randomized to integrate FP services into the HIV clinic, whereas six clinics were controls where clients desiring contraception were referred to FP clinics at the same facility. The trial found that women at intervention sites were significantly more likely to use more effective contraceptive methods at endline compared to women at control sites [increased from 16.7 to 36.6% at integrated sites, compared to increase from 21.1 to 29.8% at controls; OR, 1.81, 95% CI 1.24-2.63]." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(9) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(280) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(251) [6]=> int(275) [7]=> int(256) [8]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(399) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3396--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(308) " Gupta, N.,Cyamatare, F. R.,Niyigena, P.,Niyigena, J. W.,Stulac, S.,Mugwaneza, P.,Drobac, P.,Rich, M.,Franke, M. F.. Clinical outcomes of a comprehensive integrated program for HIV-exposed infants: a 3-year experience promoting HIV-free survival in rural Rwanda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013. 62:e109-14" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(105) "http://journals.lww.com/jaids/fulltext/2013/04010/Clinical_Outcomes_of_a_Comprehensive_Integrated.11.aspx" ["citation"]=> string(308) " Gupta, N.,Cyamatare, F. R.,Niyigena, P.,Niyigena, J. W.,Stulac, S.,Mugwaneza, P.,Drobac, P.,Rich, M.,Franke, M. F.. Clinical outcomes of a comprehensive integrated program for HIV-exposed infants: a 3-year experience promoting HIV-free survival in rural Rwanda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013. 62:e109-14" ["intervention"]=> string(887) "The intervention, implemented in Rwanda, aimed to reduce child mortality by promoting HIV-free child survival in rural areas with limited resources. The intervention consisted of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services integrated with a comprehensive basic package of health services to promote child survival including access to clean water, routine infant vaccination, mebendazole and vitamin A administration, screening and treatment for malnutrition, tuberculosis, HIV and a malaria prevention and treatment program. The intervention employed provider and community health worker trainings and mentorship, group counseling sessions for mothers and fathers, regular home visits and trainings of mothers on the identification and treatment of diarrheal diseases, clean water preparation, FP, proper use of replacement foods, nutrition and common childhood diseases." ["summary"]=> string(559) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. The study used routinely collected clinical and program data from the program database. A total of 1,038 infants born to HIV-positive women were enrolled in the program at eight clinics at or before birth. The study found that, of the mothers interviewed, 50.8% reported using a modern method of FP. By comparison, the Rwandan Interim Demographic Health Survey published in 2009 reported that only 26.3% of married women used some form of FP in the Eastern Province." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(250) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3397--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(231) " Shaaban, O. M.,Hassen, S. G.,Nour, S. A.,Kames, M. A.,Yones, E. M.. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial. Contraception. 2013. 87:363-369" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010782412007202 " ["citation"]=> string(231) " Shaaban, O. M.,Hassen, S. G.,Nour, S. A.,Kames, M. A.,Yones, E. M.. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial. Contraception. 2013. 87:363-369" ["intervention"]=> string(375) "The intervention, implemented in Egypt, aimed to reduce unintended pregnancy amongst women using the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) for birth spacing. Women who intended to use LAM received counseling on LAM and the use of emergency contraception (EC) along with the provision of one packet of EC pills. The intervention employed counseling and information cards on LAM." ["summary"]=> string(663) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial sample included 1,158 postpartum women who opted to use LAM as a contraceptive method in their first six months postpartum. Women were randomly assigned to either receive counseling on LAM, plus counseling on EC and the provision of EC pills (intervention group) or receive counseling on LAM only (control group) (n = 579 women in each arm). The trial found that significantly more women in the intervention group initiated regular contraception within or shortly after the first six months postpartum when compared with those in the control group (30.5% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p=.0004)." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(312) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(303) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(283) [6]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(313) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3398--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(295) " Smith, J. R.,Ho, L. S.,Langston, A.,Mankani, N.,Shivshanker, A.,Perera, D.. Clinical care for sexual assault survivors multimedia training: a mixed-methods study of effect on healthcare providers' attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and practice in humanitarian settings. Confl Health. 2013. 7:14" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3708794/ " ["citation"]=> string(295) " Smith, J. R.,Ho, L. S.,Langston, A.,Mankani, N.,Shivshanker, A.,Perera, D.. Clinical care for sexual assault survivors multimedia training: a mixed-methods study of effect on healthcare providers' attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and practice in humanitarian settings. Confl Health. 2013. 7:14" ["intervention"]=> string(638) "The intervention, implemented in refugee camps in Ethiopia and Kenya, a post-conflict setting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and an urban refugee setting in Jordan, aimed to improve clinical care of sexual assault in humanitarian settings. The intervention consisted of a training program around the IRC Clinical Care for Sexual Assault Survivors (CCSAS) multimedia training tool. The tool included best-practice video dramatizations between health care providers and survivors of sexual assault, interviews with clinical care experts from around the world, case studies, group exercises, role plays and participant hand-outs." ["summary"]=> string(802) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. Using a mixed-methods approach, the study surveyed a purposive sample of 106 health care providers before and three months after training to measure attitudes, knowledge, and confidence. In-depth interviews with 40 providers elaborated on survey findings. Medical record audits were conducted in 35 health facilities before and three months after the intervention to measure healthcare providers’ practice. The study found that provider practice improved following training as demonstrated by an increase in eligible survivors receiving emergency contraception from 50% to 82% (p < .01), HIV post-exposure prophylaxis from 42% to 92% (p < .001), and STI prophylaxis and treatment from 45% to 96% (p < .01)." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(4) { [0]=> int(210) [1]=> int(226) [2]=> int(314) [3]=> int(315) } array(1) { [0]=> int(303) } array(3) { [0]=> int(285) [1]=> int(316) [2]=> int(317) } array(3) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(245) [2]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3399--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(178) " Tebbets, C.,Redwine, D.. Beyond the clinic walls: empowering young people through Youth Peer Provider programmes in Ecuador and Nicaragua. Reprod Health Matters. 2013. 21:143-53" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968808013416932 " ["citation"]=> string(178) " Tebbets, C.,Redwine, D.. Beyond the clinic walls: empowering young people through Youth Peer Provider programmes in Ecuador and Nicaragua. Reprod Health Matters. 2013. 21:143-53" ["intervention"]=> string(812) "The Youth Peer Provider Program, implemented in Ecuador and Nicaragua, aimed to reduce rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. The Youth Peer Provider model goes beyond peer education to train peer providers under age 20 to provide condoms, oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraception, injectable contraceptives and sexual and reproductive health information to their peers. The intervention employed youth peer provider training, educational activities at schools and in communities, peer counseling, teacher trainings, discussion groups for parents, door-to-door home visits, educational booths at community events, outreach at sports games or community service events, street theatre, dance expositions, puppet shows, radio programming, advocacy, and mHealth (SMS and social media)." ["summary"]=> string(1322) "The program was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study used data from ten years of program monitoring and evaluation, focusing on three evaluations: 1) 2004 evaluation to identify long-term benefits of program participation, specifically health behaviors and outcomes with 597 respondents randomly selected from contraceptive users with records going back to five years prior; 2) 2007-2009 evaluation of the Ecuador program using the Most Significant Change Technique, collecting 92 interviews in a qualitative, participatory evaluation process to assess program impact; and 3) 15 in-depth interviews conducted in 2010 to assess the program’s strengths, weaknesses and impacts, and operational issues including supervision and training. The 2004 evaluation found high levels of contraceptive use among young people previously served by Youth Peer Providers. Three-quarters of survey respondents were sexually active, and 95% of those sexually active reported current contraceptive use. Among those who did not want to become pregnant, this increased to 98%. Three-quarters of survey respondents had ever used a condom to prevent sexually transmitted infections, which also compared favorably to the general population. The other evaluations did not report on increased FP use." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(2) { [0]=> int(318) [1]=> int(319) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(7) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(214) [6]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(265) [2]=> int(321) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3400--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(239) " Vahdat, H. L.,L'Engle, K. L.,Plourde, K. F.,Magaria, L.,Olawo, A.. There are some questions you may not ask in a clinic: providing contraception information to young people in Kenya using SMS. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013. 123 Suppl 1:e2-6" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020729213003822 " ["citation"]=> string(239) " Vahdat, H. L.,L'Engle, K. L.,Plourde, K. F.,Magaria, L.,Olawo, A.. There are some questions you may not ask in a clinic: providing contraception information to young people in Kenya using SMS. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013. 123 Suppl 1:e2-6" ["intervention"]=> string(421) "The Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH) Project, implemented in Kenya, aimed to increase the use of contraceptives amongst young people in Kenya. The project used an automated, on-demand SMS system to provide provides basic messages about nine different contraceptive methods, ranging from short-acting to permanent. The project employed mHealth, promotion in clinics, and a radio campaign promoting FP to young people." ["summary"]=> string(1247) "The m4RH Project was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. Three methods of data collection were used to evaluate the acceptability, information access, and potential impact of providing contraception information via SMS to young people in Kenya: automatic logging of all m4RH system queries; demographic and behavior change questions sent via SMS to all users who accessed m4RH during the pilot period (n = 1161, 24% response rate); and in-depth telephone interviews with a subset of m4RH users (n = 26). The study found that, during the pilot period, 4,817 unique users accessed the m4RH system. Of these, 82% were 29 years of age and younger, and 36% were male. Condoms and natural FP information was accessed most frequently, although users queried all methods. One in five used the m4RH system to locate nearby clinics. Respondents reported increased contraceptive knowledge and use after using m4RH. Of the 457 young people who reported contraceptive use, the most common change in contraceptive use was the use of condoms (n = 82), followed by IUDs (n = 67), pills (both daily and emergency contraception) (n = 59), and injectables (n = 46). Natural FP (n = 30) and implants (n = 30) use was also reported." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(8) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(303) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(214) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3401--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(192) " Wajid, A.,White, F.,Karim, M. S.. Community health workers and health care delivery: evaluation of a women's reproductive health care project in a developing country. PLoS One. 2013. 8:e75476" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0075476 " ["citation"]=> string(192) " Wajid, A.,White, F.,Karim, M. S.. Community health workers and health care delivery: evaluation of a women's reproductive health care project in a developing country. PLoS One. 2013. 8:e75476" ["intervention"]=> string(796) "The Women’s Health Care (WHC) Project, implemented in Pakistan, aimed to reduce maternal deaths through addressing three key "delays": 1) delay in the decision to seek care; 2) delay in arrival at a health facility; and 3) delay in the provision of adequate care. The project trained health care staff to improve their technical and communication skills, trained Lady Health Workers (LHW) to provide community outreach, trained Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) on appropriate practices of care including maintenance of aseptic measures and early referrals in case of any emergency or delayed labor, established Village Health Committees (VHC) to conduct community mobilization, and promoted awareness of maternal and neonatal health at family and community levels through VHCs, TBAs and LHWs." ["summary"]=> string(580) "The Women’s Health Care Project was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. The trial used a cross-sectional survey to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 925 married women of reproductive age with at least one delivery within the past 18 months were interviewed, 432 in the intervention area and 492 in the control area. The trial found the use of modern contraceptive methods was higher in the intervention area than in the control area (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.6)." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3402--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(341) " Wall, K. M.,Vwalika, B.,Haddad, L.,Khu, N. H.,Vwalika, C.,Kilembe, W.,Chomba, E.,Stephenson, R.,Kleinbaum, D.,Nizam, A.,Brill, I.,Tichacek, A.,Allen, S.. Impact of long-term contraceptive promotion on incident pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial among HIV-positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013. 63:86-95" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3625483/ " ["citation"]=> string(341) " Wall, K. M.,Vwalika, B.,Haddad, L.,Khu, N. H.,Vwalika, C.,Kilembe, W.,Chomba, E.,Stephenson, R.,Kleinbaum, D.,Nizam, A.,Brill, I.,Tichacek, A.,Allen, S.. Impact of long-term contraceptive promotion on incident pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial among HIV-positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013. 63:86-95" ["intervention"]=> string(771) "The intervention, implemented in Zambia, aimed to reduce unintended pregnanciesand increase contraceptive use among HIV sero-discordant and concordant positive couples obtaining couples’ voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) services. The intervention used videos, focused on long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARCs), which were viewed by couples receiving voluntary HIV counseling and testing at a local clinic. Couples viewed either a "Methods" video (presenting information on contraceptive methods, starting with LARCs), a "Motivation" video (modeling future planning behaviors, such as will-writing and financial planning, in a drama format), the "Methods" and "Motivation" video, or a "Control" video (on handwashing, bed net use and nutrition)." ["summary"]=> string(1970) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial tested the two intervention videos, individually and in combination, and a control video (containing information on hand washing, bed-net use, and nutrition). A total of 1,060 couples with HIV were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three intervention groups or the control group. The trial found that, among women who were not using a method at baseline, 98% chose to use a modern contraceptive method immediately after receiving the intervention, with 43% selecting injectables, 35% selecting OCPs, 14% selecting Norplant implant, 4% choosing the IUD, and 1% choosing tubal ligation. The proportion who chose the IUD was higher in the “Methods” video group (6%, n = 24 vs 2%, n = 8; Chi-square = 7.76, p=0.005). Among the 278 women using a modern contraceptive method prior to the intervention, the distribution of methods used was 63% OCPs, 33% injectables, 2% IUD, and 3% Norplant implant. This distribution did not differ by intervention group (Chi-square p=0.261). After viewing their assigned intervention videos and being offered the full range of contraceptive methods, 69% continued their previous method and 31% switched to another method (1% tubal ligation, 17% injectables, 2% IUD, 10% Norplant implant, and 1% OCP). All five of the baseline method users who switched to the IUD had viewed the “Methods” videos. Among couples not using contraception prior to randomization, the video interventions had no impact on incident pregnancy. Among baseline contraceptive users, viewing the “Methods” video which focused on the IUD and contraceptive implant was associated with a significantly lower pregnancy incidence (HR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.19-0.75) relative to those viewing control and/or “Motivational” videos. The effect was strongest in concordant positive couples (HR=0.22; 95% CI: 0.08-0.58) and couples with HIV-positive women (HR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55)." ["year"]=> int(2013) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(291) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(303) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3403--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(141) " Agha, S.,Beaudoin, C. E.. Assessing a thematic condom advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan. J Health Commun. 2012. 17:601-23" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(92) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10810730.2011.635768?scroll=top&needAccess=true " ["citation"]=> string(141) " Agha, S.,Beaudoin, C. E.. Assessing a thematic condom advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan. J Health Commun. 2012. 17:601-23" ["intervention"]=> string(629) "The Touch condom media campaign, implemented in Pakistan, aimed to increase condom use to prevent unintended pregnancy. The Touch campaign used a two-pronged thematic condom advertising strategy: 1) the first campaign aimed to establish Touch as a brand for urban middle and upper middle-class condom users and make the brand financially more sustainable by raising its price, and 2) a second campaign aimed to reposition Sathi (another condom brand distributed by the same organization) as a condom brand for rural people and those living in small cities. The campaign used mass media (television and radio) to deliver messages." ["summary"]=> string(833) "The Touch condom media campaign was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. The study used a nationally representative survey of 1,606 men married to women aged 15-49 years. The study found that, even after controlling for other variables, confirmed awareness of the Touch advertisement had a significant positive effect on current contraceptive use. Specifically, respondents with confirmed awareness of the Touch advertisement had 1.6 times greater odds of current contraceptive use. Among the types of actions that respondents took as a result of having seen contraceptive advertising during the past three months, almost 20% reported that they started using a condom for the first time, and about 54% indicated that they started using a contraceptive method (including condoms) for the first time." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(2) { [0]=> int(235) [1]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3404--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(211) " Baumgartner, J. N.,Morroni, C.,Mlobeli, R. D.,Otterness, C.,Buga, G.,Chen, M.. Impact of a provider job aid intervention on injectable contraceptive continuation in South Africa. Stud Fam Plann. 2012. 43:305-14" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2012.00328.x/full " ["citation"]=> string(211) " Baumgartner, J. N.,Morroni, C.,Mlobeli, R. D.,Otterness, C.,Buga, G.,Chen, M.. Impact of a provider job aid intervention on injectable contraceptive continuation in South Africa. Stud Fam Plann. 2012. 43:305-14" ["intervention"]=> string(549) "The intervention, implemented in South Africa, aimed at reducing unintended pregnancies by improving continuation rates for injectable contraceptives. The intervention consists of a provider job aid for managing late-returning clients and promoting continued use of injectable contraceptives and a one day training for FP providers on the use of the job aid. The two-page job aid highlights key counseling messages for new and restarting injectable contraceptive clients and provides guidance for managing returning injectable contraceptive clients." ["summary"]=> string(2093) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. The trial sample consisted of women age 15 years or older, who attended one of 12 selected public-sector FP clinics, and intended to obtain injectable contraceptive services. Half the clinics were randomly assigned to the intervention group and half to the control group. A total of 1,449 cohort clients (706 at intervention clinics and 743 at control clinics) participated in the trial. Among the cohort clients, a systematically selected subsample (every tenth client enrolled) participated in an in-depth exit interview that recorded their background characteristics, injectable-use history, and counseling messages received at the clinic. Additionally, a convenience subsample of cohort clients participated in follow-up interviews if they were identified as being more than four weeks late for their follow-up reinjection, to ascertain the reason for their intentional or unintentional discontinuation. The study found that appropriate management of late-returning injectable clients is critical, and the study illustrates that reinjection rates can be significantly increased with a low-resource provider job aid. Intervention clinic cohort clients were more likely than control clinic cohort clients to receive a reinjection if they were late. For those arriving 15-84 days late, approximately 87% of intervention clinic cohort clients received a reinjection, compared with only 5% in control clinics. Overall, 94% of cohort clients at the intervention clinics received reinjections upon returning to the clinic, compared with 68% percent at control clinics. Among those who returned up to 2 weeks (1-14 days) late, the reinjection rate was 94% for intervention and 78% for control clinics. This difference, however, was only marginally statistically significant (p= 0.48). In contrast, the reinjection rate of 80% among those who arrived 2-12 weeks (15-84 days) late to an intervention clinic was significantly greater than the reinjection rate (34 %) among those returning similarly late to control clinics (p = 0.003)." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(260) } array(1) { [0]=> int(282) } array(1) { [0]=> int(311) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3405--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(243) " Benfield, N.,Namugunga, E.,Kisindja, R.,Kimona, C.,Steinauer, J.. Fertility desires and the impact of contraceptive counseling in women with fistula in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: a multicenter study. Contraception. 2012. 86:324-325" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010782412004118 " ["citation"]=> string(243) " Benfield, N.,Namugunga, E.,Kisindja, R.,Kimona, C.,Steinauer, J.. Fertility desires and the impact of contraceptive counseling in women with fistula in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: a multicenter study. Contraception. 2012. 86:324-325" ["intervention"]=> string(687) "The intervention, implemented in the Democratic Republic of Congo, aimed to determine the fertility and contraceptive desires of genital fistula patients. The intervention provided group contraceptive education and counseling to women with genital fistula. Group sessions were slightly modified from the standard postpartum contraceptive education, to include information on the etiology of fistulas, and physician and physical therapist recommendations regarding recovery from surgery and treatment (which typically includes abstinence for three months). After the group sessions, women who desired contraception subsequently underwent individual counseling to select a specific method." ["summary"]=> string(969) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. Fertility desires and contraceptive knowledge were assessed via verbally administered questionnaires before and after counseling, and use of modern contraceptive methods was tracked. A total of 61 women with genital fistula were included in the study. The study found that, following group counseling, ever use of a modern contraceptive methods increased from a baseline of 0.0%. Of the 25 women who were discharged from the institution over the subsequent three months, five women (20.0%) selected a modern contraceptive method. An additional three fistula patients who were still at the clinic also selected a modern contraceptive method. One woman chose progestin injection, whereas all others chose oral contraceptives. Over this time period, there was an interruption in the supply of implant contraceptives; it is unknown how this lack of access impacted method choice." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(314) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3406--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(358) " Decat, P.,Zhang, W. H.,Delva, W.,Moyer, E.,Cheng, Y.,Wang, Z. J.,Lu, C. Y.,Wu, S. Z.,Nadisauskiene, R. J.,Temmerman, M.,Degomme, O.. Promoting contraceptive use among female rural-to-urban migrants in Qingdao, China: A comparative impact study of worksite-based interventions. European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2012. 17:363-372" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(65) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/13625187.2012.696752 " ["citation"]=> string(358) " Decat, P.,Zhang, W. H.,Delva, W.,Moyer, E.,Cheng, Y.,Wang, Z. J.,Lu, C. Y.,Wu, S. Z.,Nadisauskiene, R. J.,Temmerman, M.,Degomme, O.. Promoting contraceptive use among female rural-to-urban migrants in Qingdao, China: A comparative impact study of worksite-based interventions. European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2012. 17:363-372" ["intervention"]=> string(1101) "Young Labor Migrants in Chinese cities (YOLAMI) included two intervention arms. The first arm (standard package of interventions - SPI) aimed to improve and promote consistent contraceptive use among rural-to-urban migrants. This intervention included monthly distribution of brochures, monthly free condom distribution, informative postings within the worksite via posters, a counseling hotline and in person visits utilizing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) videos. The second intervention (intensive package of interventions - IPI) aimed to facilitate access to SRH information and services, enhance open communication on sexuality and promote knowledge transfer by health providers and peer educators. This intervention combined the SPI components with a hotline available for counseling and VIP cards were given to participants which entitled them to pay less for health services. Health providers also visited the worksites regularly to give a lecture, show a video, give participants a consultation with a health provider and an instructive session was organized for trained peer educators." ["summary"]=> string(1313) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. Ten manufacturing worksites were randomly allocated to the SPI and the IPI. Cross-sectional surveys at baseline and endline assessed the sexual behavior of young female migrants. In total, 1,405 migrant women were interviewed at baseline (SPI n = 721, IPI n = 684) and 1,218 migrant women were interviewed at endline (SPI n =615, IPI n = 603). The trial found that consistent contraceptive use and all secondary outcomes increased by the end of the interventions in both study arms among respondents with and without children. Among childless migrants, self-reported contraceptive use increased significantly after SPI and IPI (AOR 3.23; 95% CI 1.52 - 6.84; p=0.01 and AOR 5.81; 95% CI 2.63 - 12.80; p=0.001, respectively). The interaction term of age and standard intervention suggests that the effect of the SPI was smaller in older women (AOR of intervention effect by one-year increment =0.86; 95% CI 0.77 - 0.95; p<0.01). Consequently, the group of childless migrants older than 22 years of age did not report a better contraceptive use after the SPI. Only after the IPI was there an improvement resulting in a significant difference of consistent contraceptive use at endline comparing IPI and SPI (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.23 - 3.79; p< 0.01)." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3407--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(257) " He, D.,Cheng, Y. M.,Wu, S. Z.,Decat, P.,Wang, Z. J.,Minkauskiene, M.,Moyer, E.. Promoting contraceptive use more effectively among unmarried male migrants in construction sites in China: a pilot intervention trial. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2012. 24:806-15" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(138) "http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1010539511406106?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed& " ["citation"]=> string(257) " He, D.,Cheng, Y. M.,Wu, S. Z.,Decat, P.,Wang, Z. J.,Minkauskiene, M.,Moyer, E.. Promoting contraceptive use more effectively among unmarried male migrants in construction sites in China: a pilot intervention trial. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2012. 24:806-15" ["intervention"]=> string(505) "The workplace-based YOLAMI (young labor migrant) Service Package program took place in China and aimed to deliver sexual and reproductive healthcare to male, rural-to-urban migrants. Two different packages were developed and tested. The "essential package" consisted of AIDS/STI pamphlets, contraceptive method posters, and condom distribution. The "comprehensive package" included all of the above, plus sexual and reproductive health lectures, in-person counseling, videos, peer education, and hotlines." ["summary"]=> string(1405) "The YOLAMI program was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. Fourteen construction sites were randomly assigned to either of the two intervention packages. A total of 1,638 subjects were recruited in this study. At the end of the intervention, 20.4% and 21.0% of the workers reported having sexual intercourse from the control group (Package A) and the intervention group (Package B), respectively, in the past 3 months and there was no significant difference between the two groups. Both packages increased the use of condoms, with a stronger effect for intervention. The increase from baseline to endline in the intervention group (45.3%) was 2.96 times greater than in the control group (15.3%). After the intervention, the rate of unintended pregnancy was significantly reduced in the intervention group (OR = 0.318) but not in the control group. A binary logistic regression analysis found a group × time interaction effect on “used condoms usually.“ An increase in condom use was pronounced in migrants in the intervention group, with odds ratio (OR) = 9.65 (95% CI = 1.41-66.28). The rate of unintended pregnancies was reduced more significantly in migrants in the intervention group than in the control group (OR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.03-0.45). Unmarried male migrants who received the comprehensive intervention were more willing to use condoms and avoid unwanted pregnancies effectively." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(235) [1]=> int(403) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3408--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(202) " Hutchinson, P. L.,Meekers, D.. Estimating causal effects from family planning health communication campaigns using panel data: the "your health, your wealth" campaign in Egypt. PLoS One. 2012. 7:e46138" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0046138 " ["citation"]=> string(202) " Hutchinson, P. L.,Meekers, D.. Estimating causal effects from family planning health communication campaigns using panel data: the "your health, your wealth" campaign in Egypt. PLoS One. 2012. 7:e46138" ["intervention"]=> string(788) "The Your Health, Your Wealth ("Sahatek Sarwetek") campaign, implemented in Egypt, aimed to improve FP knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The campaign used national multimedia and community-based activities to encourage families to engage in healthy behaviors at different points in the life stage. A key component of the overall communication strategy was the ‘‘Mabrouk!’’ (Congratulations!) Initiative, which targeted newlyweds as a strategic entry point for encouraging behaviors that promote healthy families, including important events such as pregnancy, labor and delivery, post-partum infant care, FP and overall family health. Specific FP messages included the benefits of birth spacing and the need for postpartum resumption or initiation of FP to avoid early pregnancy." ["summary"]=> string(1225) "The Your Health, Your Wealth campaign was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial used data from a panel survey of reproductive age women in seven villages exposed to the campaign, which had broad national television coverage. Five of the villages received more intensive community-based interventions from the Communication for Healthy Living project, while two villages were used as comparison villages. A total of 2,240 ever-married women were interviewed at baseline and 2,284 women were interviewed at endline (2,073 from the baseline cohort). The trial found that, at baseline, few statistically significant differences in FP outcomes were observed. Contraceptive use was nearly identical in intervention and control group, 39.2% of exposed ever married women versus 40.3% of unexposed women. At endline, statistically significant differences were observed for all outcomes except for modern contraceptive use, 47.6% for the exposed relative to 44.2% for the unexposed (p = .228). After controlling for both measured and unmeasured factors affecting non-random exposure, exposure to the Your Health, Your Wealth campaign was associated with an increase in modern contraceptive use by 23.1% (p =0.002)." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(312) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(313) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3409--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(210) " Lundgren, R.,Sinai, I.,Jha, P.,Mukabatsinda, M.,Sacieta, L.,Leán, F. R.. Assessing the effect of introducing a new method into family planning programs in India, Peru, and Rwanda. Reproductive Health. 2012. 9" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3490951/ " ["citation"]=> string(210) " Lundgren, R.,Sinai, I.,Jha, P.,Mukabatsinda, M.,Sacieta, L.,Leán, F. R.. Assessing the effect of introducing a new method into family planning programs in India, Peru, and Rwanda. Reproductive Health. 2012. 9" ["intervention"]=> string(639) "The intervention, implemented in India, Rwanda and Peru, aimed to make the Standard Days Method (SDM) accessible to couples as an additional FP option. The intervention introduced the SDM through advocacy with key stakeholders that resulted in the inclusion of CycleBeads in health systems, training providers in counseling and supervision and information, education and communication (IEC) activities. Information about the availability of a new contraceptive option was shared through leaflets, posters, health fairs and radio spots in all three countries. In India it was also shared via wall paintings, street theatre and puppet shows." ["summary"]=> string(1441) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. In each country, the trial included two surveys; one survey focused on married women of reproductive age, and the other on men married to women of reproductive age. A household listing was used to randomly select households in the intervention and control communities. All married women of reproductive age within the selected households were interviewed. Men were interviewed in 50% of the selected households (randomly selected, couples not matched). Sample size power calculations resulted in a desired sample size of 1,710 women in India (570 intervention and control), 1,300 in Peru (650 intervention and control), and 600 women in Rwanda. The trial found that, in India, there was a small increase in contraceptive prevalence from baseline to endline in the control area. In the intervention area there was a statistically significant increase from 47.8% to 50.8%, suggesting an increase in contraceptive prevalence following SDM introduction. In Peru, there was a statistically significant increase in contraceptive prevalence in both the control and intervention areas. In all three countries, the introduction of SDM attracted couples new to FP. In India, over 85% of new SDM users had never previously used a FP method. Over 90% of new SDM users in Rwanda, and 57% in Peru, had not been using another method in the two months preceding their decision to use SDM." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(3) { [0]=> int(241) [1]=> int(323) [2]=> int(250) } array(1) { [0]=> int(249) } array(3) { [0]=> int(452) [1]=> int(324) [2]=> int(285) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(228) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3410--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(364) " Malwenna, L. I.,Jayawardana, P. L.,Balasuriya, A.. Effectiveness of a community based health educational intervention in reducing unmet need for modern methods of family planning among ever married reproductive age women in the Kalutara district, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health. 2012. 4:1097-1114" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(242) "http://internalmedicine.imedpub.com/effectiveness-of-a-community-based-health-educationalintervention-in-reducing-unmet-need-for-modern-methods-offamily-planning-among-ever-married-reproductive-agewomen-in-the-kalutara-district-sri-lanka.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(364) " Malwenna, L. I.,Jayawardana, P. L.,Balasuriya, A.. Effectiveness of a community based health educational intervention in reducing unmet need for modern methods of family planning among ever married reproductive age women in the Kalutara district, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health. 2012. 4:1097-1114" ["intervention"]=> string(622) "The intervention aimed to improve the knowledge and attitudes of midwives providing FP services and improve the community's use of services. A workshop was held to update knowledge, facilitate favorable attitudes and improve the skills of counseling. For the workshop a trainers' guide, an FP handbook, health learning materials (flip chart and brochure) and a training module were developed. The full "Health Education Package" for clients consisted of four sessions through home visits, at clinics or other suitable locations. Participants were given referral cards and written information about FP services and methods." ["summary"]=> string(1023) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample included all public health midwives (PHMM) and 264 married women of reproductive age (age 15-49 years) with unmet need for modern methods selected from cluster sampling of PHMM areas in the district using probability proportional to size sampling technique, allocating 22 clusters of 12 women in each intervention and control area. The trial found that, at endline, 68.7% (n=180) of women in the intervention area and 21% (n=54) of women in the control area had started a modern method of FP, reducing the unmet need with a statistically significant difference (OR=8.25, 95% CI 5.44-12.54). The difference in reduction of unmet need for modern methods of FP between intervention area and control area was highly significant (p<0.001) at six months of intervention. Among those who accepted contraception, DMPA injection was the method accepted by most in the intervention area (43.3%; n=78), as well as in the control area (38.9%; n=21)." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(325) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3411--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(227) " Sebastian, M. P.,Khan, M. E.,Kumari, K.,Idnani, R.. Increasing postpartum contraception in rural India: evaluation of a community-based behavior change communication intervention. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012. 38:68-77" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(125) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2012/06/increasing-postpartum-contraception-rural-india-evaluation-community-based " ["citation"]=> string(227) " Sebastian, M. P.,Khan, M. E.,Kumari, K.,Idnani, R.. Increasing postpartum contraception in rural India: evaluation of a community-based behavior change communication intervention. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012. 38:68-77" ["intervention"]=> string(721) "The intervention, implemented in India, aimed to prevent maternal and child mortality and morbidity by reducing unintended pregnancies. The intervention used counseling by community workers to increase knowledge and use of the lactational amenorrhea method and postpartum contraception. The intervention employed communication materials (leaflets, posters, wall paintings and booklets); education sessions with pregnant women, mother-in-laws, or the oldest female family member on healthy timing and birth spacing, postpartum care, the lactational amenorrhea method and postpartum contraception; educational campaign for husbands and males in the community to teach them about maternity care and postpartum contraception." ["summary"]=> string(1082) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. The trial sample consisted of 959 women from the study villages who were younger than 25 years, had one child or no children, and were 4-7 months pregnant (477 women in the intervention group and 482 in the comparison group). Three rounds of interviews were conducted: baseline, four-months postpartum, and nine-months postpartum. The trial found that a higher proportion of women in the intervention group than those in the comparison group reported modern contraceptive use at the nine-month postpartum follow-up —57% compared to 30%. The method most commonly used in both areas was condoms (41% intervention, 23% comparison). The IUD was used by 2% of women in the intervention area and 0.2% in the comparison area. About one-fifth of women in the intervention group and one-quarter of those in the comparison group reported using a traditional method. Only 24% of women in the intervention area were not using a FP method at the time of nine-month postpartum follow-up, compared with 45% in the comparison area." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(283) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) [2]=> int(394) [3]=> int(391) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3412--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(199) " Tavrow, P.,Withers, M.,McMullen, K.. Age matters: Differential impact of service quality on contraceptive uptake among post-abortion clients in Kenya. Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2012. 14:849-862" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(65) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13691058.2012.700324 " ["citation"]=> string(199) " Tavrow, P.,Withers, M.,McMullen, K.. Age matters: Differential impact of service quality on contraceptive uptake among post-abortion clients in Kenya. Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2012. 14:849-862" ["intervention"]=> string(312) "This intervention, based in Kenya, aimed to improve postabortion contraceptive uptake at a local clinic. A complete range of FP methods were available to clients. The clinic also had numerous FP posters on the wall and leaflets available to clients, though it is not clear if these were part of the intervention." ["summary"]=> string(868) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study included two in-depth interviews with the physician and a six-month retrospective review of clinical records from 1,080 girls and women. The study found that, prior to the abortion, no girls aged 10-18 years reported having used contraception, as compared to 60% of women aged 27-46 years. After the abortion and FP counseling session, 6% of girls aged 10-18 chose a method, as compared to 21% of women aged 19-21, 63% of women aged 22-26 and 96% of women aged 27-46, even though contraception was free, the provider strongly promoted FP to everyone and all clients had just experienced an unwanted pregnancy. Significant predictors of contraceptive uptake postabortion were: having a child, a previous termination, prior contraceptive use and being older than 21." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(8) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(303) [3]=> int(281) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(251) [6]=> int(275) [7]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3413--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(258) " Benfield, N.,Kinsindja, R. M.,Kimona, C.,Masoda, M.,Ndume, J.,Steinauer, J.. Fertility desires and the feasibility of contraception counseling among genital fistula patients in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011. 114:265-7" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020729211002682 " ["citation"]=> string(258) " Benfield, N.,Kinsindja, R. M.,Kimona, C.,Masoda, M.,Ndume, J.,Steinauer, J.. Fertility desires and the feasibility of contraception counseling among genital fistula patients in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011. 114:265-7" ["intervention"]=> string(347) "This program, implemented in a hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo, provided FP services to postpartum women with genital fistula. Contraceptive education and counseling was initially provided to women via group counseling sessions. After the sessions, women who wanted contraception had individual counseling to select a specific method." ["summary"]=> string(728) "The intervention was evaluated using an FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. In total, 61 women with genital fistula were included in the study. Results showed that ever use of a modern contraceptive method increased from 0.0% and, of the 25 women who were discharged from the institution over the subsequent three months, five women (20.0%) and three additional fistula patients selected a modern contraceptive method. One woman chose progestin injection, whereas all others chose oral contraceptives. Over this time period, there was an interruption in the supply of implant contraceptives; it is unknown how this lack of access impacted method choice. The study also measured client/patient knowledge of FP." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(314) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3414--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(241) " Bingham, A.,Drake, J. K.,Goodyear, L.,Gopinath, C. Y.,Kaufman, A.,Bhattarai, S.. The role of interpersonal communication in preventing unsafe abortion in communities: the dialogues for life project in Nepal. J Health Commun. 2011. 16:245-63" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118540/ " ["citation"]=> string(241) " Bingham, A.,Drake, J. K.,Goodyear, L.,Gopinath, C. Y.,Kaufman, A.,Bhattarai, S.. The role of interpersonal communication in preventing unsafe abortion in communities: the dialogues for life project in Nepal. J Health Commun. 2011. 16:245-63" ["intervention"]=> string(451) "Dialogues for Life was implemented in Nepal and aimed to raise community-level understanding, acceptance and use of FP-related services in Kathmandu Valley and Rupandehi District. The interpersonal communication intervention used facilitated discussion, role-play games and information sessions to uncover participants' values, attitudes and beliefs around reproductive health and FP topics, identify challenges and adopt new strategies and behaviors." ["summary"]=> string(785) "The Dialogues for Life intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure assumed study design. A total of 478 women and men were enrolled in the program; of which 426 were followed from baseline to endline. The study found that modern FP use increased significantly overall during the course of the intervention. At the beginning of the project, 44% (n = 131) of the married participants (n = 277) reported they were non-contraceptive users. By endline, 58 initiated contraceptive use during the course of the intervention; meaning nearly 44% of non-contraceptive users began use during the project. In contrast, only 26 married contraceptive users, or less than 18%, discontinued use at some point during the intervention (two discontinued as a result of pregnancy)." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(4) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(244) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3415--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(221) " Carneiro Gomes Ferreira, A. L.,Impieri Souza, A.,Evangelista Pessoa, R.,Braga, C.. The effectiveness of contraceptive counseling for women in the postabortion period: an intervention study. Contraception. 2011. 84:377-83" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010782411000552 " ["citation"]=> string(221) " Carneiro Gomes Ferreira, A. L.,Impieri Souza, A.,Evangelista Pessoa, R.,Braga, C.. The effectiveness of contraceptive counseling for women in the postabortion period: an intervention study. Contraception. 2011. 84:377-83" ["intervention"]=> string(366) "This intervention was implemented in a teaching hospital in Brazil and provided FP counseling and services to women in the postabortion period. The intervention was conducted by two trained providers, who counseled clients on relevant postabortion FP information, future FP use, and contraceptive methods. Selected contraceptive methods were provided free of charge." ["summary"]=> string(1472) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. All women who had undergone any kind of abortion at any of the five public maternities in Recife were invited to participate in the trial. The trial found that after the admission interview 123 women in the intervention group and 119 (96.7%) in the control group accepted to use some type of contraceptive methods, without any differences between the groups (p = .122). At the end of the six-month follow-up period, 121 women (98.4%) in the intervention group continued using some type of contraceptive methods, whereas 86 women (70.6%) in the control group continued using some types of methods. The frequency of adherence to the method was 1.4 times greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (pb = .001). As for the appropriate use of the method after 6 months of follow-up, 121 women (98.4%) in the intervention group and 68 (55.3%) in the control group were still using some types of methods correctly as the instructions were recommended for each individual method according to the usual recommendation (pb = .001). The probability of women in the intervention group to choosing a quarterly injectable contraceptive was five times greater than the control group (pb = .001). On the other hand, the chance of choosing condoms among women in the control group was almost 50% higher than that in the intervention group (p=.017). The trial also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(4) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3416--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(228) " Chibwesha, C. J.,Li, M. S.,Matoba, C. K.,Mbewe, R. K.,Chi, B. H.,Stringer, J. S.,Stringer, E. M.. Modern contraceptive and dual method use among HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011. 2011:261453" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(51) "https://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2011/261453/ " ["citation"]=> string(228) " Chibwesha, C. J.,Li, M. S.,Matoba, C. K.,Mbewe, R. K.,Chi, B. H.,Stringer, J. S.,Stringer, E. M.. Modern contraceptive and dual method use among HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011. 2011:261453" ["intervention"]=> string(631) "The intervention, implemented in Zambia, aimed to reduce unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive women. The intervention integrated a reproductive health peer counselor program in 16 public-sector HIV clinics. The intervention trained peer counselors to deliver a comprehensive reproductive health message, including information on the range of barrier methods, hormonal and intrauterine contraception, and permanent sterilization, with an emphasis on dual methods. The intervention used printed counseling tools, referrals to on-site FP services or referral hospitals, and trainings for FP nurses." ["summary"]=> string(1483) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure assumed study design. The study used service data on 18,407 HIV-positive women, age 15-50 years, on antiretroviral treatment (ART) who were counseled in 16 HIV clinics in Lusaka. The study found that, of the women counseled, 10,904 (59.2%) reported current modern contraceptive use. Among contraceptive users, only 17.7% reported dual method use. After counseling, 737 of 7,503 women not previously using modern contraception desired FP referrals, and 61.6% of these women successfully accessed services within 90 days. The data indicates that nearly 40% of women who desired reproductive health services were unable to access public-sector services. This represents substantial unmet contraceptive need within Lusaka’s public health system. In univariate analysis, age was the only factor associated with successful access to contraceptive services within 90 days of a counseling visit. In multivariate analysis, women 25-34 years (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30-0.92) or ≥35 years (AOR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.25-1.00) had lower odds of accessing contraceptive services than women 16-24 years. Women who reported a higher monthly income also had lower odds of accessing contraceptive services than women who were less wealthy (AOR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47-0.98). By contrast, multiparae were more likely to access reproductive health services within 90 days than women with no living children (AOR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.17-2.88)." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(291) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(280) } array(1) { [0]=> int(311) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(224) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(399) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3417--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(293) " Fayemi, M.,Momoh, G.,Oduola, O.,Delano, G.,Ladipo, O.,Adebola, O.. Community based distribution agents' approach to provision of family planning information and services in five Nigerian States: A mirage or a reality?. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine. 2011. 3:149-157" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4565418/ " ["citation"]=> string(293) " Fayemi, M.,Momoh, G.,Oduola, O.,Delano, G.,Ladipo, O.,Adebola, O.. Community based distribution agents' approach to provision of family planning information and services in five Nigerian States: A mirage or a reality?. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine. 2011. 3:149-157" ["intervention"]=> string(612) "Based in Nigeria, this intervention sought to address maternal mortality reduction through increasing contraceptive uptake. The intervention involved training 250 community members as community based distribution agents (CBDAs), who then provided information on reproductive health, distributed selected FP commodities, generated demand for services, made health center referrals and performed other health duties in their communities. Other approaches used included outreach and edutainment activities, the production of information, education and communication materials, journalist seminars and radio jingles." ["summary"]=> string(853) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study included a midline community survey and focus group discussions with community members in 10 rural local government areas in five Nigerian states. At endline, a survey of CBDAs was conducted. A total of 117 CBDA (53 male agents and 64 female agents) from the five intervention states were interviewed. The study found utilization of FP commodities and services increased among community members between the baseline and midline. The proportion of community members who had used FP commodities increased from 28% at baseline to 49% at midline, whilst the proportion of those who were current users increased from 16% at baseline to 37% at midline. Furthermore, the proportion of those who had ever had unintended pregnancies, dropped from 16% to 10%." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(9) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(255) [3]=> int(303) [4]=> int(281) [5]=> int(282) [6]=> int(275) [7]=> int(256) [8]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(228) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(224) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3418--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(181) " Guilkey, D. K.,Hutchinson, P. L.. Overcoming methodological challenges in evaluating health communication campaigns: evidence from rural Bangladesh. Stud Fam Plann. 2011. 42:93-106" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3789514/ " ["citation"]=> string(181) " Guilkey, D. K.,Hutchinson, P. L.. Overcoming methodological challenges in evaluating health communication campaigns: evidence from rural Bangladesh. Stud Fam Plann. 2011. 42:93-106" ["intervention"]=> string(561) "The Smiling Sun campaign, implemented in Bangladesh, encouraged women to use a variety of family health services, including child health and immunizations, reproductive health care, and FP services. The multi-channel intervention included a 26-episode television drama with a complementing quiz and discussion show, TV ads, radio spots, posters, billboards and newspaper ads. At the community and clinic level, the campaign employed advocacy, interpersonal communication, group meetings, loudspeaker announcements, rallies and branding with the campaign's logo." ["summary"]=> string(836) "The Smiling Sun Campaign was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The sample included women who had a child in the 12 months preceding the survey during which time the campaign was on-going. The study found that the difference in estimates between simple methods and the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) is approximately 40,000 additional users of modern contraception attributable to the Smiling Sun campaign. For contraceptive use, the most important health facility characteristic was the number of family welfare visitors in facilities within one kilometer. Other characteristics, such as the presence of family welfare assistants and the number of contraceptive methods available, had no significant effects on contraceptive use. The study also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(4) { [0]=> int(228) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3419--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(315) " Kosgei, R. J.,Lubano, K. M.,Shen, C.,Wools-Kaloustian, K. K.,Musick, B. S.,Siika, A. M.,Mabeya, H.,Carter, E. J.,Mwangi, A.,Kiarie, J.. Impact of integrated family planning and HIV care services on contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011. 58:e121-6" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3779789/ " ["citation"]=> string(315) " Kosgei, R. J.,Lubano, K. M.,Shen, C.,Wools-Kaloustian, K. K.,Musick, B. S.,Siika, A. M.,Mabeya, H.,Carter, E. J.,Mwangi, A.,Kiarie, J.. Impact of integrated family planning and HIV care services on contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011. 58:e121-6" ["intervention"]=> string(300) "The AMPATH Integrated Care Model, implemented in Kenya, aimed to increase FP uptake and reduce unintended pregnancies. The model integrated FP into HIV care services. Patients were counseled in a consistent and structured manner and allowed to make informed choices on which modern FP methods to use." ["summary"]=> string(1222) "The model was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. Existing clinical data was collected on 4,031 women of reproductive age who attended AMPATH clinics. Women attended clinics offering integrated FP and HIV services (n = 1,453) or clinics offering routine care in modules with integrated FP services (n = 2,578). The study found that integrating FP services into HIV care significantly increased the use of modern contraceptive methods, but no impact on pregnancy incidence. Among the integrated FP group, there was a 16.7% increase in incidence of condom use (p<0.001) [95% CI: 13.2 - 20.2%], 12.9% increase in incidence of FP use including condoms (p<0.001) [95% CI: 9.4 - 16.4%], 3.8% reduction in incidence of FP use excluding condoms (p<0.001) [95% CI: 1.9 - 5.6%], and 0.1% increase in incidence of pregnancies (p = 0.9) [95% CI: −1.9 - 2.1%]. The attributable risk of the incidence rate per 100 person-years of integrated FP and routine care for new condom use was 16.4 [95% CI: 11.9 - 21.0], new FP use including condoms was 13.5 [95% CI: 8.7 - 18.3], new FP use excluding condoms was −3.0 [95% CI: −4.6 - −1.4] and new cases of pregnancies was 1.2 [95% CI: −0.6 - 3.0]." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(2) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(399) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3420--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(233) " Shattuck, D.,Kerner, B.,Gilles, K.,Hartmann, M.,Ng'ombe, T.,Guest, G.. Encouraging contraceptive uptake by motivating men to communicate about family planning: the Malawi Male Motivator project. Am J Public Health. 2011. 101:1089-95" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093271/ " ["citation"]=> string(233) " Shattuck, D.,Kerner, B.,Gilles, K.,Hartmann, M.,Ng'ombe, T.,Guest, G.. Encouraging contraceptive uptake by motivating men to communicate about family planning: the Malawi Male Motivator project. Am J Public Health. 2011. 101:1089-95" ["intervention"]=> string(399) "The Malawi Male Motivator intervention aimed to promote and increase married men's involvement in contraceptive use through peer education. Trained "male motivators" -- married men chosen because of their use of and enthusiasm for modern contraceptive methods -- sought to positively influence their married male peers' FP attitudes, skills, and uptake, without pressuring them to use contraception." ["summary"]=> string(1423) "The Malawi Male Motivator intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. To be eligible for the study, men had to be at least 18 years old and married to or living with a female sexual partner younger than 25 years who was not currently pregnant or breastfeeding a child younger than six months; and had not been sterilized and used modern contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives, injectables, consistent condom or diaphragm use, or IUDs) during the previous three months. In total, 400 men were recruited for the study. All participants reported they were not using contraception before the intervention. After the intervention, 78% of the intervention group and 59% of the control group reported that they were using FP methods with their wives/female sexual partners. This finding represents a significant increase in contraceptive use within both groups (P<.01) and in the intervention group compared with the control group (P<.01). Of those men in the intervention group who reported FP uptake, 56% reported using condoms, and 41%, and 14% reported using injectables and the birth control pill, respectively. In the control group, condoms were the most frequently reported method (63%), followed by injectables (39%) and the birth control pill (11%). After the intervention, natural FP (i.e., the rhythm method), IUD, implants, diaphragms and male sterilization were each reported four times or fewer." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(267) } array(7) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(276) [6]=> int(284) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3421--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(290) " Stephenson, R.,Vwalika, B.,Greenberg, L.,Ahmed, Y.,Vwalika, C.,Chomba, E.,Kilembe, W.,Tichacek, A.,Allen, S.. A randomized controlled trial to promote long-term contraceptive use among HIV-serodiscordant and concordant positive couples in Zambia. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011. 20:567-74" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115412/ " ["citation"]=> string(290) " Stephenson, R.,Vwalika, B.,Greenberg, L.,Ahmed, Y.,Vwalika, C.,Chomba, E.,Kilembe, W.,Tichacek, A.,Allen, S.. A randomized controlled trial to promote long-term contraceptive use among HIV-serodiscordant and concordant positive couples in Zambia. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011. 20:567-74" ["intervention"]=> string(576) "This intervention aimed to expand contraceptive services available to HIV-positive or sero-discordant couples in Zambia. The intervention consisted of group video screenings. Depending on the intervention group, participants viewed videos on contraceptive methods, emphasizing long-acting reversible methods; motivational, future planning behaviors (e.g., will preparation, pregnancy prevention, etc.); or both. Following video screenings, facilitators animated discussions, delivered contraceptive counseling, and provided the option to adopt or switch contraceptive methods." ["summary"]=> string(2108) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. Eligible couples had to be cohabiting for at least 12 months, planning to stay in Lusaka for at least one year from the date of enrollment, and be age 18-45 for women and 18-65 for men. Both sero-discordant and concordant HIV-positive couples were eligible and there had to be no evidence of infertility and no medical contraindications to contraception. The trial found that of the 1,502 couples who received the intervention, only 21.5% (324) reported baseline use of a modern contraceptive method, primarily oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) (62.7%). After the intervention, nearly all (1,407) couples selected a new method or chose to continue a method (1,084 new adopters and 323 who continued method use or switched to a new method), including 92% of couples who were not already using a non-barrier method. The most popular method choices among new adopters were injectables (40.7%) and OCPs (40.5%). There was also significant uptake of the Norplant implant (12.2%), and a small percentage of couples chose an IUD (3.3%) or surgical sterilization (2.5%). The percent of couples using no contraception or condoms-only declined dramatically across all four study arms, and there were large gains in longer-acting method uptake across all arms. After the intervention, OCP use declined among baseline contraceptive switchers in all groups (83.5% before to 2.1% after), and use of Norplant (1.0% to 32.0%) and injectables (14.4% to 55.7%) increased. Among those who viewed both the methods and motivational video, the number using IUDs increased from 0 to 5 of 21 (23.8%), an increase not seen in the other groups. Couples in both the motivational and methods arm were significantly more likely to adopt injectables (relative risk ratio [RRR] 1.65, 95% CI 1.07-2.55) and IUD, Norplant, or tubal ligation (RRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.17-3.44) than to adopt OCPs. Couples in the methods arm were more likely to adopt injectables (RRR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.34) than OCPs. No other study arms were significantly associated with contraceptive method choice." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(291) } array(8) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3422--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(121) " Agha, S.,Meekers, D.. Impact of an advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan. Stud Fam Plann. 2010. 41:277-90" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(97) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/27896277.pdf?refreqid=excelsior:f207bc1bb5bc23c4fa1d4da5b2cdd548 " ["citation"]=> string(121) " Agha, S.,Meekers, D.. Impact of an advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan. Stud Fam Plann. 2010. 41:277-90" ["intervention"]=> string(274) "The Touch Condom campaign aimed to increase condom use in Pakistan. Touch condoms were presented as being a more deluxe and premium condom, and was advertised through private TV and radio spots, which also tied the condoms to the larger Greenstar social marketing franchise." ["summary"]=> string(1167) "The Touch campaign was evaluated using an FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study analyzed data drawn from two waves of the Advertising Impact Survey (AIS), a household panel survey of married men in Pakistan. For the purpose of the study, data was restricted to men living in urban areas whose wives are of reproductive age (15-49). The study found no change in the proportion of respondents who reported procuring condoms in the past month: about 19% of men at baseline and at follow-up reported having procured condoms at least once in the past month, and the mean number of times they were procured did not change. The greatest impact of the campaign among measures of condom use was on ever use. Ever use of condoms increased from 49% to 55%. Despite this increase in the proportion of married men who tried condoms at least once, no significant change was found in current condom use. Increases occurred, however, both in men’s use of a condom at last sex with their wives (from 19% to 22%) and in consistent condom use (from 13% to 16%). Contrary to the authors' expectations, the intention to use condoms declined (from 34% to 29%)." ["year"]=> int(2010) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(2) { [0]=> int(235) [1]=> int(403) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3423--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(364) " Doyle, A. M.,Ross, D. A.,Maganja, K.,Baisley, K.,Masesa, C.,Andreasen, A.,Plummer, M. L.,Obasi, A. I.,Weiss, H. A.,Kapiga, S.,Watson-Jones, D.,Changalucha, J.,Hayes, R. J.. Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial. PLoS Med. 2010. 7:e1000287" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(78) "http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000287 " ["citation"]=> string(364) " Doyle, A. M.,Ross, D. A.,Maganja, K.,Baisley, K.,Masesa, C.,Andreasen, A.,Plummer, M. L.,Obasi, A. I.,Weiss, H. A.,Kapiga, S.,Watson-Jones, D.,Changalucha, J.,Hayes, R. J.. Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial. PLoS Med. 2010. 7:e1000287" ["intervention"]=> string(425) "The MEMA kwa Vijana program in Tanzania aimed to reduce HIV/STI and unintended pregnancies among young people by providing youth with the knowledge and skills to delay sexual debut, reduce sexual risk-taking, increase their use of sexual health services and promote condom use. The program included a teacher-led school program, youth-friendly service provision, youth-led condom distribution, and community-based activities." ["summary"]=> string(537) "MEMA kwa Vijana was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. Participation in the long-term evaluation survey was restricted to young people who had attended at least one of school years 5-7 in the trial communities within the period 1999-2002. The trial found little evidence of increased reported condom or modern contraceptive use among men in the intervention communities, but stronger evidence of reported condom use with the most recent non-regular partner among females in intervention communities (aPR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.69)." ["year"]=> int(2010) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(264) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3424--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(185) " Ferreira, A. L. C. G.,Souza, A. I.,Lima, R. A.,Braga, C.. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil. Reproductive Health. 2010. 7" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2883537/ " ["citation"]=> string(185) " Ferreira, A. L. C. G.,Souza, A. I.,Lima, R. A.,Braga, C.. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil. Reproductive Health. 2010. 7" ["intervention"]=> string(371) "This intervention in Brazil aimed to improve postabortion care and contraceptive counseling. Counseling included information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Participants received their chosen method at no cost." ["summary"]=> string(523) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 186 low-income postabortion women in Recife, Brazil. The study found 97.4% of women who attended the FP clinic and received postabortion contraceptive counseling accepted the use of at least one contraceptive method. Half of the women chose injectables, while the second most chosen method was oral contraceptives (33.6%), followed by condoms (15.1%). Only one woman chose an IUD." ["year"]=> int(2010) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3425--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(200) " Lutalo, T.,Kigozi, G.,Kimera, E.,Serwadda, D.,Wawer, M. J.,Zabin, L. S.,Gray, R. H.. A randomized community trial of enhanced family planning outreach in Rakai, Uganda. Stud Fam Plann. 2010. 41:55-60" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(99) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/25681340.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3Aa959b96f42a8204c2aa31d4c032bc2fa " ["citation"]=> string(200) " Lutalo, T.,Kigozi, G.,Kimera, E.,Serwadda, D.,Wawer, M. J.,Zabin, L. S.,Gray, R. H.. A randomized community trial of enhanced family planning outreach in Rakai, Uganda. Stud Fam Plann. 2010. 41:55-60" ["intervention"]=> string(531) "This intervention, implemented in Uganda, aimed to enhance FP outreach and service availability in six intervention communities. Community-identified outreach volunteers, including service delivery providers, opinion leaders, satisfied FP users and trained birth attendants received FP education, counseling, and service provision training before conducting outreach. Other intervention activities included community meetings, local drama/dance group performances, in-home counseling sessions, video displays and printed materials." ["summary"]=> string(1441) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. Eleven study clusters were selected and randomly assigned to receive either the intervention (six clusters) or to act as the control (five clusters). All consenting adults age 15-49 years within households in the clusters were interviewed. The trial found modern contraceptive use in both study arms increased from baseline to follow-up. At follow-up, however, pill use alone was significantly higher in the intervention group (6.2%) than in the control group (4.0%; p = 0.001), and combined use of the pill and injectables was significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control group (23.2% versus 19.9%; p = 0.009). Injectable contraceptive use increased in both the intervention and the control groups, and no significant difference was observed between the two in injectable use during follow-up (p = 0.36). No significant differentials were found between study arms at follow-up in men’s reported use of condoms; their condom use increased moderately over time in both study arms (the increase was statistically significant only for the intervention group, however). The adjusted odds of hormonal contraceptive use at follow-up increased in the overall intervention versus the control groups (AOR = 1.33; p = 0.03), as well as in intervention groups with earlier FP (AOR = 1.36; p = 0.03), and for later intervention groups (AOR = 1.30; p = 0.09)." ["year"]=> int(2010) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(268) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(296) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3426--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(217) " McCarraher, D. R.,Chen-Mok, M.,Oronoz, A. S.,Brito-Anderson, S.,Grey, T.,Tucker, H.,Bailey, P. E.. Meeting the needs of adolescent post-abortion care patients in the Dominican Republic. J Biosoc Sci. 2010. 42:493-509" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(195) "https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-biosocial-science/article/meeting-the-needs-of-adolescent-postabortion-care-patients-in-the-dominican-republic/DDA3374E497A04D0D5AD80ABC3AA40ED " ["citation"]=> string(217) " McCarraher, D. R.,Chen-Mok, M.,Oronoz, A. S.,Brito-Anderson, S.,Grey, T.,Tucker, H.,Bailey, P. E.. Meeting the needs of adolescent post-abortion care patients in the Dominican Republic. J Biosoc Sci. 2010. 42:493-509" ["intervention"]=> string(418) "This program, implemented in the Dominican Republic, aimed to improve the counseling and contraceptive uptake of postabortion care (PAC) clients, including adolescents, in four hospitals not routinely offering PAC services. The program included provider training, and the development of adolescent-focused information, education and communication materials; a provider counseling guide; a poster and a client brochure." ["summary"]=> string(931) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. In total, 140 adolescents aged 12-19 and 134 older PAC patients aged 20-35 accessing PAC services at the study sites were interviewed. The study found that about 42% (95% CI: 36-48%) of patients wishing to delay pregnancy were discharged with a contraceptive method; 40% of adolescents (95% CI: 32-48%) and 45% of older women (95% CI: 36-54%) left hospital with a method. This may represent a conservative estimate, as some patients were interviewed well before they were discharged (11% of adolescents and 12% of older women). Of adolescents who received a method, the majority received an injectable. Older women most often received an injectable or oral contraceptive pills. Twelve percent of older women were discharged with appointments for sterilization. The study also measured quality/skill of provider communication with clients." ["year"]=> int(2010) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(327) } array(6) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(281) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(328) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) [2]=> int(394) [3]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3427--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(202) " Subramanian, L.,Cisek, C.,Kanlisi, N.,Pile, J. M.. The Ghana vasectomy initiative: Facilitating client-provider communication on no-scalpel vasectomy. Patient Education and Counseling. 2010. 81:374-380" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0738399110002934 " ["citation"]=> string(202) " Subramanian, L.,Cisek, C.,Kanlisi, N.,Pile, J. M.. The Ghana vasectomy initiative: Facilitating client-provider communication on no-scalpel vasectomy. Patient Education and Counseling. 2010. 81:374-380" ["intervention"]=> string(674) "The objective of this project in Ghana was to improve client-provider communication and acceptance of non-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). The intervention included training for all clinic staff -- from physicians and nurses to receptionists and guards-- to deliver client-centered, "male friendly" services and included sessions on the NSV procedure, counseling and referral skills, client satisfaction and informed choice, delivering quality care and engaging all staff in the process. Health promotion activities for men themselves included television and radio spots, outreach activities for men, brochure and poster distribution and information disseminated through newspapers." ["summary"]=> string(1021) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure assumed study design. The client-provider communication was assessed via a mystery client study (n = 6). Knowledge and acceptance of non-surgical vasectomy (NSV) among potential clients were assessed with baseline and endline surveys (n = 200, each) in 2003-2004 and three follow-up panel surveys in 2008 (n = 240, each). The study found that NSV uptake increased three-fold at intervention facilities, from 26 NSV procedures in 2003 to 83 procedures in 2004. Once the intervention period ended, the uptake of NSV services decreased. In late 2007, when refresher trainings for existing providers and clinical trainings for new providers were conducted, NSV services increased again slightly. When health promotion activities were repeated in early 2008, the number of NSV procedures increased almost three-fold, from 18 procedures in 2007 to 53 procedures in 2008. After the health promotion activities ended in late 2008, NSV uptake declined again." ["year"]=> int(2010) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(287) } array(1) { [0]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3428--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(241) " Villarruel, A. M.,Zhou, Y.,Gallegos, E. C.,Ronis, D. L.. Examining long-term effects of Cuídate-a sexual risk reduction program in Mexican youth. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2010. 27:345-351" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(52) "http://www.scielosp.org/pdf/rpsp/v27n5/a04v27n5.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(241) " Villarruel, A. M.,Zhou, Y.,Gallegos, E. C.,Ronis, D. L.. Examining long-term effects of Cuídate-a sexual risk reduction program in Mexican youth. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2010. 27:345-351" ["intervention"]=> string(857) "The “¡Cuídate! Promueve tu Salud” (“Take Care of Yourself! Promote Your Health”), sexual health intervention was implemented with adolescents and one of their parents in selected high schools in Mexico to promote safer sexual behavior among youth. Participating parents and adolescents in small groups of either all parents or all adolescents completed a six-hour curriculum. The adolescent component (modified from a program tested among Latino youth in the USA) used music, role-play and included information about pregnancy and contraceptive use. The parent component focused more on parent-adolescent general and sex communication. Control adolescent and parent groups received guidance on healthy behaviors such as eating a healthy diet and getting sufficient exercise and sleep, as well as information to deter smoking, alcohol and drug use." ["summary"]=> string(795) "The Cuídate Program was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial consisted of a 48-month follow-up of participated in the original randomized control trial in 2008. A total of 708 adolescents (85% of those who participated in the original study, n= 829) completed the 48-month follow-up: 394 adolescents (86.8%) in the Cuídate group and 314 adolescents (83.7%) in the control group. The trial found that adolescents who participated in the Cuídate program were more likely to be older at first sex (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 0.41-2.12; p<0.05), to use condoms at first sex (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69; p<0.05), or use some other type of contraception at first sex (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.00-2.33; p<0.05) than those in the control group. Gender did not moderate any intervention effects." ["year"]=> int(2010) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(329) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(1) { [0]=> int(264) } array(2) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(321) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3429--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(187) " Warren, C.,Mwangi, A.,Oweya, E.,Kamunya, R.,Koskei, N.. Safeguarding maternal and newborn health: improving the quality of postnatal care in Kenya. Int J Qual Health Care. 2010. 22:24-30" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(107) "https://academic.oup.com/intqhc/article/22/1/24/1800390/Safeguarding-maternal-and-newborn-health-improving " ["citation"]=> string(187) " Warren, C.,Mwangi, A.,Oweya, E.,Kamunya, R.,Koskei, N.. Safeguarding maternal and newborn health: improving the quality of postnatal care in Kenya. Int J Qual Health Care. 2010. 22:24-30" ["intervention"]=> string(439) "This Kenya-based intervention aimed to improve post-natal care quality by raising provider awareness for the needs of these services, and introducing and training providers on a comprehensive postnatal care package and supporting job aid (checklist). The package included a series of three postpartum client assessments, and incorporated relevant maternal and newborn healthcare services into the postnatal period, including postpartum FP." ["summary"]=> string(1468) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. All women attending for postnatal services during the data collection period were approached and requested for permission to observe their consultation. Observations of client-provider interactions were carried out concurrently in maternity and maternal and child health/FP units with cross-sectional samples of women for each category: at 48 hours (post-intervention only (n = 29), two weeks (post-intervention only (n =64)) and six weeks (pre-intervention (n = 86) and post-intervention (n = 70)). The majority of women (n= 64) chose a FP method (83%) at the two-week consultation. At the two-week consultations, only 16% of the women observed were not using any form of FP. Two-thirds of those practicing FP at two weeks were using the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), although a few (4%) used a condom as well as LAM. Other methods used at two weeks included implants (4%), vasectomy (2%) and condoms (4%). There was a significant increase of women choosing a FP method from 35% (n= 86) before the intervention to 63% (n= 70) at six weeks. The lower level of FP uptake at the six-week visit compared to the two-week visit (63% vs. 84%) is probably because many women attending the six-week consultation had already received a FP method before leaving the health facility after birth or at the two-week visit. The evaluation also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2010) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(5) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(283) [4]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) [2]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3430--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(206) " Andrade, H. H.,Mello, M. B.,Sousa, M. H.,Makuch, M. Y.,Bertoni, N.,Faundes, A.. Changes in sexual behavior following a sex education program in Brazilian public schools. Cad Saude Publica. 2009. 25:1168-76" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(102) "http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2009000500023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en " ["citation"]=> string(206) " Andrade, H. H.,Mello, M. B.,Sousa, M. H.,Makuch, M. Y.,Bertoni, N.,Faundes, A.. Changes in sexual behavior following a sex education program in Brazilian public schools. Cad Saude Publica. 2009. 25:1168-76" ["intervention"]=> string(508) "The PEAS Belgo program aimed to develop quality, rights-based sex education for adolescents in selected public schools in Brazil. One of its primary goals was to help reduce unplanned pregnancies and prevent STIs through the adoption of responsible sexual behaviors, including increased condom and contraceptive use. Education and health professionals were trained, and then helped adolescents elaborate program activities, including radio programs, plays, school newspapers, workshops and research projects." ["summary"]=> string(1559) "The PEAS Belgo program was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The evaluation involved around 9,000 adolescents (Grades 6 -8) enrolled at 20 public schools in four municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. Comparison schools were chosen based on similar socioeconomic background of the students and geographical proximity to the program schools. The study found the proportion of students using condoms and modern contraception was 10 or more percentage points higher following the intervention in the schools participating in the program, while there was virtually no difference over time in the comparison schools. The multiple logistic regression analysis also showed that the use of condoms consistently with a casual partner increased more than two-fold after the intervention among program students, following control for group, time and another 17 possible confounding variables. Although an 82% increase in the odds ratio for consistent condom use with a steady partner was also observed, the increase did not reach statistical significance at the level of 5%. On the other hand, participation in program activities did lead to a 68% increase in modern contraceptive use by students at last intercourse. The variable sex was not found to be statistically significant in any of these three regression analyses. The dummy variable for adolescents’ age, however, was significant only for modern contraceptive use, with older adolescents showing an increase in contraceptive use in relation to younger ones (OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01-1.91)." ["year"]=> int(2009) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(6) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(264) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3431--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(155) " Ceylan, A.,Ertem, M.,Saka, G.,Akdeniz, N.. Post abortion family planning counseling as a tool to increase contraception use. BMC Public Health. 2009. 9:20" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(74) "https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-9-20 " ["citation"]=> string(155) " Ceylan, A.,Ertem, M.,Saka, G.,Akdeniz, N.. Post abortion family planning counseling as a tool to increase contraception use. BMC Public Health. 2009. 9:20" ["intervention"]=> string(351) "This intervention, implemented in Turkey, delivered FP and contraceptive counseling and services to women postabortion. Physicians and nurses were trained on key counseling skills (interpersonal and non-judgmental communication, active listening, paraphrasing clients' comments, etc.) and conducted postabortion counseling sessions with their clients." ["summary"]=> string(801) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The records of 322 women who underwent an induced abortion and who had been provided postabortion counseling were contacted one year after the abortion date and invited to the clinic. A total of 237 women were reached, followed and interviewed. The study found that before an induced abortion was performed, the total contraception usage (modern methods + traditional methods) rate was 44.7% . This rate increased to 80.1% at the end of one year, with 75.9% of women using a modern contraceptive method. The modern method usage rate increased 62.0%. The major increase was in IUD use; no women used the IUD before induced abortion. A total of 124 (52.3%) women had an IUD one year after an induced abortion." ["year"]=> int(2009) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(330) } array(8) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3432--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(157) " Erulkar, A. S.,Muthengi, E.. Evaluation of Berhane Hewan: a program to delay child marriage in rural Ethiopia. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2009. 35:6-14" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(119) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2009/03/evaluation-berhane-hewan-program-delay-child-marriage-rural-ethiopia " ["citation"]=> string(157) " Erulkar, A. S.,Muthengi, E.. Evaluation of Berhane Hewan: a program to delay child marriage in rural Ethiopia. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2009. 35:6-14" ["intervention"]=> string(410) "The Berhane Hewan program in Ethiopia aimed to reduce the prevalence of forced child marriage and support those who are already married. This was approached through "girls' groups" and mentoring, promoting discussion of reproductive health and FP, reproductive health service referrals, supporting girls to continue or enroll in school or other educational activities, and community engagement and discussions." ["summary"]=> string(1527) "The Berhane Hewan Program was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. A total of 460 respondents completed the baseline survey - 188 girls from the intervention village and 272 girls from the control village. The endline sample included 462 girls from the intervention village and 464 from the control village. Fewer girls were included at baseline because the program did not take place in two other villages, as had been anticipated. The trial found that among sexually experienced girls (only two of whom had never married), there were no differences in contraceptive use between those at the intervention village and those at the control village at baseline. Thirty-five percent of girls at the intervention village reported having used the pill, another 35% had used the injectable and 5% had used condoms; 43% had ever used any method. By the end of the trial, higher proportions of girls at the intervention village than of those at the control village reported having ever used the injectable (66% vs. 42%) or any method (74% vs. 45%). Logistic regression analysis found no significant differences in ever-use of contraceptives between the groups at baseline, although younger girls had lowered odds of such use (OR, 0.9) and girls with higher socioeconomic status or more schooling had elevated odds of use (OR, 1.2 and OR, 1.6, respectively). By the end of the intervention, however, girls at the intervention village were more likely than girls from the control village to have used contraceptives (OR, 2.9)." ["year"]=> int(2009) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(5) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(224) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3433--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(248) " Exner, T. M.,Mantell, J. E.,Adeokun, L. A.,Udoh, I. A.,Ladipo, O. A.,Delano, G. E.,Faleye, J.,Akinpelu, K.. Mobilizing men as partners: the results of an intervention to increase dual protection among Nigerian men. Health Educ Res. 2009. 24:846-54" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2738958/ " ["citation"]=> string(248) " Exner, T. M.,Mantell, J. E.,Adeokun, L. A.,Udoh, I. A.,Ladipo, O. A.,Delano, G. E.,Faleye, J.,Akinpelu, K.. Mobilizing men as partners: the results of an intervention to increase dual protection among Nigerian men. Health Educ Res. 2009. 24:846-54" ["intervention"]=> string(394) "This intervention aimed to help men in Nigeria reduce their risk of HIV, other STIs and unintended pregnancy by implementing monthly, group-based HIV/STI prevention sessions. The sessions used videos, discussion, role play, songs, stories, games, risk assessment and skill-building sessions, among other techniques, to motivate men to have safer sex and disseminate the dual-protection message." ["summary"]=> string(1031) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. Men were evaluated at baseline and three-month post-intervention, with 149 men assigned to the intervention group and 132 to the control group. The total follow-up rate was 66%, with 105 interventions (70%) and 80 comparison men (61%) completing both baseline and follow-up interviews. The trial found that the intervention significantly affected sexual risk behavior. Compared with men in the control group, those in the intervention group had one-third the odds of engaging in unprotected sex in the prior three months and were approximately four times more likely to report condom use at last vaginal intercourse with their main partner. They also had approximately a third lower odds of refusing condom use with a main partner and reported significantly fewer unprotected vaginal intercourse occasions. The proportion of men in the intervention group and men in the control group with non-main partners in the prior three months did not differ significantly." ["year"]=> int(2009) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(244) [2]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3434--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(216) " Gillespie, D.,Bradley, H.,Woldegiorgis, M.,Kidanu, A.,Karklins, S.. Integrating family planning into Ethiopian voluntary testing and counseling programmes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2009. 87:866-870" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(90) "http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S0042-96862009001100016&script=sci_arttext&tlng=es " ["citation"]=> string(216) " Gillespie, D.,Bradley, H.,Woldegiorgis, M.,Kidanu, A.,Karklins, S.. Integrating family planning into Ethiopian voluntary testing and counseling programmes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2009. 87:866-870" ["intervention"]=> string(459) "This intervention aimed to increase access to FP information and services in Ethiopia by integrating FP with HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services in semi-urban hospitals and health centers. Activities included health and administrative sensitization; training on FP benefits, contraceptive options and side effects; counseling messages and protocols specifically for VCT clients; and various contraceptive method distribution or administration." ["summary"]=> string(774) "The intervention was evaluated using an FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study included interviews with 4,019 VCT clients before the integration of FP services and 4,027 different clients after FP services were introduced. Clients attended eight public VCT facilities in the Oromia region, Ethiopia. The study found that, while overall contraceptive uptake was low, there were significant improvements in FP distribution for women, as almost none of the VCT clients received contraceptive methods, including condoms, at baseline. The largely sexually inactive client population and the percentage of sexually active clients who were already using contraceptives are likely explanations for the low number of clients accepting contraceptive methods." ["year"]=> int(2009) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3435--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(221) " Karim, A. M.,Williams, T.,Patykewich, L.,Ali, D.,Colvin, C. E.,Posner, J.,Rutaremwa, G.. The impact of the African Youth Alliance program on the sexual behavior of young people in Uganda. Stud Fam Plann. 2009. 40:289-306" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2009.00212.x/full " ["citation"]=> string(221) " Karim, A. M.,Williams, T.,Patykewich, L.,Ali, D.,Colvin, C. E.,Posner, J.,Rutaremwa, G.. The impact of the African Youth Alliance program on the sexual behavior of young people in Uganda. Stud Fam Plann. 2009. 40:289-306" ["intervention"]=> string(746) "The African Youth Alliance (AYA) program aimed to improve the policy and local enabling environment for and coordination of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programs in Uganda. Additional program goals were to increase youth's technical and organizational capacity to sustain SRH programs, increase youth's SRH service use, institutionalize an SRH service curriculum in the Ministry of Health's in-service provider training, and improve youth's knowledge, skills, norms and positive attitudes toward adoption of safer sex practices. Intervention activities included: mass media campaigns, outreach, community mobilization, advocacy, peer service provision, educational entertainment activities and in- and out-of-school activities." ["summary"]=> string(1137) "AYA was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study limited the target population to 17-22 year-olds who were unmarried or who had been married within the past two years. The study found that condom use at last sex was significantly higher among those who reported they were exposed to AYA (54% for both sexes), compared with those who reported they were not exposed (27% among females and 42% among males). Similarly, contraceptive use during last sex was also higher among those who were exposed to AYA (59% among females and 61% among males), compared with those who were not exposed (34% among females and 46% among males). The expected effect of AYA on the behavior "always use condom with current partner" is observed only for females, however. Thirty-five percent of the females who were exposed to AYA report that they always use a condom with their current partner, which is about 20 percentage points higher than the proportion of those who were not exposed to AYA. No other effects of AYA on sexual behaviors among young people were observed in the analysis of the self-reported exposure." ["year"]=> int(2009) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(268) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(228) [3]=> int(390) [4]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3436--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(233) " Kim, J. C.,Askew, I.,Muvhango, L.,Dwane, N.,Abramsky, T.,Jan, S.,Ntlemo, E.,Chege, J.,Watts, C.. Comprehensive care and HIV prophylaxis after sexual assault in rural South Africa: the Refentse intervention study. Bmj. 2009. 338:b515" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b515.long " ["citation"]=> string(233) " Kim, J. C.,Askew, I.,Muvhango, L.,Dwane, N.,Abramsky, T.,Jan, S.,Ntlemo, E.,Chege, J.,Watts, C.. Comprehensive care and HIV prophylaxis after sexual assault in rural South Africa: the Refentse intervention study. Bmj. 2009. 338:b515" ["intervention"]=> string(699) "The South Africa Refentse intervention aimed to assure quality care to women who had recently experienced sexual assault, including the provision of services such as HIV, STI and pregnancy testing, and administration of relevant drugs and emergency contraception. The project, implemented in one hospital, streamlined and consolidated post-rape care, trained healthcare workers and providers on post-rape care and management, and launched community awareness campaigns about sexual violence, HIV post-exposure prophylaxis, and the rape care services available at the hospital. The campaign employed individual and group interpersonal communication, advocacy and printed pamphlets to raise awareness." ["summary"]=> string(446) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study involved a review of 334 hospital charts and interviews with 109 patients who recorded rape cases in the outpatient department’s rape register, as well as interviews with 16 service providers who provide post-rape care. The study found that emergency contraception use rose from 71 out of 109 patients (65%) to 87 out of 120 patients (73%)." ["year"]=> int(2009) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(260) } array(1) { [0]=> int(303) } array(1) { [0]=> int(311) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(404) [2]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3437--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(222) " Ngure, K.,Heffron, R.,Mugo, N.,Irungu, E.,Celum, C.,Baeten, J. M.. Successful increase in contraceptive uptake among Kenyan HIV-1-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an HIV-1 prevention trial. Aids. 2009. 23 Suppl 1:S89-95" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818115/ " ["citation"]=> string(222) " Ngure, K.,Heffron, R.,Mugo, N.,Irungu, E.,Celum, C.,Baeten, J. M.. Successful increase in contraceptive uptake among Kenyan HIV-1-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an HIV-1 prevention trial. Aids. 2009. 23 Suppl 1:S89-95" ["intervention"]=> string(301) "This intervention, implemented in Kenya, set out to increase contraceptive use among HIV sero-discordant couples enrolled in an HIV-1 prevention trial. Contraceptive use was promoted through staff training activities, couples FP sessions and free, on-site hormonal contraception provision for clients." ["summary"]=> string(2239) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective/pre-post, exposure-known study design. It was implemented in Thika, Kenya. Couples were eligible to participate in the evaluation if they reported ≥3 episodes of vaginal intercourse during the three months prior to enrollment. HIV-1 seropositive partners were ≥18 years of age, seropositive for HSV-2, had a CD4 count ≥250 cells/mm3 and no history of AIDS-defining conditions, and were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV-1 seronegative partners were ≥18 years of age. Between June 2006 and May 2007, HIV-1 seropositive women in Thika used non-condom contraception at 31.5% of visits, while after June 2007, use rose to 64.7% of all visits (OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.0-5.3). Among HIV-1 seronegative women in Thika, there was also a significant increase in use of non-condom methods of contraception, from 28.6% of visits prior to June 2007 to 46.7% of visits after June 2007 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.5). The most common contraceptive method used was injectable methods (reported at 31.7% of visits by HIV-1 seropositive women and 23.2% of visits by HIV-1 seronegative women) followed by oral methods (7.2% and 9.2%, respectively), tubal ligation or other surgical procedure (6.8% and 5.0%), implants (5.8% and 1.3%), and IUDs (2.2% and 2.4%). In the other sites, non-condom contraceptive use did not change substantially in the time periods before and after June 2007. In these sites, among HIV-1 seropositive women, contraceptive use increased from 15.6% to 22.3% of visits (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.9), while among HIV-1 seronegative women, used decreased slightly, from 13.6% to 12.7% of visits (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.3). Thus, after June 2007, non-condom contraceptive use was substantially higher among HIV-1 seropositive women from Thika (64.7%) compared with the other Kenyan sites (22.3%) (OR 6.4, 95% CI 4.6-8.9). Similarly, after June 2007, non-condom contraceptive use among HIV-1 seronegative women was higher at Thika (46.7%) than at the other at other sites (12.7%) (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.4-10.7). Reported condom use was high throughout the entire study follow-up period for both HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative women from all sites (87.8% and 91.4% of sex acts, respectively)." ["year"]=> int(2009) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3438--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(196) " Aderibigbe, S. A.,Araoye, M. O.. Effect of health education on sexual behaviour of students of public secondary schools in Ilorin, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2008. 24:33-41" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(1) " " ["citation"]=> string(196) " Aderibigbe, S. A.,Araoye, M. O.. Effect of health education on sexual behaviour of students of public secondary schools in Ilorin, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2008. 24:33-41" ["intervention"]=> string(586) "The aim of this intervention in Nigeria was to provide and gauge the effect of health education on contraceptive use among in-school adolescents. In the intervention stage, respondents in the study group were given health education sessions consisting of lectures, film show and information, education and communication materials. After three months in the post-intervention stage, the same questionnaire used in the pre-intervention stage was administered again to the study and control groups to determine the effect of the health education on contraceptive use among the study group." ["summary"]=> string(834) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective study design. The study used multistage sampling to select 521 students from six public secondary schools (three schools for study and three schools for control). A total of 521 students were interviewed at baseline (n = 262 intervention group, n = 259 control group) and 512 students were interviewed at endline (n = 257 intervention group, n = 255 control group). The study found that among students who were sexually active in the preceding three months, consistent condom use increased from 48.6% at baseline to 85.1% post-intervention. This percentage increased from 50% to 51.8% in the control group. There was a significant increase in the proportion of sexually active respondents in the intervention group that consistently used condoms during sexual intercourse (p<0.05)." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(3) { [0]=> int(264) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3439--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(181) " Babalola, S.,Folda, L.,Babayaro, H.. The effects of a communication program on contraceptive ideation and use among young women in northern Nigeria. Stud Fam Plann. 2008. 39:211-20" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(75) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2008.168.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(181) " Babalola, S.,Folda, L.,Babayaro, H.. The effects of a communication program on contraceptive ideation and use among young women in northern Nigeria. Stud Fam Plann. 2008. 39:211-20" ["intervention"]=> string(432) "The Ku Surara! Program was designed to encourage young people in Northern Nigeria to increase positive health-seeking behaviors and use modern FP methods to avoid unwanted pregnancy. The project included provider FP counseling training, and mass media demand generation activities for youth. These included radio shows and listener clubs, peer education, youth outreach and community mobilization activities, videos and print media." ["summary"]=> string(1418) "The Ku Saurara! Program was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. The study analyzed data from a 2005 sample survey among young men and women aged 15 to 24 living in two northern states, Bauchi and Kano. A total of 3,844 individuals (1,924 males and 1,920 females) were interviewed during the survey. The study found that campaign exposure led to a 47% increase in the probability of having a high level of contraceptive ideation. In addition, campaign exposure had a slight effect on contraceptive use, increasing the probability by 7%. Ideation was the strongest determinant of contraceptive use. A high level of contraceptive ideation increased the probability of contraceptive use by 18%. The campaign was significantly associated with greater contraceptive ideation and, to a limited extent, with higher contraceptive use. The probability of demonstrating a high level of contraceptive ideation increases with age. Post-primary education and high socioeconomic status are also associated with an increased level of ideation. In addition to contraceptive ideation, the other significant predictors of contraceptive use are current age, marital status, and use of condom at first sex. The results indicate that being single and using a condom at first sex increase the probability of contraceptive use. Similarly, the probability of using contraceptives tends to increase with age." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3440--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(228) " Garcia, S. G.,Becker, D.,Martinez de Castro, M.,Paz, F.,Diaz Olavarrieta, C.. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Studies in Family Planning. 2008. 39:199-210" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(75) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2008.167.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(228) " Garcia, S. G.,Becker, D.,Martinez de Castro, M.,Paz, F.,Diaz Olavarrieta, C.. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Studies in Family Planning. 2008. 39:199-210" ["intervention"]=> string(662) "The intervention, implemented in Mexico, aimed to reduce unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions by increasing knowledge of and access to emergency contraception (EC). The five-month intervention consisted of a worksite educational program at three maquiladoras (foreign-owned factories that manufacture export goods) along the Mexico-United States border. Female factory workers were provided with educational talks on ECs and other contraceptive methods, pamphlets on ECs, and kits with EC pills (containing one course of EC, an informational inserts on ECs and condoms). Informational posters on EC were placed in the maquiladora’s clinic and cafeteria." ["summary"]=> string(674) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. Data was collected using baseline and endline surveys, with a convenience sample of female maquiladora workers in the three factories. A total of 240 female maquiladora workers participated in the baseline survey and 228 participated in the endline survey, 77 of the female maquiladora workers (32%) participated in both surveys. The study found that, among women who were sexually active in the last year but who were not current users of highly effective contraceptive methods (implants, IUD, tubal ligation), EC use increased from 0% at baseline to 6% at endline (p < 0.05)." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(329) } array(8) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(303) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3441--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(167) " Ghule, M.,Donta, B.. Sexual behaviour of rural college youth in Maharashtra, India: an intervention study. Journal of Reproduction and Contraception. 2008. 19:167-189" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001784408600206 " ["citation"]=> string(167) " Ghule, M.,Donta, B.. Sexual behaviour of rural college youth in Maharashtra, India: an intervention study. Journal of Reproduction and Contraception. 2008. 19:167-189" ["intervention"]=> string(510) "This intervention in India aimed to promote healthy sexual behavior and condom use among male and female rural college youth in India. Activities were carried out in colleges and at rural hospital/primary health centers, and included training teachers and youth volunteers to disseminate information and provide information, education and communication (IEC) to youth, including counseling services, interpersonal meetings, audio-visual aids, posters, flip charts, street plays and health referrals to clinics." ["summary"]=> string(796) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample included 1,500 college students age 15-24 years (800 males and 700 females) at baseline and 1,953 (1,022 males and 931 females) at endline. The students were from eight colleges in Thane district of Maharashtra; students from four colleges received the intervention (intervention group) and students from four colleges did not (control group). The trial found a significant improvement in the usage of condoms during sexual intercourse among the intervention group at endline. Among male students, 67.8% in the intervention group reported using condoms compared to 55% in the control group. Among female students, 72.7% in the intervention group reported using condoms compared with 45.5% in the control group." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(244) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(224) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3442--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(194) " Oliva, G. S.,de Mendonca, R. G.,Sant'Anna, M. J.,Passarelli, M. L.,Coates, V.,Omar, H. A.. Integral care for pregnant adolescents: impact on offspring. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2008. 20:537-46" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(93) "https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijamh.2008.20.4/ijamh.2008.20.4.537/ijamh.2008.20.4.537.xml " ["citation"]=> string(194) " Oliva, G. S.,de Mendonca, R. G.,Sant'Anna, M. J.,Passarelli, M. L.,Coates, V.,Omar, H. A.. Integral care for pregnant adolescents: impact on offspring. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2008. 20:537-46" ["intervention"]=> string(480) "The Integral Care for Pregnant Adolescents (ICPA) intervention, implemented in Brazil, aimed to reduce physical, social and psychological risk factors in pregnant and parenting teenagers in the hopes of also assuring better care for the women's babies and children. The program consisted of recurring group meetings with pregnant and parenting mothers and couples, which covered topics such as self-esteem, overall health, baby care, breastfeeding and preventing repeat pregnancy." ["summary"]=> string(505) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort, pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study involved 50 adolescent mothers attended by the ICPA, where the participants took part in meetings with a multi-professional group throughout pregnancy and beyond. The study found that only 4% of the adolescents planned to get pregnant, but only 60.8% reported using methods of contraception. During ICPA follow-up, a second pregnancy occurred in only 2%, whereas 96% reported using contraceptives." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3443--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(208) " Rasch, V.,Yambesi, F.,Massawe, S.. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008. 8:32" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(81) "https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-8-32 " ["citation"]=> string(208) " Rasch, V.,Yambesi, F.,Massawe, S.. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008. 8:32" ["intervention"]=> string(293) "This hospital-based intervention's goal was to deliver and gauge acceptance of contraceptive services to women who had recently had an unsafely induced abortion in Tanzania. Women were counselled about contraception and how to avoid HIV infection, and then were offered contraceptive services." ["summary"]=> string(1801) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. Data was collected among women who attended Temeke Municipal Hospital in Dar es Salaam with an abortion-related diagnosis. A total of 824 women were diagnosed as having abortion complications and 760 of these women were approached and interviewed. A woman was classified as having had an unsafe abortion if she revealed that she has had an unwanted pregnancy, which she had terminated by an abortion. In all, 392 women (52%) were classified as having had unsafe abortions and were thus included in the study. The study found that of the 392 women who had experienced an unsafe abortion and were offered contraceptive counseling and service, 347 (89%) accepted the service offered and left the ward with a contraceptive method according to their choosing. Before the abortion, 18% of the married women had ever used hormonal contraception; the same applied for 14% of the single women. Twelve months after the abortion, the proportion of women who stated they were using oral contraception or medroxyprogesterone injections had increased significantly among both married and single women. Seventy-seven percent of married women and 84% of single women stated they were using hormonal contraception when interviewed 12 months after the abortion. In relation to the postabortion contraceptive services offered, it was stressed that condom use also was a means to avoid HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Among single women, a significantly higher proportion stated they had used condoms more than half of the times they had had intercourse when interviewed 12 months after the abortion in comparison with before the abortion, whereas no significant difference in condom use was found among married women." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(4) { [0]=> int(296) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3444--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(169) " Saeed, G. A.,Fakhar, S.,Rahim, F.,Tabassum, S.. Change in trend of contraceptive uptake - effect of educational leaflets and counseling. Contraception. 2008. 77:377-381" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010782408000590 " ["citation"]=> string(169) " Saeed, G. A.,Fakhar, S.,Rahim, F.,Tabassum, S.. Change in trend of contraceptive uptake - effect of educational leaflets and counseling. Contraception. 2008. 77:377-381" ["intervention"]=> string(367) "This intervention in Pakistan was designed to increase postpartum women's knowledge and use of contraception. Women receiving the intervention did so in the presence of her husband or a close family member. The intervention consisted of an interactive, informal counseling session on contraceptive methods and a one-page leaflet on contraceptive methods to take home." ["summary"]=> string(1127) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial sample included 600 women who were admitted to the Shifa International Hospital labor ward after delivery, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, mode of delivery or fetal outcome. Women were randomized into an intervention or control group. Both groups were asked or advised to return for a follow-up visit. The trial found that, at the follow-up visit (8-12 weeks postpartum), 170 women (56.9%) in the intervention group had started using contraceptives, whereas 129 (43.1%) had decided to start contraceptive use in the next six months. The predominant contraceptive user was the females (n=212, 70.9%), and the most popular method chosen was oral contraceptive pills (n=111, 37.1%). In the control group, 19 (6.3%) women had started contraceptive use, whereas 153 (50.8%) had decided to start contraception in the next six months, and 129 (42.8%) women were still undecided. The main contraceptive user was the male partner (n=117, 38.8%), and the most common method used was coitus interruptus (n=62, 36.3%), followed by condoms (n=55, 31.9%)." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3445--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(267) " Shetty, A. K.,Marangwanda, C.,Stranix-Chibanda, L.,Chandisarewa, W.,Chirapa, E.,Mahomva, A.,Miller, A.,Simoyi, M.,Maldonado, Y.. The feasibility of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV using peer counselors in Zimbabwe. AIDS Research & Therapy. 2008. 5:1-8" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(57) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1742-6405-5-17 " ["citation"]=> string(267) " Shetty, A. K.,Marangwanda, C.,Stranix-Chibanda, L.,Chandisarewa, W.,Chirapa, E.,Mahomva, A.,Miller, A.,Simoyi, M.,Maldonado, Y.. The feasibility of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV using peer counselors in Zimbabwe. AIDS Research & Therapy. 2008. 5:1-8" ["intervention"]=> string(456) "The intervention, implemented in Zimbabwe, aimed to integrate a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program into routine prenatal care in urban Zimbabwe to increase utilization of PMTCT services and reduce vertical transmission from mother-to-child. The intervention employed training of peer counselors to deliver a nevirapine-based PMTCT program, counseling, community mobilization, and information, education and communication activities." ["summary"]=> string(198) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study found that 59% of HIV-infected women opted for contraceptive options in the postpartum period." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(292) } array(2) { [0]=> int(296) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(390) [4]=> int(244) [5]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) [2]=> int(399) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3446--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(196) " Tu, X.,Lou, C.,Gao, E.,Shah, I. H.. Long-term effects of a community-based program on contraceptive use among sexually active unmarried youth in Shanghai, China. J Adolesc Health. 2008. 42:249-58" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07004314 " ["citation"]=> string(196) " Tu, X.,Lou, C.,Gao, E.,Shah, I. H.. Long-term effects of a community-based program on contraceptive use among sexually active unmarried youth in Shanghai, China. J Adolesc Health. 2008. 42:249-58" ["intervention"]=> string(448) "This set of interventions was designed to increase knowledge and enhance access to sexual and reproductive health services among unmarried youth in suburban Shanghai, China. Abstinence was emphasized among high school students and safe sex and contraceptive use were emphasized among out-of-school youth. Activities included lectures, video screenings, peer group discussions, counseling sessions and pamphlet and contraceptive method distribution." ["summary"]=> string(1715) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. All resident unmarried youth aged 15-24 years, irrespective of whether they were in schools or colleges, and who reported themselves as being unlikely to marry and leave the town within one year, were recruited for the trial. In total, 1,220 unmarried youth from the intervention site and 1,007 from the control site were interviewed at baseline (94.1% in the intervention and 88.8% in the control sites were reinterviewed at endline). The trial found that the interventions were associated with a significant increase in the frequency of contraceptive use among participants initiating sexual relations during the period of the intervention (OR 6.91, 95% CI 1.64 -29.09, p = .0084), as well as with significant reduction in ever using the withdrawal method of contraception among all sexually active respondents (OR 1.30, p = .3694), compared with the control group. No long-term effects on contraceptive practice were observed among new respondents who were not exposed to the intervention. The findings suggest the long-term effects of the intervention on contraceptive use among sexually active unmarried youth were limited. No long-term effects on contraceptive practice were observed among respondents who were not exposed to the intervention. Among those exposed to the interventions, the positive long-term effects of the intervention on contraceptive practice were limited to use of the withdrawal method (which was a less frequent method among contraceptive users), and consistent contraceptive use among those initiating sexual relations, although positive short-term effects of the intervention were observed on all of the indicators." ["year"]=> int(2008) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3447--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(164) " Agha, S.,Karim, A. M.,Balal, A.,Sosler, S.. The impact of a reproductive health franchise on client satisfaction in rural Nepal. Health Policy Plan. 2007. 22:320-8" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(105) "https://academic.oup.com/heapol/article/22/5/320/558600/The-impact-of-a-reproductive-health-franchise-on " ["citation"]=> string(164) " Agha, S.,Karim, A. M.,Balal, A.,Sosler, S.. The impact of a reproductive health franchise on client satisfaction in rural Nepal. Health Policy Plan. 2007. 22:320-8" ["intervention"]=> string(410) "The Sewa franchise network was launched to improve the quality of reproductive health services available to a mostly rural district of Nepal. The program trained 64 network providers, and supported and advertised Sewa's services through radio ads, brochures and leaflets, door-to-door campaigns, clinic open houses, promotional booths in local markets, signboards, print advertisements and monthly newsletters." ["summary"]=> string(1402) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. Married women of 15-45 years were eligible for the household interview. The trial found that, at the population level, there were no significant changes in current use of FP among married women aged 15-45 in either intervention or control districts. However, the data suggest a tendency for current use to increase in the intervention (from 45% to 50%, P = 0.279) and to decline in the control districts (from 56% to 48%, P = .134). As a consequence there appears to have been a marginally significant net positive effect of the intervention on current use of FP (P = 0.067). At baseline, about 5% of reproductive age women (or 9% of current FP users) in the intervention district obtained modern methods from medical stores/pharmacies. At follow-up, about 7% of women (or 14% of current FP users) obtained modern methods from medical stores/pharmacies. The change in the percentage of married women who obtained FP from a medical store/pharmacy was not statistically significant. While this proportion did not change in the control districts either, the trends in intervention and control districts were significantly different from each other (P = 0.036), indicating that the franchise intervention had a net positive effect on women obtaining FP from medical stores/pharmacies. The trial also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(4) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3448--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(184) " Ajuwon A. J., Brieger W. R.. Evaluation of a school-based Reproductive Health Education Program in rural South Western, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2007. 11:47-59" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(38) "http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?rh07020 " ["citation"]=> string(184) " Ajuwon A. J., Brieger W. R.. Evaluation of a school-based Reproductive Health Education Program in rural South Western, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2007. 11:47-59" ["intervention"]=> string(584) "The initiative, implemented in Nigeria, aimed to increase adolescents’ knowledge of reproductive health and sexually transmitted infections and influence risky sexual behaviors. The intervention compared multiple approaches, including peer education, in which trained students informed, counselled and distributed non-prescriptive contraceptives to their colleagues; and training teachers to deliver reproductive health education, including HIV prevention, as part of extracurricular activities in secondary schools. The intervention integrated HIV and reproductive health messages." ["summary"]=> string(1279) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. The trial compared the relative efficacy of teacher instruction alone, peer education alone and a combination of these two on reproductive health knowledge, attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and sexual practices among secondary schools students. A baseline survey was administered to a systematic sample of students in four schools that were randomized into four treatment arms: teacher instructions alone, peer education alone, combination of teacher instruction and peer education, and control. The results were used to design the interventions' content, implemented for one academic session. A follow-up survey using the same sampling procedures as baseline was conducted to measure the outcome of the intervention. A total of 1,005 students participated in the baseline survey and 1,029 students in the follow-up survey. The trial found that reported condom use was significantly higher among students who received peer education alone (from 16.7% to 62.8%) (p=0.05) and students who received both teacher instruction and peer education (from 22.8% to 53%) (p=0.05) compared to students who received teacher instruction alone (28.6% to 47.4%) (p>0.05) and students in the control (from 25% to 45.8%) (p>0.05)." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(264) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(244) } array(3) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(266) [2]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3449--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(163) " Barber, S. L.. Family planning advice and postpartum contraceptive use among low-income women in Mexico. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2007. 33:6-12" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(123) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2007/03/family-planning-advice-and-postpartum-contraceptive-use-among-low-income " ["citation"]=> string(163) " Barber, S. L.. Family planning advice and postpartum contraceptive use among low-income women in Mexico. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2007. 33:6-12" ["intervention"]=> string(397) "The intervention, implemented in Mexico, used prenatal care as an entry point in the delivery of core reproductive health services, including FP, in order to reduce unintended pregnancies. The intervention takes an integrated approach to service delivery, by incorporated FP counseling into the national clinical guidelines for prenatal care. The intervention employed interpersonal FP counseling." ["summary"]=> string(1280) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study used data from the fertility module from the 2003 and 2004 rounds of the Encuesta de Evaluacion Urbana (ENCELUR) survey, which was administered to women of reproductive age. Data from a total of 2,238 women who had had a live birth within 12 months before the survey was included in the analysis. The study found that women who received FP counseling during prenatal care were significantly more likely to use a contraceptive method postpartum than were those who did not (OR, 2.2). Having received FP counseling during prenatal care predicted increased odds of the use of condoms (RR, 2.3) and IUDs (RR, 5.2), as well as having undergone sterilization (RR, 1.4). Women living in communities with high-quality care were more likely to use a method than were those in communities with lower quality of care (OR, 1.4). In addition, women who had a higher number of prenatal visits were more likely than those with fewer prenatal visits to use contraceptives; the effect is equivalent to a 4% increase in odds with each additional visit. Women delivering in government or private facilities were more likely to use a contraceptive postpartum than were women who delivered at home." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(329) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3450--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(159) " Daniels, U.. Improving health, improving lives: impact of the African Youth Alliance and new opportunities for programmes. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007. 11:18-27" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(38) "http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?rh07032 " ["citation"]=> string(159) " Daniels, U.. Improving health, improving lives: impact of the African Youth Alliance and new opportunities for programmes. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007. 11:18-27" ["intervention"]=> string(470) "The African Youth Alliance (AYA) intervention was a partnership to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH), including preventing HIV/AIDS, among young people in Botswana, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda. Interventions included advocacy efforts to improve the ASRH policy environment, trainings and capacity building for young people, print media campaigns and materials, performance media, and youth friendly SRH service trainings and delivery, among others." ["summary"]=> string(594) "AYA's impact was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study included a sample of youth age 17 to 22 years from Ghana, Uganda, and Tanzania. Evaluation results indicate evidence of significant, positive AYA treatment effects on sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Across all three AYA countries evaluated, there were more treatment effects for females; and, among sexually active females, there were significant positive effects on: condom use at first sex, always use condom with current partner, and modern contraceptive use at first and last sex." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(4) { [0]=> int(332) [1]=> int(263) [2]=> int(287) [3]=> int(268) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(3) { [0]=> int(311) [1]=> int(285) [2]=> int(293) } array(6) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(228) [3]=> int(390) [4]=> int(245) [5]=> int(244) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3451--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(201) " Engin-Üstün, Y.,Üstün, Y.,Çetin, F.,Meydanlı, M.,Kafkaslı, A.,Sezgin, B.. Effect of postpartum counseling on postpartum contraceptive use. Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2007. 275:429-432" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(62) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00404-006-0287-z " ["citation"]=> string(201) " Engin-Üstün, Y.,Üstün, Y.,Çetin, F.,Meydanlı, M.,Kafkaslı, A.,Sezgin, B.. Effect of postpartum counseling on postpartum contraceptive use. Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2007. 275:429-432" ["intervention"]=> string(402) "Implemented in Turkey, this intervention aimed to reduce unintended pregnancy and increase contraceptive use through postpartum counseling. The intervention used a standardized counseling procedure for postpartum contraception, including informing women of all existing contraceptive methods, discussing these options, and proposing the most appropriate contraceptive method according to the situation." ["summary"]=> string(1115) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. A total of 143 postpartum women who received counseling on postpartum contraception were included in the study. The participants were interviewed by telephone. Age, gravidity, parity, and mode of delivery of the participants were recorded. Interview questions included method of contraception before pregnancy, their decision on the contraceptive method after counseling and the method actually used. The study found that, immediately following postpartum counseling, 32.9% of women decided to use the IUD, 16.1% condoms, 11.2% progestin injections, 4.9% oral contraceptives, and 4.9% coitus interruptus for contraception. Twenty five women were undecided on a method to use. At the follow-up telephone interview the actual method used was learned. Thirty six percent of women were using coitus interruptus, 31.5% condoms, and 9.8% the IUD. Eleven percent reported not using any methods. In spite of postpartum counseling, a high majority of the women appeared to use traditional and less effective contraceptive methods." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(330) } array(5) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(281) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3452--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(245) " Mark, K. E.,Meinzen-Derr, J.,Stephenson, R.,Haworth, A.,Ahmed, Y.,Duncan, D.,Westfall, A.,Allen, S.. Contraception among HIV concordant and discordant couples in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007. 16:1200-10" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(59) "http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jwh.2006.0238 " ["citation"]=> string(245) " Mark, K. E.,Meinzen-Derr, J.,Stephenson, R.,Haworth, A.,Ahmed, Y.,Duncan, D.,Westfall, A.,Allen, S.. Contraception among HIV concordant and discordant couples in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007. 16:1200-10" ["intervention"]=> string(565) "This Zambia-based intervention promoted dual-method contraceptive use among HIV concordant and discordant couples, who already used condoms to prevent HIV transmission. Couples either received: Intervention 1 - an educational talk on HIV transmission and using dual methods (a condom, plus another modern contraceptive method) to most effectively prevent pregnancy and HIV transmission; or Intervention 2 - the educational talks, plus a group presentation on inheritance law and will preparation. Condoms and non-barrier contraceptive methods were also distributed." ["summary"]=> string(1728) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. Participants were couples already enrolled in other studies at a voluntary HIV testing and counseling clinic in Lusaka, Zambia (n = 608). Couples were ineligible (n = 329) if the woman was > 38 years old or the man was > 60 years old, if the woman was pregnant, 1-month postpartum, or currently using an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) or hormonal method of birth control, or if the couple was considered infertile. In total, 251 couples were randomized to receive Intervention 1, Intervention 2, or the control. The trial found that within three months of the intervention, 33% (27) of control couples, 80% (89) of Intervention 1 couples, and 76% (44) of Intervention 2 couples had adopted a non-barrier contraceptive method. Method initiation was significantly greater in the Intervention 1 and Intervention 2 groups than in the control group (p = 0.001 in each case). However, contraceptive use was not statistically significantly different between the Intervention 1 and Intervention 2 groups (p = 0.52). In each arm, oral contraceptives and injectables were the most commonly chosen method; only two 2 women initially elected to use Norplant, and none chose the IUD. At 12 months, pregnancies had occurred in 22% of control, 22% of Intervention 1, and 16% of Intervention 2 group couples. Contraceptive switching, stopping and user failure all contributed to pregnancies among women who initiated non-barrier contraception. Analysis for time to pregnancy showed a slight trend toward decreasing pregnancy incidence cross the three arms, but the difference between the control group and the intervention groups did not achieve significance (p = 0.24)." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(291) } array(6) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(281) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3453--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(161) " Meekers, D.,Van Rossem, R.,Silva, M.,Koleros, A.. The reach and effect of radio communication campaigns on condom use in Malawi. Stud Fam Plann. 2007. 38:113-20" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2007.00122.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(161) " Meekers, D.,Van Rossem, R.,Silva, M.,Koleros, A.. The reach and effect of radio communication campaigns on condom use in Malawi. Stud Fam Plann. 2007. 38:113-20" ["intervention"]=> string(358) "This study examines the impact of 12 different health and FP radio series aired in Malawi on condom use and discussion of FP. Examined radio series included Chitukuku M’Malawi, Kulera, Pa Mtondo, Phukusi la Moyo, Radio Doctor, Tichitenji, Tikuferanji, Uchembere Wabwino, Umoyo M’Malawi, Window Through Health, Women’s Forum and Women’s Talking Point." ["summary"]=> string(749) "The study used a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known design. The study draws from the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, which collected information from a representative sample of 11,698 women aged 15-49 and 3,261 men aged 15-54. The analysis was restricted to the responses of individuals who were sexually active in the previous year (9,175 women and 2,591 men). Results for women showed the number of radio programs about FP and health to which they were exposed significantly increased the likelihood that they had ever used condoms (OR = 1.03). The results for men also indicated that exposure to a larger number of radio programs about FP and health was associated with a higher likelihood of ever having used condoms (OR = 1.12)." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(267) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3454--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(191) " Plautz, A.,Meekers, D.. Evaluation of the reach and impact of the 100% Jeune youth social marketing program in Cameroon: findings from three cross-sectional surveys. Reprod Health. 2007. 4:1" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810514/ " ["citation"]=> string(191) " Plautz, A.,Meekers, D.. Evaluation of the reach and impact of the 100% Jeune youth social marketing program in Cameroon: findings from three cross-sectional surveys. Reprod Health. 2007. 4:1" ["intervention"]=> string(427) "Cameroon's 100% Jeune program aims to address high unwanted pregnancy and high prevalence rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among youth. The program used peer education, a monthly magazine and integrated TV, radio and billboard campaigns to promote healthy sexual behaviors, such as practicing abstinence, using condoms consistently, and increasing parent-child dialogue around reproductive health issues." ["summary"]=> string(1221) "100% Jeune was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. The surveys contain information on 15-24-year-old youth living in the cities of Yaoundé and Douala. The study found that among females reporting high exposure to the program in the 2003 survey, 39% report consistently using condoms with regular partners, compared with 20% among those in the 2002 low-exposure reference group. In contrast, the secular trend indicates improvement from 20% to only 27%. Among males, 53% of those with high exposure in 2003 report consistent condom use with their regular partners, compared with only 29% of those in the reference group. The secular trend among males shows improvement from 29% to 38%. Among males, the program also contributed to improvements in condom use in the last sexual act with a casual partner and consistent use with a casual partner; 79% of male youth with high exposure in 2003 reported consistent condom use with a casual partner, compared with 48% among those in the reference group. In comparison, the secular trend indicated an improvement from 48% to 63%. Condom use among females could not be assessed because of the small number of females reporting casual partners." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(294) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3455--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(213) " Qian, X.,Smith, H.,Huang, W.,Zhang, J.,Huang, Y.,Garner, P.. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007. 7:77" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(75) "https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-7-77 " ["citation"]=> string(213) " Qian, X.,Smith, H.,Huang, W.,Zhang, J.,Huang, Y.,Garner, P.. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007. 7:77" ["intervention"]=> string(304) "This China workplace intervention aimed to promote contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants working in privately owned factories. Communication approaches included providing relevant training to factory doctors, delivering lectures for employees, and disseminating printed educational materials." ["summary"]=> string(710) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial was conducted with unmarried female migrant factory workers (aged 16-30 years). The trial found there was no difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of sexual behavior. The number of women in both groups reporting having sex within the last three months did not change between baseline and follow-up. In women who had had sex in the last three months, contraceptive use increased from 70% to 93% within the intervention group, and condom use in the last three months increased significantly from 41% at baseline to 70% at follow-up in intervention group. The trial also measured client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3456--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(163) " Rasch, V.,Yambesi, F.,Kipingili, R.. Acceptance and use of the female condom among women with incomplete abortion in rural Tanzania. Contraception. 2007. 75:66-70" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001078240600326X " ["citation"]=> string(163) " Rasch, V.,Yambesi, F.,Kipingili, R.. Acceptance and use of the female condom among women with incomplete abortion in rural Tanzania. Contraception. 2007. 75:66-70" ["intervention"]=> string(236) "This intervention in Tanzania aimed to introduce the female condom as a way to prevent unwanted pregnancies, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants received postabortion contraceptive services and counseling." ["summary"]=> string(1138) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure assumed study design. Data was collected among women admitted for incomplete abortion at the Kagera Regional Hospital. A total of 548 women were admitted to the hospital during the study period, and they were all provided with contraceptive counseling and counseling on STIs/HIV. The study found that all women were offered ward-based contraceptive counseling and services, and 495 (95%) women accepted contraception and were provided with a contraceptive method of their choice before leaving the ward. Three fourths accepted hormonal contraceptives (either oral contraceptives or injection), and more than half of the women accepted to use condoms, either alone or as part of dual protection. The women were asked to return for re-counseling and service after three months; 475 (91%) returned for follow-up. The female condom was accepted by 201 (39%) women, either at the time of enrollment or at one-month follow-up. Of the 201 women who accepted the female condom, 69 (34%) used it as a secondary contraceptive method in combination with hormonal contraception." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(3) { [0]=> int(255) [1]=> int(275) [2]=> int(282) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3457--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(308) " Ross, D. A.,Changalucha, J.,Obasi, A. I.,Todd, J.,Plummer, M. L.,Cleophas-Mazige, B.,Anemona, A.,Everett, D.,Weiss, H. A.,Mabey, D. C.,Grosskurth, H.,Hayes, R. J.. Biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: a community-randomized trial. Aids. 2007. 21:1943-55" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(114) "http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2007/09120/Biological_and_behavioural_impact_of_an_adolescent.14.aspx " ["citation"]=> string(308) " Ross, D. A.,Changalucha, J.,Obasi, A. I.,Todd, J.,Plummer, M. L.,Cleophas-Mazige, B.,Anemona, A.,Everett, D.,Weiss, H. A.,Mabey, D. C.,Grosskurth, H.,Hayes, R. J.. Biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: a community-randomized trial. Aids. 2007. 21:1943-55" ["intervention"]=> string(622) "The Tanzania MEMA kwa Vijana intervention aimed to provide young people with skills and knowledge to help them delay sexual debut, reduce sexual risk-taking, and increase their use of sexual health services, including FP. The program had four components, including community activities; teacher-led, peer-assisted sexual health education sessions; training and supervision of health workers to provide youth-friendly services; and peer-led condom social marketing. Other activities included implementing "health weeks," inter-school competitions and performances, youth health days at clinics, video shows and discussions." ["summary"]=> string(1069) "The MEMA kwa Vijana intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial was conducted in 20 well-separated rural communities in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. Ten communities (58 primary schools, 18 health facilities) received the intervention, the other 10 (63 primary schools, 21 health facilities) acted as comparison communities. All those aged 14 years or more (mean 15.7 years) in late 1998, who were in Grades 4-6 at the 121 government primary schools within the 20 trial communities (and about to enter Grades 5-7) were eligible for enrollment. In total, 9,645 adolescents participated in the trial. Results showed the proportions reporting condom use at last sex were higher in intervention communities in both sexes, but this was only significant in young men [RR=1.47 (1.12, 1.93)], and absolute levels of condom use at last sex remained relatively low (<30%). The proportions who reported initiating condom use during follow-up were substantially and significantly higher in intervention communities among both male and female participants." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(6) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(264) [4]=> int(213) [5]=> int(244) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3458--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(268) " Sant'Anna, M. J. C.,Carvalho, K. A. M.,Melhado, A.,Coates, V.,Omar, H. A.. Teenage pregnancy: Impact of the integral attention given to the pregnant teenager and adolescent mother as a protective factor for repeat pregnancy. TheScientificWorldJournal. 2007. 7:187-194" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(55) "https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2007/438074/abs/ " ["citation"]=> string(268) " Sant'Anna, M. J. C.,Carvalho, K. A. M.,Melhado, A.,Coates, V.,Omar, H. A.. Teenage pregnancy: Impact of the integral attention given to the pregnant teenager and adolescent mother as a protective factor for repeat pregnancy. TheScientificWorldJournal. 2007. 7:187-194" ["intervention"]=> string(817) "The Integral Support Program for the Pregnant Teen (ISPPT) in Brazil aimed to provide integrated health and psychosocial support to adolescent and young pregnant women. The program provided open-group meetings on a bimonthly basis with a team of pediatricians, social workers, psychologists, physical therapists, pregnant teenagers, their partners and teen mothers that participated during their pregnancy along with their child. These group meetings sought to prepare young women for pregnancy and childbirth, childcare, future FP, preventing repeat teen pregnancy and encourage self-esteem, returning to or continuing education and careers, and breastfeeding. After delivery, the intervention included monthly follow-ups for the mother and child in the pediatric walk-in clinic during the first through third years." ["summary"]=> string(942) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study sample consisted of 85 pregnant teenagers under the age of 18 years that participated in the intervention at the Clinic for Adolescents of the Pediatrics Department of the Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil, between January 2002 and June 2006. The study found that, despite the fact that the pregnancies were not planned in 93.9% of the cases, 35.4% used a contraceptive measure and among those that reported such use, only 27.6% did so in a correct manner. One year after giving birth, 77% used a contraceptive method, 98.7% correctly, presenting statistical significance in relation to the use prior to attending ISPPT. The study found that only 7.4% reported constant condom use, 32% reported never having used condoms, 60.5% used condoms on a non-regular basis, 20.7% of the women considered abortion and 5% actually had an abortion." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(219) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3459--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(244) " Sun, X. M.,Zhou, J. F.,Yan, F. M.,Yin, Q.,Mao, J. S.. Study of peer-led intervention on reproductive health education and AIDS prevention in joint venture factories in Kunshan County. Journal of Reproduction and Contraception. 2007. 18:133-144" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001784407600170 " ["citation"]=> string(244) " Sun, X. M.,Zhou, J. F.,Yan, F. M.,Yin, Q.,Mao, J. S.. Study of peer-led intervention on reproductive health education and AIDS prevention in joint venture factories in Kunshan County. Journal of Reproduction and Contraception. 2007. 18:133-144" ["intervention"]=> string(681) "The intervention, implemented in China, aimed to increase knowledge and positive behaviors related to contraception, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV prevention among unmarried youth. The intervention consisted of a peer-led integrated reproductive health education and HIV prevention program delivered to young migrant workers in factories. Peer educators were selected from unmarried youth and trained on reproduction, physiology, contraception, sexual psychology and STI and HIV prevention. Training activities included lectures, videos, group discussions and role-plays. Trained peer educators then provided educational sessions to their peers at their workplace." ["summary"]=> string(1134) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial consisted of a baseline and endline survey of a sample of unmarried young adults (age 35 years and younger). Cluster sampling selected two factories to receive the peer education program (intervention group) and four factories that did not receive the peer education program acted as a control (control group). A totally of 1,897 men and women participated in the trial, 1,068 in intervention group and 829 in control group. At endline, 1,144 men and women completed both surveys. The trial found that, after peer education, condom use among the intervention group increased significantly from 46.9% to 58.9% (p<.05). The proportion of young adults reporting condom use at last sex increased significantly from 53.9% to 65.8% (p<.01). At the same time, the proportion of young adults who used no contraception significantly decreased from 17.7% to 8.9% (p<.01). The proportion of young adults reporting condom use at last sex increased significantly from 53.9% to 65.8% (p<.01). Similar improvements in contraceptive use was not seen in the control group." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3460--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(159) " Van Rossem, R.,Meekers, D.. The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia. BMC Public Health. 2007. 7:352" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(75) "https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-7-352 " ["citation"]=> string(159) " Van Rossem, R.,Meekers, D.. The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia. BMC Public Health. 2007. 7:352" ["intervention"]=> string(551) "This paper looks at multiple programs addressing HIV/AIDS, FP and reproductive health in Zambia. Interventions include the Zambia Social Marketing Program, which used radio and television to promote healthy behavior and condom use; the Zambian Integrated Health Program, which produced documentary radio and television series as well as televised variety shows on HIV and delaying early sexual relationships; the Lifeline Zambia HIV-focused radio show; and the TV drama Soul City on HIV and HIV stigma. Many of these initiatives include a youth focus." ["summary"]=> string(2176) "The study used a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. This study uses data from the 2001-2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS), which contains information on a nationally representative sample of 7,658 women aged 15-49 and 2,145 men aged 15-59. All women aged 15-49 in the selected households were eligible for interviewing. In a sub-sample of one-third of households, all men aged 15-59 were eligible for interviewing. In total, data from 6,782 women and 1,928 men was included in the study. Findings showed exposure to radio and television programs about FP and HIV/AIDS had a significant, but small, positive effect on the likelihood that women have tried condoms (OR, 1.06). Among women, the odds ratios for total exposure, radio program exposure and TV program exposure are 1.41, 1.36 and 1.27, respectively, indicating that those with the highest levels of exposure are roughly 30% more likely than those with the lowest levels of exposure to have tried condoms. Older women are less likely than younger ones and Protestant respondents more likely than Catholics or members of other religions to have ever used condoms. The likelihood of ever having used condoms increased with the level of urbanization and education. The likelihood that a woman had tried condoms was also significantly higher for those who reported a larger number of sexual partners. Women who reported wanting to have a child in the next two years are less likely than other women to have ever used a condom. Exposure to radio and television programs about FP and HIV/AIDS had a positive effect on the likelihood that males had ever used condoms (OR, 1.16). Exposure to Maximum messages had a very strong positive effect on male respondents' ever use of condoms (OR, 1.48). The odds ratios for radio and television dramas show that men with the highest levels of exposure are 2.4 and 1.5 times more likely, respectively, than those with the lowest levels of exposure to have ever used a condom. Males with the highest levels of exposure to messages about Maximum brand condoms were 3.2 times more likely than those with the lowest levels to have tried condoms (OR, 3.21)." ["year"]=> int(2007) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(291) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3461--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(230) " Demir, S. C.,Çetin, M. T.,Kadayıfçı, O.. The effect of tubal ligation scoring and sterilization counseling on the request for tubal reanastomosis. European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 2006. 11:215-219" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(62) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13625180600647877 " ["citation"]=> string(230) " Demir, S. C.,Çetin, M. T.,Kadayıfçı, O.. The effect of tubal ligation scoring and sterilization counseling on the request for tubal reanastomosis. European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 2006. 11:215-219" ["intervention"]=> string(257) "The intervention, implemented in Turkey, aimed to reduce requests for tubal ligation reversal by improving counseling methods during client-provider pre-operation counseling. The intervention employed client counseling and the use of tubal ligation scoring." ["summary"]=> string(1221) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study included 389 women who were admitted for tubal sterilization to Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, between January 1990 and December 1999. ‘Tubal ligation scores’ were used to evaluate the 389 patients. Four hundred and seventeen women who underwent bilateral Pomeroy type tubal ligation during cesarean section without having undergone tubal ligation scoring in the same time interval acted as the control group. Laparoscopic tubal ligation was performed on 368 women who had a tubal ligation score of six or higher. Twenty-one patients who got a score of six or lower were recounseled and another FP method was prescribed to them. None of the 368 patients to whom tubal ligation scoring was done prior to laparoscopic tubal ligation returned to the clinic for tubal ligation reversal. Fifteen of the 417 patients (3.6%) in the control group returned to the clinic for tubal ligation reversal. The incidence of the patients who wanted reversal was statistically significantly lower in intervention laparoscopy group comparing to the control caesarian group (p=0.001)." ["year"]=> int(2006) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(330) } array(1) { [0]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3462--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(206) " Do, M. P.,Kincaid, D. L.. Impact of an entertainment-education television drama on health knowledge and behavior in Bangladesh: an application of propensity score matching. J Health Commun. 2006. 11:301-25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(194) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7155284_Impact_of_an_Entertainment-Education_Television_Drama_on_Health_Knowledge_and_Behavior_in_Bangladesh_An_Application_of_Propensity_Score_Matching " ["citation"]=> string(206) " Do, M. P.,Kincaid, D. L.. Impact of an entertainment-education television drama on health knowledge and behavior in Bangladesh: an application of propensity score matching. J Health Commun. 2006. 11:301-25" ["intervention"]=> string(385) "This Bangladesh program aimed to increase health knowledge, promote health clinic visits -- especially to those with a Smiling Sun or Green Umbrella sign -- and increase modern contraceptive use among men and women who have access to television. The intervention of focus here was a 13-episode TV serial drama. Additional health issues were also integrated, including messaging on HIV." ["summary"]=> string(912) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The survey sample consisted of 7,200 respondents age 15 years or older who were surveyed after the broadcast of Shabuj Chaya. They were equally divided between rural and urban, male and female. Since the intervention consisted of a television drama, the analysis was limited to 4,492 men and women who watched television. The study found that current use of a modern FP method was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. The (unbiased) net increase in FP practice that can be attributed to the drama was 11 percentage points, compared with the unadjusted net difference of nine percentage points. This is because the procedure of propensity score matching has adjusted modern contraceptive prevalence in the control group from 48% to 46%, taking the independent variables into account." ["year"]=> int(2006) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3463--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(245) " Kim, Y. M.,Bazant, E.,Storey, J. D.. Smart patient, smart community: improving client participation in family planning consultations through a community education and mass-media program in Indonesia. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006. 26:247-70" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(126) "http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2190/IQ.26.3.d?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed " ["citation"]=> string(245) " Kim, Y. M.,Bazant, E.,Storey, J. D.. Smart patient, smart community: improving client participation in family planning consultations through a community education and mass-media program in Indonesia. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006. 26:247-70" ["intervention"]=> string(818) "The Smart Patient, Smart Community Initiative, implemented in Indonesia, aimed to improve client participation in FP counseling. The “Smart Patient” component of the initiative involved trained health educators located in clinic waiting areas providing individual coaching using a “Smart Card” that showed clients how to ask questions and express concerns during FP counseling. The “Smart Community” component of the initiative used television and radio spots to draw public attention to the value of effective client-provider interaction and promote a positive image of trained health providers. Supporting posters and table tent brochures were disseminated to health clinics and communities. Group community education sessions aimed to create new norms and expectations about women's service utilization." ["summary"]=> string(1119) "The initiative was evaluated using a retrospective, exposure-known study design. The study conducted a population-based, household survey in three sub-districts (two intervention and one control). A total of 1,200 married women age 18-49 years from 12 villages participated in the study (800 women from eight intervention villages and 400 women from four control villages). The study found that a higher proportion of women in the intervention group used FP compared to women in the control group (75% compared to 60.5%, p<.001). The intervention as a whole had a positive effect on client participation in FP counseling, specifically the number of clients who prepared questions to ask the service provider prior to a FP visit. Multivariate analyses showed that the “Smart Card” intervention and elements of the mass media campaign were positively associated with clients’ preparation of questions and question asking behavior during FP consultations, indicating that a combined community education and mass-media approach can improve client communication with providers and improve the quality of FP counseling." ["year"]=> int(2006) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(333) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3464--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(201) " Najafi, F.,Rakhshani, F.. Increasing men's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding family planning through their wives' group counseling in Zahedan, Iran. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2006. 6:74-78" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(56) "http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=jms.2006.74.78&org=11 " ["citation"]=> string(201) " Najafi, F.,Rakhshani, F.. Increasing men's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding family planning through their wives' group counseling in Zahedan, Iran. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2006. 6:74-78" ["intervention"]=> string(294) "This intervention in Iran sought to increase male involvement in FP through group counseling with women. Intervention activities included pamphlet distribution, group counseling sessions and discussions on contraceptive methods and misconceptions, men's opinions on FP and couple communication." ["summary"]=> string(413) "The Wives' Group Counseling Program was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample consisted of 44 married women of reproductive age (15-49 years old) with at least two children who has not used a modern contraceptive method. The study found that following the intervention 43% of couples used a modern contraceptive method with a significant difference (p<0.00001)." ["year"]=> int(2006) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(302) } array(6) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(256) [5]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3465--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(171) " Thompson, M. E.,Harutyunyan, T. L.. Contraceptive practices in Armenia: Panel evaluation of an Information-Education-Communication Campaign. Soc Sci Med. 2006. 63:2770-83" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027795360600390X " ["citation"]=> string(171) " Thompson, M. E.,Harutyunyan, T. L.. Contraceptive practices in Armenia: Panel evaluation of an Information-Education-Communication Campaign. Soc Sci Med. 2006. 63:2770-83" ["intervention"]=> string(490) "The Green Path Campaign for Family Health, implemented in Armenia, promoted greater awareness, knowledge, acceptance and adoption of modern contraception through increased use of counseling and related services provided at underutilized FP centers. The intervention used TV and radio spots, brochure dissemination at pharmacies, and provider training for physicians, pharmacists, and Ministry of Health counterparts. Physicians who completed the training also received counseling cue cards." ["summary"]=> string(1002) "The Green Path Campaign for Family Health was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. To evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign, a representative sample of 1,212 married couples drawn from four marzes (states) was enrolled in the panel study using a probability proportional to sample size cluster design. The sample consisted of 202 clusters of six households drawn from four selected marzes. The study found a significant association between change in FP use status and exposure to the Green Path campaign. The proportion of adopters was significantly higher (threefold) among women exposed to the campaign. Nearly 25% of the women using modern contraceptives at baseline had stopped by follow-up, virtually all citing the intent to become pregnant as the reason. Despite the usual 25% turnover among those using modern methods at the start of the study, use of modern contraceptive methods increased by 4.6%, significantly exceeding the projected 3% increase." ["year"]=> int(2006) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(334) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(335) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3466--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(165) " Walker, D.,Gutierrez, J. P.,Torres, P.,Bertozzi, S. M.. HIV prevention in Mexican schools: prospective randomised evaluation of intervention. Bmj. 2006. 332:1189-94" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(41) "http://www.bmj.com/content/332/7551/1189 " ["citation"]=> string(165) " Walker, D.,Gutierrez, J. P.,Torres, P.,Bertozzi, S. M.. HIV prevention in Mexican schools: prospective randomised evaluation of intervention. Bmj. 2006. 332:1189-94" ["intervention"]=> string(311) "This school-based HIV-prevention campaign in Mexico had two intervention arms. The first promoted condom use, and the second combined condom use promotion with education about and access to emergency contraception. The intervention consisted of teacher training and in-school, teacher-led sex education courses." ["summary"]=> string(1482) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. Forty public high schools—about 75% of such schools in the state of Morelos—were randomized to three arms. All participating 10th grade students were asked to respond to the questionnaires. The trial found a higher proportion of young men in the condom promotion with contraception group reported using a condom with a sex worker or casual partner (85%; 81/95) than in the control group (70%; 39/56). A higher proportion of young women in the condom promotion with contraception group (35%; 89/256) than in the control group (21%; 33/158) reported using emergency contraception. Both interventions had a significant impact on HIV knowledge, but not on sexual behavior (except for use of emergency contraception). Education about emergency contraception had no significant effect on the use of condoms. Use of condoms decreased with age and time, although this result was affected by the drop-out rate. Young men were significantly less positive about the use of condoms than women, but they were significantly more likely to report that they used a condom when they last had sex. The addition of emergency contraception did not decrease reported condom use or increase risky sexual behavior, but did increase reported use of emergency contraception. The log odds for using emergency contraception was 2.16 (1.30 to 3.59) in the condom promotion with emergency contraception group as compared to the control group." ["year"]=> int(2006) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(329) } array(2) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(303) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(1) { [0]=> int(264) } array(2) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(266) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3467--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(194) " Babalola, S.,Vonrasek, C.. Communication, ideation and contraceptive use in Burkina Faso: an application of the propensity score matching method. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2005. 31:207-12" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(63) "http://jfprhc.bmj.com/content/familyplanning/31/3/207.full.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(194) " Babalola, S.,Vonrasek, C.. Communication, ideation and contraceptive use in Burkina Faso: an application of the propensity score matching method. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2005. 31:207-12" ["intervention"]=> string(496) "The Gold Circle Initiative, implemented in Burkina Faso, aimed to reduce the high fertility rate by increasing contraceptive prevalence. The program employed electronic media materials, printed materials (including a Gold Circle logo, a Gold Circle advocacy tool, etc.), community outreach and community mobilization activities and four short radio and television infomercials that gave FP method information, debunked misconceptions and rumors, and provided information on managing side effects." ["summary"]=> string(1265) "The initiative was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1,412 women of reproductive age from Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. Participants in the survey were randomly selected from 54 enumeration areas that were covered during the 1999 Demographic and Health Survey. The propensity score matching technique was the analytical method used to assess the effects of the campaign. The study found that, overall, about one-quarter (25.6%) of women were currently using a modern contraceptive method. Contraceptive prevalence increased monotonically with campaign exposure: 9.3% of the women with zero exposure, 19.6% of those with low exposure, and 35.2% of those with high exposure reported current use of modern methods. The adjusted effects confirmed that the campaign had a graduated, dose-response effect on contraceptive use: the higher the level of exposure, the greater the gain in contraceptive use. Compared with no exposure, high campaign exposure was associated with an adjusted increase of 21.8 percentage points in the proportion of women currently using modern contraceptive methods. Similarly, low exposure was associated with a 7.3 percentage point increase over no exposure." ["year"]=> int(2005) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(239) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(4) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3468--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(172) " Fullerton, J. T.,Killian, R.,Gass, P. M.. Outcomes of a community- and home-based intervention for safe motherhood and newborn care. Health Care Women Int. 2005. 26:561-76" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(61) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07399330591004881 " ["citation"]=> string(172) " Fullerton, J. T.,Killian, R.,Gass, P. M.. Outcomes of a community- and home-based intervention for safe motherhood and newborn care. Health Care Women Int. 2005. 26:561-76" ["intervention"]=> string(493) "This intervention in India aimed to promote basic maternal and neonatal lifesaving practices within the home and community, reduce delays in transport to referral units where complications can be managed, and increase postpartum and postabortion FP use. Activities, facilitated in the community or in a participant's home by a community volunteer trainer, included stories, discussions, role-plays and coaching skill checklists. Male partners or family members were included in the activities." ["summary"]=> string(517) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The community sample was selected from among women who had attended all of the six topical education sessions (n = 420). In total, a sample of 239 women (57%) were included in the study. The study found that FP use improved significantly between baseline (22%) to endline (65%) for the postabortion group (p<0.001). For postpartum group, FP use also improved significantly between baseline (14%) to endline (61%) (p<0.001)." ["year"]=> int(2005) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(244) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3469--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(190) " Hossain, M. B.. Analysing the relationship between family planning workers' contact and contraceptive switching in rural Bangladesh using multilevel modelling. J Biosoc Sci. 2005. 37:529-54" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(252) "https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-biosocial-science/article/analysing-the-relationship-between-family-planning-workers-contact-and-contraceptive-switching-in-rural-bangladesh-using-multilevel-modelling/DCDBD7D7EDF49F67415C6BC8EF2E95F3 " ["citation"]=> string(190) " Hossain, M. B.. Analysing the relationship between family planning workers' contact and contraceptive switching in rural Bangladesh using multilevel modelling. J Biosoc Sci. 2005. 37:529-54" ["intervention"]=> string(283) "The Bangladesh Operations Research Project sought to understand government FP outreach workers' impact on contraceptive method switching and upon related unintended pregnancy risk. The interaction examined is the counseling visit or contact between a client and a FP outreach worker." ["summary"]=> string(940) "The Operations Research Project was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study used data from the Sample Registration System (SRS). Since 1982, the SRS has been collecting data on a 90-day cycle on contraceptive use dynamics from the currently married women of reproductive age in the sample households. The study found that between both groups, if a woman had used a method in the past, the risk of transitioning to non-use and becoming at risk of an unintended pregnancy declined significantly. The analysis confirmed that the risk of transitioning from pill use to non-use (and thus being at risk of an unintended pregnancy) declined significantly when there was contact from a FP outreach worker. Contact with an outreach worker was significantly and positively linked with transition to other modern methods and significantly but negatively linked with the transition to a traditional method." ["year"]=> int(2005) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(278) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3470--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(174) " Lundgren, R. I.,Gribble, J. N.,Greene, M. E.,Emrick, G. E.,de Monroy, M.. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador. Stud Fam Plann. 2005. 36:173-88" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2005.00060.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(174) " Lundgren, R. I.,Gribble, J. N.,Greene, M. E.,Emrick, G. E.,de Monroy, M.. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador. Stud Fam Plann. 2005. 36:173-88" ["intervention"]=> string(337) "This cross-sector program implemented in El Salvador, was designed to increase men's FP involvement, knowledge and use. Water and sanitation volunteers were trained to incorporate FP activities into their educational activities. The intervention consisted of home visits, group talks, role-plays and referrals for contraceptive services." ["summary"]=> string(1014) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure assumed study design. The survey used a cluster sample of individuals of reproductive age. A total of 341 interviews (151 men and 190 women) were conducted at baseline and 364 interviews (189 women and 175 men) at endline. The study found that overall contraceptive prevalence increased significantly over the course of the study from 45% to 58%. Men’s reported use of any contraceptive method was significantly higher at the endline than at the baseline (63% as compared with 44%). The odds of respondents’ reporting that they were using a FP method were 1.68 times greater at endline than at baseline. Concerning the odds of respondents’ reporting use of methods that require men’s agreement or participation, however, the only significant variable was sex: men reported 1.91 greater incidence of use of methods requiring men’s involvement than was reported by women. The study also measured couple/spousal communication about FP." ["year"]=> int(2005) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(336) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(224) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3471--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(146) " Meekers, D.,Agha, S.,Klein, M.. The impact on condom use of the "100% Jeune" social marketing program in Cameroon. J Adolesc Health. 2005. 36:530" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(68) "http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X%2805%2900091-1/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(146) " Meekers, D.,Agha, S.,Klein, M.. The impact on condom use of the "100% Jeune" social marketing program in Cameroon. J Adolesc Health. 2005. 36:530" ["intervention"]=> string(528) "The Cameroon 100% Jeune social marketing campaign aimed, in part, to improve condom use through intensive youth-focused mass media and interpersonal communication, complemented by widespread, subsidized condom distribution via "Vendeurs des Amis des Jeunes." Key activities included peer education, a monthly magazine, an 18-episode radio drama, weekly call-in shows, and an integrated mass media and billboard campaign. Peer education activities were school- and community-based, and included sketches, role-plays and contests." ["summary"]=> string(1541) "The 100% Jeune Program was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. This study uses two waves of a cross-sectional adolescent reproductive health survey of youth aged 15-24 years, to assess the reach and impact of the 100% Jeune Program in Yaoundé and Douala. The study showed a significant increase in condom use. Between 2000 and 2002, the percentage of youth who ever used condoms increased from 51% to 62% for females and from 58% to 65% for males. The percentage that used a condom in last intercourse with their regular partner increased from 32% to 45% for females and from 44% to 61% for males. Among females, there was a corresponding increase in reported consistency of condom use with regular partners. The percentage of youth who used a condom in last intercourse with a casual partner also increased, from 46% to 65% for females and from 60% to 68% for males. The percentage of females who reported always using condoms with their casual partners increased from 29% to 50%; for males it increased from 44% to 52%. Among males, the percentage that ever used condoms ranges from 62% for the low exposure group to 70% for those with medium-high and high exposure. Similarly, the percentage of males who report using a condom in last intercourse with a regular partner ranges from 56% for the low exposure group to 69% for the high exposure group. Among females, these percentages are not significant at p =.05. Level of program exposure is not significantly related to consistency of condom use." ["year"]=> int(2005) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(294) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(335) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3472--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(173) " Wang, B.,Hertog, S.,Meier, A.,Lou, C.,Gao, E.. The potential of comprehensive sex education in China: findings from suburban Shanghai. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2005. 31:63-72" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(121) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2005/06/potential-comprehensive-sex-education-china-findings-suburban-shanghai " ["citation"]=> string(173) " Wang, B.,Hertog, S.,Meier, A.,Lou, C.,Gao, E.. The potential of comprehensive sex education in China: findings from suburban Shanghai. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2005. 31:63-72" ["intervention"]=> string(436) "This HIV- and youth-focused intervention in China was designed to promote delaying sexual activity and to provide contraceptive knowledge and supplies to youth. The intervention provided information and services around abstinence, sexuality, contraception and HIV prevention through educational reading material distribution, educational video screening, lectures, peer group discussions and reproductive health services and counseling." ["summary"]=> string(1687) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The sample included unmarried youth (age 15-24) who were not planning to marry in the coming year. In total, 2,227 youth enrolled—1,220 in the intervention group and 1,007 in the control group (1,148 and 894, respectively, completed the endline survey). Among participants who reported coital experience at baseline, frequency of contraceptive use did not differ between the intervention and control groups. At endline, 89% of sexually active participants in the intervention group reported having used contraceptives all or most of the time, compared with 45% of controls; 1% and 17%, respectively, said they had never used any contraceptive method. Condoms were the most popular method of contraception used by study participants during the intervention period. However, use of this method was significantly more common in the intervention group than among controls (96% vs. 67% of sexually experienced youth). Seventeen percent of participants in the intervention group had used emergency contraceptive pills, more than twice the proportion among controls. Intervention participants were more likely than controls to have used contraceptive methods during the intervention period (OR 6.2). The odds of intervention participants’ reporting ever-use were 13.3 times the odds for controls. Older youth and those reporting a relative high family economic status had increased odds of using contraceptives. When the intervention group was divided by treatment level, the results indicate that greater participation in the intervention was associated with greater use of contraceptives during the intervention period." ["year"]=> int(2005) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(4) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(303) [3]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(6) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(390) [4]=> int(213) [5]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3473--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(206) " Erulkar, A. S.,Ettyang, L. I.,Onoka, C.,Nyagah, F. K.,Muyonga, A.. Behavior change evaluation of a culturally consistent reproductive health program for young Kenyans. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2004. 30:58-67" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(127) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2004/06/behavior-change-evaluation-culturally-consistent-reproductive-health-program " ["citation"]=> string(206) " Erulkar, A. S.,Ettyang, L. I.,Onoka, C.,Nyagah, F. K.,Muyonga, A.. Behavior change evaluation of a culturally consistent reproductive health program for young Kenyans. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2004. 30:58-67" ["intervention"]=> string(734) "The Nyeri Youth Health Project aimed to delay the onset of sexual activity among youth in Kenya not yet sexually active, prevent sexually experienced youth from suffering negative consequences of sexual activity, and create a reproductive health information and service environment responsive to young people's unique needs. A cadre of counselors, referred to as "Friends of Youth," were trained using a "Life Planning Skills for Adolescents in Kenya" curriculum. Counselors then conducted activities with young people, including group discussions, role playing, drama and lectures. They also worked with adults, schools and teachers in the community to improve attitudes and the environment in which adolescent issues were addressed." ["summary"]=> string(896) "The Nyeri Youth Health Project was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. At baseline, unmarried young people aged 10-24 were sampled. At endline, data were collected from young adults aged 10-26, as those who were aged 25 or 26 at endline may have benefited from the project during its first two years of implementation, but aged out of the project. The trial included only respondents aged 10-24 in the analysis. The trial found that, at baseline, none of the variables in the model were significant predictors of condom use, a finding that is consistent with other adolescent studies. At endline, however, males in the project area were more likely than those in the control area to say they had used condoms at last sex (OR, 3.7). For females, only increased educational attainment was associated with condom use (OR, 1.3). The trial also measured parent-teen communication about FP." ["year"]=> int(2004) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(244) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3474--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(139) " Fasubaa, O. B.,Ojo, O. D.. Impact of post-abortion counseling in a semi-urban town of Western Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004. 24:298-303" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(64) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01443610410001660913 " ["citation"]=> string(139) " Fasubaa, O. B.,Ojo, O. D.. Impact of post-abortion counseling in a semi-urban town of Western Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004. 24:298-303" ["intervention"]=> string(457) "A postabortion care clinic was designed in a hospital in Nigeria to address needs for increased contraceptive use, safer sexual behaviors, contraceptive information access for women who had had unwanted pregnancies and repeat abortions, and reduce the incidence of induced abortions. Clinic providers delivered in-depth postabortion counseling to clients on contraceptive use and sexual behavior change, such as appropriately saying "no" to unprotected sex." ["summary"]=> string(686) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample included 238 patients seen at two settings over the three-year period who had either come for termination or who were treated for complications of induced abortions. The study found that among the women who participated in the study, usage of contraception increased from 27.8% to 49.1%, while the percentage of those not on contraceptives initially fell considerably. Non-use of contraceptives was attributable to known side effects of the pills (n = 13, 30%), unavailability (n = 8, 20.5%), husband pressure (n = 8, 20.5%) and religion (n = 6, 15.5%) among the respondents." ["year"]=> int(2004) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3475--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(212) " Lou, C. H.,Wang, B.,Shen, Y.,Gao, E. S.. Effects of a community-based sex education and reproductive health service program on contraceptive use of unmarried youths in Shanghai. J Adolesc Health. 2004. 34:433-40" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X03003410 " ["citation"]=> string(212) " Lou, C. H.,Wang, B.,Shen, Y.,Gao, E. S.. Effects of a community-based sex education and reproductive health service program on contraceptive use of unmarried youths in Shanghai. J Adolesc Health. 2004. 34:433-40" ["intervention"]=> string(980) "A youth-friendly intervention in China aimed to build awareness among youth and offer sexuality and reproductive health counseling and services. The intervention was for youth ages 15 to 24, and comprised three main activities. The first focused on awareness-building including disseminating educational materials (e.g., brochures, pamphlets), playing instructional videos in venues like public theaters, giving lectures and conducting small group activities. Topics covered included sexual physiology, reproduction, relationships, contraception, safe sexual behaviors, condom use, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and accessing related services. A second activity focused on counseling through a youth counseling center and a phone line. The third activity focused on enhancing youth access to contraceptives, including free condoms, oral contraceptives, emergency contraception and others, through local FP units, the youth counseling center and group activities." ["summary"]=> string(1510) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample included unmarried youth (15-24 years), irrespective of whether or not they were in school or college, and who would not marry and leave town within one year. The trial found, at baseline, sexually active youth in the control group were somewhat more likely to practice contraception than those in the intervention group (although the difference was not statistically significant). At endline, the situation was reversed; almost all sexually active males and females practiced some forms of contraception, compared with 81%-85% of those in the control group. Regular use and condom use showed similarly dramatic changes (regular use: 88%-90% in the intervention group, compared with 42%-48% in the control group; condom use: 97%-98% in the intervention group and 79%-85% in the control group in the post-intervention). For contraceptive use at onset of sexual intercourse that occurred during the intervention, the logistic regression analysis showed that youth from the intervention group were 14.58 (OR) times as likely as those from the control group to have used contraceptives (95% CI: 8.55-24.87, p = .0001) after adjustment for the above-mentioned socio-demographic factors. Patterns were largely similar for females and males. Findings suggest that exposure to the intervention was the most powerful correlate of each measure of contraceptive behavior, and that exposure to the intervention clearly had an influence." ["year"]=> int(2004) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3476--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(163) " Mendez, F.,Lopez, F.,Brambila, C.,Burkhart, M.. Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2004. 4:2" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(79) "https://bmcinthealthhumrights.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-698X-4-2 " ["citation"]=> string(163) " Mendez, F.,Lopez, F.,Brambila, C.,Burkhart, M.. Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2004. 4:2" ["intervention"]=> string(816) "This Guatemala intervention set out to modify specific practices that prevented health workers from screening clients' needs, providing information, and delivering FP services during clinic visits. The intervention included three components: 1) a job aid for providers to clarify fertility goals, rule out pregnancy and ultimately facilitate the provision of contraceptives upon a woman's request; 2) a training program for health workers on using the job aid and on contraceptive supply management; and 3) supporting training materials, including the legal framework for FP services in the country, a flip chart describing FP methods, data presentations, a guide on completing an FP supply request form and the form itself, and a supervisor's observation guide for FP visits. An FP method poster was also developed." ["summary"]=> string(1325) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample was selected from all women who visited a health post or center for whatever reason during a two- to four-day period who were (a) of reproductive age (15 to 49 years old); (b) sexually active (proxy: women who declared themselves in union); (c) wished to avoid pregnancy for a 12-month period or were not sure if they wanted to get pregnant; and (d) verbally agreed to respond to the questionnaire. The trial found that, at baseline, 3% of women in the intervention group received a method, referral or appointment. This increased to 17% post-intervention and 19% nine-months later at the follow-up. The change was statistically significant. The picture was less clear among the control group. At baseline and post-intervention, 5% and 7% of women in the control group reported receiving a method, referral or appointment. However, at the follow-up, there was still no statistically significant increase (9%). Researchers are unable to explain why providers in control sites failed to provide methods, appointments or recommendations, especially considering their improvement in all the rest of the screening process. A possible reason is unavailability of methods at control sites, but such information was not collected during the study." ["year"]=> int(2004) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(337) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(2) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3477--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(181) " Saleem, S.,Isa, M. A.. Facilitating inter-spousal communication for birth spacing--a feasibility study of Pakistani couples for policy implications. J Pak Med Assoc. 2004. 54:182-6" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(56) "http://jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=380 " ["citation"]=> string(181) " Saleem, S.,Isa, M. A.. Facilitating inter-spousal communication for birth spacing--a feasibility study of Pakistani couples for policy implications. J Pak Med Assoc. 2004. 54:182-6" ["intervention"]=> string(563) "Three different approaches were tested among couples in Pakistan to promote adoption of a non-permanent modern FP method. In the first approach, husbands and wives received counseling on the benefits of three-year birth spacing and were asked to initiate discussion with their respective spouses on the topic. In the second approach, participants received FP counseling and an illustrated information booklet. In the third approach, participants received information about locally available FP services with referral cards and the approximate cost of each method." ["summary"]=> string(1014) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The eligibility criteria to participate in the study was to be either a user of a traditional method or a nonuser of a FP method, belonging to one of the major ethnic groups of the study area, and having up to five children. Screening and enrollment was stopped once the sample size of 12 men (index husbands) and 12 women (index wives) was completed from each site (Karachi, Lahore and Quetta). The study found that, of 28 couples, 24 selected and used a contraceptive method. The majority of couples opted for condoms (n=9), injectables (n=7), pills (n=6), and IUDs (n=2). Of 24 couples, which finally adopted modern methods, 17 were traditional users and seven were non-users. Four couples that did not adopt a method were either traditional users who were successful in having their desired spacing or those who ultimately decided to have more children. The study also measured couple/spousal communication about FP." ["year"]=> int(2004) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3478--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(141) " Sood, S., Sengupta, M.,Mishra, P., Jacoby, C.. Come Gather around Together: An examination of radio listening groups in Fulbari, Nepal. 1-35" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(61) "http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0016549204039942 " ["citation"]=> string(141) " Sood, S., Sengupta, M.,Mishra, P., Jacoby, C.. Come Gather around Together: An examination of radio listening groups in Fulbari, Nepal. 1-35" ["intervention"]=> string(575) "The intervention, implemented in Nepal, aimed to increase modern contraceptive use and positively affect FP-related health outcomes. The initiative used radio listening groups to complement mass media FP activities. Female community health volunteers moderated the listening groups and were trained in group facilitation, interpersonal communication and counseling skills. Radio listening groups met weekly to listen to the radio drama, Cut Your Coat According to Your Cloth, together and then immediately discuss the questions the narrator asked at the end of the broadcast." ["summary"]=> string(1156) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study used data from a survey conducted approximately a year after the formation of the radio listening groups to examine the association between membership in these listening groups and FP behavior. A total of 408 men and women participated in the survey, equally divided between the Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Fulbari and Parbatipur. All respondents from Fulbari VDC were members of a radio listening groups, while respondents from Parbatipur, where radio listening groups were not implemented, acted as a control group. Survey data was supplemented by anecdotal evidence and service statistics. The study found that men and women exposed to both the radio program and the listening groups were twice as likely to currently use a modern contraceptive method compared to those exposed to the radio program alone. The odds ratio was significant for exposure to a combination of radio program and listening groups (OR, 1.959, p≤.05), suggesting that media exposure alone is not significantly connected with current use of modern contraceptives." ["year"]=> int(2004) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(8) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3479--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(140) " Speizer, I. S.,Kouwonou, K.,Mullen, S.,Vignikin, E.. Evaluation of the ATBEF Youth Centre in Lome, Togo. Afr J Reprod Health. 2004. 8:38-54" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(38) "http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?rh04041 " ["citation"]=> string(140) " Speizer, I. S.,Kouwonou, K.,Mullen, S.,Vignikin, E.. Evaluation of the ATBEF Youth Centre in Lome, Togo. Afr J Reprod Health. 2004. 8:38-54" ["intervention"]=> string(390) "An Association Togolaise pour le Bien Etre Familiale (ATBEF) Youth Center youth center in Togo provided sexual and reproductive health education and services to youth. The clinic provided general health services, pregnancy and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive health counseling and FP care, as well as providing other recreational and educational activities." ["summary"]=> string(1868) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. A random sample of 2,083 youth (10-24 years) and 1,027 adults (aged 30 years and older) were interviewed. Data was collected from a random sample of youth from Lomé at baseline (1998) and at Follow-up 1 (2000) and Follow-up 2 (2001). The study found that youth who visited the youth center over the follow-up period were significantly more likely to be contraceptive users at Follow-up 2 than youth who had never visited the youth center or youth who had visited the youth center already by Follow-up 1. Other factors associated with contraceptive use at Follow-up 2 included peer educator contact and media exposure, both in the expected directions. Finally, a longer duration between interviews (two years compared to one year) was associated with becoming a user. This duration variable captures the impact of increased access to information and services over a longer time period. Youth who visited the youth center over the follow-up period were significantly more likely to be users at both time periods than youth who either never visited the youth center or youth who had already visited the youth center at Follow-up 1. This suggests that for contraceptive users, visiting the youth center affirms contraceptive use behaviors. Female youth were less likely to be consistent users, a consequence of young women desiring children earlier than young men or a consequence of condoms being the main method used and lack of control over condom use among young women. Youth who lived with their parents (one or two) were significantly more likely to remain users. Youth who lived on their own or with a partner were probably more likely to want to get pregnant than youth who lived with a parent. Finally, exposure to a peer educator is associated with consistent use." ["year"]=> int(2004) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(338) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(4) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(244) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3480--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(142) " Chen, S.,Guilkey, D. K.. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in rural Tanzania between 1991 and 1999. Stud Fam Plann. 2003. 34:263-76" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2003.00263.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(142) " Chen, S.,Guilkey, D. K.. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in rural Tanzania between 1991 and 1999. Stud Fam Plann. 2003. 34:263-76" ["intervention"]=> string(403) "Tanzania's national FP program upgraded services in existing facilities and carried out an information education campaign to provide FP messages directly to the public. Providers received trainings on FP methods and services, and FP messages were delivered through mass media channels and included radio dramas and introduction of a "Greenstar" clinic logo/brand to promote quality FP service locations." ["summary"]=> string(886) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known design. The study analyzes demographic, socioeconomic and FP data on women surveyed and about the facility characteristics of the FP services that are available to women within their communities. The information is drawn from four pooled cross-sections of data gathered in 1991, 1994, 1996 and 1999. In terms of magnitude, the largest effect on FP uptake was for the choice of "other modern method" versus no method, followed by choice of the condom versus none, the pill versus none and a traditional method versus none. The p-values for the reported t statistics are p=0.11 for the pill, p=0.16 for the condom, p= 0.0 for other modern methods, and p=0.45 for traditional methods, however, indicating strong statistical significance only for other modern methods and marginal significance for the pill." ["year"]=> int(2003) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3481--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(124) " Collumbien, M.,Douthwaite, M.. Pills, injections and audiotapes: reaching couples in Pakistan. J Biosoc Sci. 2003. 35:41-58" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(193) "https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/EAA2D048ED20045D649043AF4813AE5B/S0021932003000415a.pdf/pills_injections_and_audiotapes_reaching_couples_in_pakistan.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(124) " Collumbien, M.,Douthwaite, M.. Pills, injections and audiotapes: reaching couples in Pakistan. J Biosoc Sci. 2003. 35:41-58" ["intervention"]=> string(2229) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study was conducted about six months after the launch of the project, which precluded a population-based study. Cassette buyers were sampled at the point of delivery. Chemists and LHVs in Faisalabad and Larkana collected names and addresses of men and women who obtained the cassette. A total 187 structured questionnaires were completed with couples who had obtained a cassette. The study found that women who got the cassette from an LHV, attended a chat group, or obtained the cassette themselves, were almost twice as likely to be current users compared with other women. Use of any method increased by 23% among women and 24% among men during the period between acquiring the cassette and the survey, which was on average about four months. There was a 42% increase in contraceptive use among couples who had obtained the tape from an LHV, and a 21% increase among couples who had bought it from a chemist store. There was no increase in use for those who got the tape from other sources. Contraceptive use increased by 39% among women who attended a chat group, and when husbands reported their wife had attended a meeting there was a 69% increase. Current use was lower among couples where the husband had listened to the tape (40%), compared with those where he had not (56%). Women who had not listened to the cassette did not start contraception, while there was a 45% increase in contraceptive use among couples with husbands who had not listened. Attending a chat group was a strong and significant predictor of the uptake of a hormonal method (OR, 4.15; p=.018), while the effect of obtaining the tape from an LHV was higher than listening to the tape (OR, 2.01 compared to OR, 1.9, respectively). Women who listened to the tape were 1.9 times more likely to have adopted a hormonal method than those who did not listen, while the likelihood of adoption reduced by a quarter if the husband had listened to the tape (OR, 0.74). Among current users, 28% reported adopting a method since acquiring the cassette. Of those already practicing FP about 17% reported switching methods, the majority to the pill and injectables." ["summary"]=> NULL ["year"]=> int(2003) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(236) } string(27) "insertando The intervention" string(34) "insertando implemented in Pakistan" string(289) "insertando aimed to increase contraceptive use to address the unmet need for FP. The intervention employed audiocassettes distribution via chemist shops and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to reach women in a sex-segregated society with accurate information on selected hormonal contraceptives" string(91) "insertando and complementing LHV-led cassette listening and discussion groups. The cassette" string(47) "insertando available in five regional languages" string(202) "insertando gave information about the pill and injection through a simulated interaction between a provider and a couple interested in birth spacing. LHVs also encouraged women to talk to their husbands" string(71) "insertando and met with women individually after the discussion groups." array(6) { [0]=> int(455) [1]=> int(456) [2]=> int(457) [3]=> int(458) [4]=> int(459) [5]=> int(460) } string(24) "-------POST 3482--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(122) " Mbonye, A. K.. Disease and health seeking patterns among adolescents in Uganda. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2003. 15:105-12" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(93) "https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijamh.2003.15.2/ijamh.2003.15.2.105/ijamh.2003.15.2.105.xml " ["citation"]=> string(122) " Mbonye, A. K.. Disease and health seeking patterns among adolescents in Uganda. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2003. 15:105-12" ["intervention"]=> string(472) "The main goal of this Uganda pilot project was to identify the best approach to providing quality, accessible, affordable adolescent friendly health services, including sexual and reproductive health services. The intervention included training for clinical officers, nurses and midwives and delivering youth-friendly services, games (football, volleyball, playing cards) and entertaining videos and films to improve reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices." ["summary"]=> string(768) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. Adolescent friendly health services were piloted at four health centers in Jinja district, Uganda. Four health centers that did not implement adolescent friendly health services and were comparable in terms of level of service delivery, catchment size and population characteristics served as controls. The trial found significant difference of current FP use in the intervention group compared to the control group. Over 65.6% of the adolescents at intervention health centers were currently using a method of FP compared to 46.9% at control health centers (65.6% vs 46.9%, p=0.000). A high proportion of adolescents attending both types of health centers had used a method of FP (68.8% vs. 53.1%)." ["year"]=> int(2003) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(268) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(335) [3]=> int(213) } array(2) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3483--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(184) " Muyinda, H.,Nakuya, J.,Pool, R.,Whitworth, J.. Harnessing the senga institution of adolescent sex education for the control of HIV and STDs in rural Uganda. AIDS Care. 2003. 15:159-67" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(63) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0954012031000105414 " ["citation"]=> string(184) " Muyinda, H.,Nakuya, J.,Pool, R.,Whitworth, J.. Harnessing the senga institution of adolescent sex education for the control of HIV and STDs in rural Uganda. AIDS Care. 2003. 15:159-67" ["intervention"]=> string(668) "This intervention in Uganda used the traditional "senga" model, wherein the father's sister is the primary communication channel for sex and marriage information for adolescent girls, to test a community-based sex education and counseling strategy. Village girls and women chose female volunteers to take on the "senga" role. Selected "sengas" received training on HIV, risk perception, talking about sex, condom use, FP, sexual norms, and counseling and communication skills. The intervention also used community meetings, condom distribution, lectures, discussions, workshops, role plays, video screenings, and community leaders to support and implement the program." ["summary"]=> string(865) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. A total of 95 girls, aged 13 - 19 years, living in the study villages (71 intervention and 24 control) were included in the analysis. Girls from the intervention villages were only included if they had visited a senga at least once and could participate in the study for a full 12-month period. The trial found that, in the intervention group, consistent condom use rose, the percentage of girls reporting symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection dropped and the percentage of girls who had visited a FP clinic rose. At baseline, consistent condom use was 50% in the intervention group (n=26) as compared to 45% in the control group (n=11). At 12-month follow-up, consistent condom use increased to 73% in the intervention group. The trial also measured couple/spousal communication about FP." ["year"]=> int(2003) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(268) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) [2]=> int(230) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3484--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(230) " Peltzer, K.,Promtussananon, S.. Evaluation of Soul City school and mass media life skills education among junior secondary school learners in South Africa. Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal. 2003. 31:825-834" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "https://www.sbp-journal.com/index.php/sbp/article/view/1297?trendmd_shared=0 " ["citation"]=> string(230) " Peltzer, K.,Promtussananon, S.. Evaluation of Soul City school and mass media life skills education among junior secondary school learners in South Africa. Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal. 2003. 31:825-834" ["intervention"]=> string(774) "The Soul City school and mass media life skills education program, implemented in South Africa, aimed to 1) provide relevant information on the emotional and physical changes of puberty, including contraception and pregnancy; 2) improve HIV-related knowledge, and promote practices that effectively prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); 3) develop skills to enable young people to develop safe sexual behaviors or change risky behavior and make healthy choices for their lives; 4) build young people's capacity to develop healthy relationships; and 5) promote positive values and attitudes towards people living with HIV. The intervention used a life skills workbook and mass media (including television, radio and printed media)." ["summary"]=> string(731) "The Soul City school and mass media life skills education program was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study used a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic information (grade, age, sex, race, ethnic group) and knowledge about the different units covered in the student’s life skills workbook. A total of 3,150 students (age 13-24 years) in Grades 9 and 10 participated in the study. The study found that exposure to the Soul City was positively associated with HIV risk perception and condom use during last instance of sex. Exposure to the Soul City television series was positively associated with condom use, HIV and contraceptive knowledge, self-efficacy and delayed sexual debut." ["year"]=> int(2003) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(260) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(311) } array(3) { [0]=> int(264) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3485--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(147) " Suehiro, Y.,Altman, P.. Female volunteers: An asset to the reproductive health sector in rural Cambodia. Development in Practice. 2003. 13:346-360" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4029659.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(147) " Suehiro, Y.,Altman, P.. Female volunteers: An asset to the reproductive health sector in rural Cambodia. Development in Practice. 2003. 13:346-360" ["intervention"]=> string(391) "This intervention aimed to improve reproductive health (RH) status through increased use of RH services and practices. Trained volunteers conducted home visits to counsel women and their families on RH topics, particularly birth spacing, safe motherhood and HIV prevention. The intervention also employed gender-focused education and communication materials, such as flipcharts and t-shirts." ["summary"]=> string(432) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study sample consisted of 800 married women between the ages of 15-49 years in eight program provinces. Results showed a clear relationship between volunteer visits and RH knowledge and practice. Birth spacing practice more than doubled among those who had had counseling visits compared to those who had not, 42% vs. 15% respectively." ["year"]=> int(2003) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(273) } array(2) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) [3]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3486--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(165) " Van Ginneken, J.,Razzaque, A.. Supply and demand factors in the fertility decline in Matlab, Bangladesh in 1977-1999. European Journal of Population. 2003. 19:29-45" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(60) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1022139328617 " ["citation"]=> string(165) " Van Ginneken, J.,Razzaque, A.. Supply and demand factors in the fertility decline in Matlab, Bangladesh in 1977-1999. European Journal of Population. 2003. 19:29-45" ["intervention"]=> string(414) "The Matlab Family Planning and Health Services project, based in Bangladesh, aimed to address an unmet need for FP services. The project relied on home visits by community health workers to mothers and children to emphasize counselling in matters of maternal and child health and FP and the delivery of maternal and child health and FP care. Community health workers distributed oral and injectable contraceptives." ["summary"]=> string(998) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study used fertility data derived from the vital registration system of the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System (DSS), which is a major part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). The study found that the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR), derived from knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) surveys, increased in the intervention area from 19% in 1977 to 38.2% in 1984 to 68.5% in 1996 while corresponding figures in the control areas were 15.8% in 1984 and 46.5% in 1996. Injectables were by far the most used method of contraception used in the intervention area followed by oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives were by far the most frequently used method in the control area followed by female sterilization. Unmet need for FP was much smaller in the intervention area than in the control area and patterns of decrease over time match the increases in CPR." ["year"]=> int(2003) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(4) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(275) [3]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3487--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(238) " Adeokun, L.,Mantell, J. E.,Weiss, E.,Delano, G. E.,Jagha, T.,Olatoregun, J.,Udo, D.,Akinso, S.,Weiss, E.. Promoting dual protection in family planning clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2002. 28:87-95" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(115) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2002/06/promoting-dual-protection-family-planning-clinics-ibadan-nigeria " ["citation"]=> string(238) " Adeokun, L.,Mantell, J. E.,Weiss, E.,Delano, G. E.,Jagha, T.,Olatoregun, J.,Udo, D.,Akinso, S.,Weiss, E.. Promoting dual protection in family planning clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2002. 28:87-95" ["intervention"]=> string(608) "The intervention aimed to integrate dual-protection services in FP clinics in Nigeria. A training of trainers workshop was conducted with clinic managers to modify existing materials. The workshop produced a manual and curriculum for provider training and included role playing to teach communication and counseling skills. The counseling consisted of increasing clients' recognition of their HIV/sexually transmitted infection risks and the role of condoms in dual protection. The intervention also employed a locally developed flipchart during counseling sessions, posters and pamphlets on dual protection." ["summary"]=> string(881) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study was carried out at six FP clinics (three government clinics and three clinics sponsored by non-governmental organizations) with a total of 15,000 client visits yearly. Structured observations of interactions between FP providers and all new and continuing clients were held. Baseline observations involved 15 service providers (plus nurse trainees) and 325 clients; endline observations involved 15 service providers (plus nurse trainees) and 289 clients. The study found that dual-protection services increased condom uptake in the participating Ibadan FP clinics. Condom purchases increased from a baseline of 2% of all FP visits to 9% at endline. This increase came mainly from acceptance of the female condom, used either alone or in conjunction with another contraceptive." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(255) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } string(29) "insertando Healthcare workers" array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) [3]=> int(461) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3488--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(187) " Agha, S.. A quasi-experimental study to assess the impact of four adolescent sexual health interventions in Sub/Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2002. 28:67-70" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(78) "https://www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/pubs/journals/2806702.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(187) " Agha, S.. A quasi-experimental study to assess the impact of four adolescent sexual health interventions in Sub/Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2002. 28:67-70" ["intervention"]=> string(1338) "Four interventions were implemented in Cameroon, South Africa, Botswana and Guinea. In Cameroon, trained peer educators promoted use of contraceptive products available through a social marketing program. The intervention included peer education, youth clubs, mass media advertising (radio and live talk shows), youth club member t-shirts and caps, and the distribution of informational and educational materials. In South Africa, the campaign promoted safe sex through radio and weekly talk shows. Adolescents were trained to participate in media development, condom distribution and peer education, and 300 new condom outlets were opened. In Botswana, the intervention promoted contraception by establishing youth-friendly dispensaries. Retailers were trained in adolescent sexual health counseling and placed signs identifying them as adolescent-friendly. The campaign also included radio messages and information campaigns directed at parents, teachers and young people and a radio call-in show. In Guinea, peer educators were trained on HIV/AIDS topics, FP and communication techniques. The intervention included reproductive health youth discussions, educational theatre, film presentations and dance and athletic events. Peer educators distributed FP and HIV/AIDS flyers and promotional items (T-shirts, stickers, badges and caps)." ["summary"]=> string(1863) "The interventions were evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. In the four countries, multistage probability sampling was used to select youth in intervention and control areas. In Cameroon, a variety of patterns of change yielded positive effects: Ever-use of condoms increased significantly in the intervention location and did not change in the comparison location; current use of condoms for pregnancy prevention increased in both sites, but the trend was stronger in the intervention site; and use of abstinence for pregnancy prevention declined in the comparison location and increased in the intervention site. In Botswana, a significantly higher likelihood of having taken any measure to protect against pregnancy was reported in the intervention location after the intervention than at baseline, but there was no change in the comparison location, resulting in a significant positive impact of the intervention. In Guinea, a significant reduction in use of condoms at last intercourse in the comparison area and no significant change in the intervention location produced a net positive impact; in addition, the intervention had a net positive impact on ever-use of the pill, because of a positive trend in the intervention area. For men, in Cameroon and Guinea, the interventions had a net positive impact on contraceptive use. Use of a modern method for pregnancy prevention increased significantly in the intervention area in Cameroon but not in the comparison area, and the difference in trends was statistically significant. Reliance on abstinence for pregnancy prevention increased in both areas in Cameroon, but the trend was significantly stronger in the intervention area. In Guinea, because of a significant positive trend in condom use in last sex in the intervention area, the intervention had a net positive impact on this indicator." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(4) { [0]=> int(294) [1]=> int(332) [2]=> int(260) [3]=> int(217) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(3) { [0]=> int(316) [1]=> int(311) [2]=> int(293) } array(8) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(390) [4]=> int(335) [5]=> int(213) [6]=> int(244) [7]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(321) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3489--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(223) " Bossyns, P.,Miye, H.,Vlerberghe, W.. Supply-level measures to increase uptake of family planning services in Niger: The effectiveness of improving responsiveness. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2002. 7:383-390" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00865.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(223) " Bossyns, P.,Miye, H.,Vlerberghe, W.. Supply-level measures to increase uptake of family planning services in Niger: The effectiveness of improving responsiveness. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2002. 7:383-390" ["intervention"]=> string(340) "The intervention aimed to make FP consultations more client-friendly and responsive to clients in Niger. Women were given three cycles of oral contraceptives upon first visit to the clinic with the message to come back whenever they felt they had a problem. Health staff were trained and the training was reinforced during monthly sessions." ["summary"]=> string(1220) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample consisted of 277 women who attended curative and under-fives’ clinics in three program health centers. The study found that implementation of the intervention package was followed by marked increases in FP uptake. Before the intervention, the numbers of new acceptors of oral contraceptive cycles (OCCs) distributed and of progesterone injectables administered were low and stable in all health centers. They increased sharply after the intervention in the three health centers, and in the district as a whole. The yearly number of new acceptors went from an average of 522 per year to 1,509; the number of OCCs increased from a yearly average of 4,224 per year to 9,631; and the number of progesterone injectables increased from 857 to 1,471. In the year after the intervention, the number of new acceptors increased by a factor of 4.5 in the three health centers (and three times for the district as a whole) compared with the years before. The evolution in the numbers of oral contraceptives, injectables, and couple years of protection was similar - a marked increase in the year after the intervention." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(340) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3490--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(136) " Boulay, M.,Storey, J. D.,Sood, S.. Indirect exposure to a family planning mass media campaign in Nepal. J Health Commun. 2002. 7:379-99" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(118) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11013830_Indirect_Exposure_to_a_Family_Planning_Mass_Media_Campaign_in_Nepal " ["citation"]=> string(136) " Boulay, M.,Storey, J. D.,Sood, S.. Indirect exposure to a family planning mass media campaign in Nepal. J Health Commun. 2002. 7:379-99" ["intervention"]=> string(482) "This study examines the effects of indirect exposure to a Nepal FP mass media campaign on individuals' FP behavior. Here, indirect exposure includes when individuals become aware of a program's messages through interactions with others who have personally and directly experienced a campaign. The Nepal mass media campaign included the Radio Communication Project -- national radio dramas and radio spots -- as well as posters, flipcharts and pamphlets, distributed to health posts." ["summary"]=> string(1130) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. Sociometric data, gathered from nearly all women between the ages of 15 and 49 years living in six villages in Dang District, Nepal (n = 667), assessed indirect exposure to the radio program. The study found that exposure to the radio program was associated with behaviors related to FP. Women with any type of exposure to the program were more likely than women not exposed to have reported discussing FP with their spouse. In contrast to FP knowledge, contraceptive use appears to be more influenced by indirect exposure than by direct exposure. Women who were either indirectly exposed to the program or were both directly and indirectly exposed were more likely to report currently using a contraceptive method than women with no exposure or women who had heard of the program but had not been exposed to it indirectly through discussions with peers. There was no difference in contraceptive use between women who were only exposed to the program’s messages indirectly and those women who were both directly and indirectly exposed." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3491--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(221) " Debpuur, C.,Phillips, J. F.,Jackson, E. F.,Nazzar, A.,Ngom, P.,Binka, F. N.. The impact of the Navrongo Project on contraceptive knowledge and use, reproductive preferences, and fertility. Stud Fam Plann. 2002. 33:141-64" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2002.00141.x/full " ["citation"]=> string(221) " Debpuur, C.,Phillips, J. F.,Jackson, E. F.,Nazzar, A.,Ngom, P.,Binka, F. N.. The impact of the Navrongo Project on contraceptive knowledge and use, reproductive preferences, and fertility. Stud Fam Plann. 2002. 33:141-64" ["intervention"]=> string(529) "The Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning Project aimed to bring about reproductive health change by introducing FP services packages in Ghana. There were three intervention groups. In one, trained community health nurses provided doorstep service and contraceptive method delivery. Another employed community mobilization approaches (termed "zurugelu"), such as working with elders and community leaders to drum up support for FP services. A third intervention group combined the community nurse and zurugelu components." ["summary"]=> string(1821) "The project was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. Health centers were randomly assigned to one of the three interventions or a control component. The trial used an open-cohort sample of approximately 1,900 compounds in which all married women of reproductive age have been interviewed in annual cycles since early 1993 to assess reproductive behavior and preferences, contraceptive use, and fertility determinants. Since 1995, all spouses of panel respondents have also been interviewed. The trial found that controlling for time period, age, parity, underlying social characteristics, and baseline differences in contraceptive use, neither the nurse-outreach nor Zurugelu strategy alone were associated with a significantly different odds of modern contraceptive use compared with use in the control area over the duration of the project. Tests of combinations of estimators demonstrate that the incremental effect of the Zurugelu and nurse outreach arms and their interaction term amount to a significant overall increase in modern contraceptive use when taken together in the first three years of project exposure. By the fourth year, this effect was no longer significant. The combined condition of exposure results in a 1.25 relative odds of contraceptive use compared with the no-exposure condition, and a 1.20 higher odds of modern contraceptive use relative to nurse-outreach exposure in the first year of the experiment. Modern contraceptive use increased in all four areas of the project over time. The adjusted prevalence rate was 3.4% in 1993 and rose differentially among the four areas over time. The Zurugelu and nurse-outreach combined treatment was the only type of experimental exposure associated with consistently higher levels of modern contraceptive prevalence, rising to 8.2% in 1999." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(287) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3492--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(218) " Emond, A.,Pollock, J.,Da Costa, N.,Maranhao, T.,Macedo, A.. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2002. 12:101-10" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(82) "http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S1020-49892002000800005&script=sci_arttext " ["citation"]=> string(218) " Emond, A.,Pollock, J.,Da Costa, N.,Maranhao, T.,Macedo, A.. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2002. 12:101-10" ["intervention"]=> string(451) "The ProNatal project aimed to reduce maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the northeast of Brazil. Interventions included, but were not limited to, establishing antenatal clinics at district health centers, opening new maternity facilities, creating a FP clinic and breastfeeding clinic, and introducing local community health agents into the service delivery matrix. Interventions included home visits and health worker training." ["summary"]=> string(529) "ProNatal was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. A sample of 922 households were included in the baseline and 599 household were included at endline. The interviewee in each household was the oldest woman of the household between 15 and 45 years of age. The study found that although the proportion of women using contraceptives (pill, condom, IUD) on a regular basis did not improve, the proportion of women who had undergone tubal ligation increased, from 34% at baseline to 41% at endline." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3493--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(175) " Johnson, B. R.,Ndhlovu, S.,Farr, S. L.,Chipato, T.. Reducing unplanned pregnancy and abortion in Zimbabwe through postabortion contraception. Stud Fam Plann. 2002. 33:195-202" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2002.00195.x/full " ["citation"]=> string(175) " Johnson, B. R.,Ndhlovu, S.,Farr, S. L.,Chipato, T.. Reducing unplanned pregnancy and abortion in Zimbabwe through postabortion contraception. Stud Fam Plann. 2002. 33:195-202" ["intervention"]=> string(674) "This intervention set out to improve postabortion contraception services in a large public hospital in Zimbabwe. Following treatment for incomplete abortion, participants at the intervention site received ward-based FP services, including FP information and counseling and the option to receive condoms, oral contraceptives, or Depo Provera injections on-site. Clients desiring other methods received referrals. Participants also received quarterly reminders by mail to return for a check-up; if they attended, they received contraceptive resupplies or the option to change methods, and Z$50 to offset transportation and meal expenses. Others received follow-up home visits." ["summary"]=> string(786) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. A total of 1,355 women treated for incomplete abortion were recruited from the intervention site and 873 women were recruited from the control site. For this analysis, only women who stated a desire to postpone pregnancy for at least two years from the time of the index abortion and who kept at least one follow-up appointment were included. The trial found the percentages of women using FP in the intervention group were constantly higher than in the control group at three, six, nine and 12 months. Significantly more women at the intervention site than at the control site were using a highly effective contraceptive method after controlling for baseline marital status and baseline contraceptive use (p<0.0001)." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(292) } array(4) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) [3]=> int(278) [4]=> int(224) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3494--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(180) " Sharan, M.,Valente, T. W.. Spousal communication and family planning adoption: Effects of a radio drama serial in Nepal. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2002. 28:16-25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(128) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2002/03/spousal-communication-and-family-planning-adoption-effects-radio-drama-serial " ["citation"]=> string(180) " Sharan, M.,Valente, T. W.. Spousal communication and family planning adoption: Effects of a radio drama serial in Nepal. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2002. 28:16-25" ["intervention"]=> string(244) "The intervention, based in Nepal, aimed to address the unmet need for FP services. The Radio Communication Project consisted of two entertainment-education radio serials, supplemented with radio spots, orientation workshops and print materials." ["summary"]=> string(1350) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study included panel data from a population-based survey in Nepal that was collected over three waves, from 1994 to 1999, to evaluate the impact of a radio drama serial among couples of reproductive age. Data from 1,442 women were used who were interviewed at all three waves. The study found that FP use at Wave Three was not significantly associated with exposure to the radio program after controlling for prior FP use, the respondent's desire to have no more children, and, in one set of calculations, demographic variables. Family planning use at Wave Three was significantly associated with contemporaneous spousal communication (OR, 10.2 and 6.8) and with FP use at baseline (OR, 7.4 and 7.7) and Wave Two (2.0 in each model). It was also significantly associated with spousal communication at Wave One in the analysis that did not include demographic controls (OR, 1.9). The finding that spousal communication existed at baseline and was associated with the practice of FP at Wave Three suggests that two groups of audience members adopt FP through different pathways: couples who communicate about FP tend to adopt a contraceptive method, and those who do not communicate may begin doing so as a result of exposure to a mass media campaign." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3495--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(161) " Shrestha, S.. Increasing contraceptive acceptance through empowerment of female community health volunteers in rural Nepal. J Health Popul Nutr. 2002. 20:156-65" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/23498937.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(161) " Shrestha, S.. Increasing contraceptive acceptance through empowerment of female community health volunteers in rural Nepal. J Health Popul Nutr. 2002. 20:156-65" ["intervention"]=> string(424) "This intervention sought to improve contraceptive acceptance among married women through empowering female community health volunteers (FCHVs) in a village in central Nepal. Participating volunteers attended an empowerment training, and then were expected to empower their female clients to increase their contraceptive use. Empowerment classroom sessions included role playing, community mapping and storytelling exercises." ["summary"]=> string(1026) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. About 25-30 currently married women of reproductive age (CMWRA) from each ward of Kakani Village Development Committee, who were currently non-users of contraceptives and not pregnant, were selected for the impact evaluation. The study found that 53.9% of the 241 contraceptive non-user CMWRA started using a contraceptive method after the intervention. About two-thirds of the CMWRA or their spouses were using temporary methods, one third were using permanent methods. Male sterilization was the method of choice for 82% of the permanent users (n=45). The most commonly adopted temporary method was Depo-Provera, followed by oral contraceptives and condom. Approximately a half of the current users (46.9%) reported they jointly decided with their husbands to use a method, while 28.5% of the CMWRA decided themselves. The study also measured amount of contact/visits with health workers/providers and client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(8) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(4) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(244) [3]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3496--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(183) " Stadler, J.,Hlongwa, L.. Monitoring and evaluation of loveLife's AIDS prevention and advocacy activities in South Africa, 1999-2001. Evaluation and Program Planning. 2002. 25:365-376" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149718902000484 " ["citation"]=> string(183) " Stadler, J.,Hlongwa, L.. Monitoring and evaluation of loveLife's AIDS prevention and advocacy activities in South Africa, 1999-2001. Evaluation and Program Planning. 2002. 25:365-376" ["intervention"]=> string(305) "loveLife, based in South Africa, sought to reduce the rate of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy among adolescents. Using radio, television, print, billboards, community outreach and a counseling service hotline, adolescent-friendly services were provided throughout the community." ["summary"]=> string(629) "loveLife was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. After the first year of loveLife (1999-2000), two national surveys were undertaken to evaluate the different phases of the awareness campaign. A total of 1,000 participants were randomly selected and interviewed, including 600 adolescents (age 12-17 years) and 400 adults over age 25. The study found that, amongst youth who are sexually active and had been exposed to loveLife (n = 174), significant percentages had used condoms (78%), reduced the number of sexual partners (69%), or had been more assertive in insisting on condom usage (63%)." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(260) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(311) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3497--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(168) " Sultan, M.,Cleland, J. G.,Ali, M. M.. Assessment of a new approach to family planning services in rural Pakistan. American Journal of Public Health. 2002. 92:1168-1172" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(61) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13625180600929168 " ["citation"]=> string(168) " Sultan, M.,Cleland, J. G.,Ali, M. M.. Assessment of a new approach to family planning services in rural Pakistan. American Journal of Public Health. 2002. 92:1168-1172" ["intervention"]=> string(339) "The intervention in Pakistan aimed to increase the use of modern reversible methods of contraception in rural areas in Pakistan. Activities included lady health worker (LHW) training and supply with oral contraceptives and condoms and LHW home visits with clients. Visits covered a range of topics such as fertility, FP and general health." ["summary"]=> string(838) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study used data on ever-married women age 15-49 years from the rural portion of the Pakistan Fertility and Family Planning Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted in 1996/1997. The study found the overall prevalence of contraceptive use in rural areas was 19%, compared with 11% recorded by the previous 1994/1995 national survey. Nine percent of women reported using IUDs, condoms, oral pills, or injectables; 4% of couples had been sterilized, and 6% were using coitus interruptus or periodic abstinence. Married women living within five kilometers of two community-based workers were significantly more likely to be using a modern, reversible method of contraception than those with no access (OR, 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11 - 2.71)." ["year"]=> int(2002) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(282) [5]=> int(256) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(278) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) [2]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3498--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(215) " Babalola, S.,Sakolsky, N.,Vondrasek, C.,Mounlom, D.,Brown, J.,Tchupo, J. P.. The impact of a community mobilization project on health-related knowledge and practices in Cameroon. J Community Health. 2001. 26:459-77" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(58) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1012511424693 " ["citation"]=> string(215) " Babalola, S.,Sakolsky, N.,Vondrasek, C.,Mounlom, D.,Brown, J.,Tchupo, J. P.. The impact of a community mobilization project on health-related knowledge and practices in Cameroon. J Community Health. 2001. 26:459-77" ["intervention"]=> string(568) "The Njangi Community Mobilization Project in Cameroon aimed to increase knowledge of FP methods, increase use of modern FP, increase use of condoms, increase utilization of FP and reproductive health services and increase use of ORS for treatment of diarrheal disease. Change agents engaged the community in activities such as talks, theatre, parades, musical events, dance and others. Change agents were trained in a variety of health and communication channels, but were free to cover project issues how they deemed appropriate and how to best address the community." ["summary"]=> string(1731) "The project was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. Men and women age 15-49 years were randomly selected through a multi-stage selection procedure which involved first selecting a number of enumeration areas in Mbouda and Djoungolo, then households within the selected enumeration areas, and finally all eligible respondents of the same sex in each selected household. The sample size was 803 men and women for the baseline survey and 854 for the follow-up survey. The study found that the results of the project’s impact on contraceptive use were mixed. Whereas in Mbouda the proportion of women using a method increased significantly from 39% at baseline to 48% at follow-up, in Djoungolo, contraceptive prevalence remained the same (20%). Note that although overall contraceptive use stagnated in Djoungolo, the few women exposed to the project in that location nonetheless demonstrated a significantly higher contraceptive use level than their counterparts who were not exposed. In Mbouda, not only was there an increase in contraceptive prevalence, there was also a change in the methods used. Specifically, methods requiring provider input - such as IUD (from 6% of users at baseline to 14%) and Norplant (from 0% to 7.5%) - were more commonly used after the intervention. In Mbouda, use of facility-based FP services during the previous 12 months increased from 13% at the baseline to 29% at follow-up. The follow-up data showed that program exposure was associated with increased use of facility-based FP services: 48% of the women exposed to the project compared with only 19% of their counterparts who were not exposed used facility-based FP services during the reference period." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(294) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(281) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(4) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(244) [3]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3499--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(199) " Babalola, S.,Vondrasek, C.,Brown, J.,Traore, R.. The impact of a regional family planning service promotion initiative in Sub/Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2001. 27:186" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(123) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/2001/12/impact-regional-family-planning-service-promotion-initiative-sub-saharan " ["citation"]=> string(199) " Babalola, S.,Vondrasek, C.,Brown, J.,Traore, R.. The impact of a regional family planning service promotion initiative in Sub/Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2001. 27:186" ["intervention"]=> string(657) "The Golden Circle campaign, implemented in Cameroon, aimed to promote and improve FP service delivery sites. The campaign employed mass media (including television and radio jingles), print materials (including posters, a comic strip and a logo featuring a smiling provider inside a gold circle), a Gold Circle advocacy tool and community mobilization activities that specifically sought to empower clients and the community to expect and demand certain quality standards from clinics and providers. Campaign messages promoted Gold Circle clinics as quality clinics that offer a variety of contraceptive methods, shorter waiting times, and caring providers." ["summary"]=> string(885) "The campaign was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study used data from a follow-up survey to the 1998 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and site statistics from Santé Familiale et Prevention du SIDA clinics. A total of 571 women who had been interviewed during the 1998 Cameroon DHS were reinterviewed regarding their exposure to the Gold Circle campaign and their perceptions on and use of contraceptives. The study found that contraceptive prevalence for all women increased by 20% between baseline and follow-up. While the prevalence of contraceptive use increased slightly among women who were not exposed to the campaign (4%), among those who were exposed there was a considerable and significant increase (39%). Women who were exposed to the campaign contributed the large majority (89%) of the overall increase in contraceptive use." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(294) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3500--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(187) " Brieger, W. R.,Delano, G. E.,Lane, C. G.,Oladepo, O.,Oyediran, K. A.. West African Youth Initiative: outcome of a reproductive health education program. J Adolesc Health. 2001. 29:436-46" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X01002646 " ["citation"]=> string(187) " Brieger, W. R.,Delano, G. E.,Lane, C. G.,Oladepo, O.,Oyediran, K. A.. West African Youth Initiative: outcome of a reproductive health education program. J Adolesc Health. 2001. 29:436-46" ["intervention"]=> string(382) "The West African Youth Initiative (WAYI) sought to improve knowledge of sexuality and reproductive health and promote safe sex behaviors and contraceptive use among adolescents in Nigeria and Ghana. Peer educators were trained in health topics and communication and basic counseling skills to provide group talks and one-on-one sessions, as well as print materials for participants." ["summary"]=> string(913) "WAYI was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial included both in-school and out-of-school youth. A random sampling of 200 in-school youth (100 in the intervention and 100 in the control) were selected to complete a self-administered survey. An additional 3,585 interviews were conducted with out-of-school youth, including 911 youth at baseline and 908 at follow-up in the intervention sites, and 873 at baseline and 893 at follow-up in control communities. The trial found that the proportion of youth in the intervention group who reported use of a modern contraceptive method increased significantly from 47.2% of 309 at baseline to 55.6% of 315 at follow-up (Fisher’s exact p = .045). Findings from the control areas showed a slight decrease between baseline and follow-up. When comparing the groups at baseline, the Fisher’s exact p value was p=.80, whereas at follow-up it was p=.004." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(2) { [0]=> int(259) [1]=> int(287) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3501--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(186) " Canto De Cetina, T. E.,Canto, P.,Ordonez Luna, M.. Effect of counseling to improve compliance in Mexican women receiving depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. Contraception. 2001. 63:143-6" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010782401001810 " ["citation"]=> string(186) " Canto De Cetina, T. E.,Canto, P.,Ordonez Luna, M.. Effect of counseling to improve compliance in Mexican women receiving depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. Contraception. 2001. 63:143-6" ["intervention"]=> string(440) "The intervention, implemented in Mexico, aimed to determine the effect of pretreatment counseling upon discontinuation of Depo-Provera (DMPA), given for contraception. Participants received structured pretreatment counseling that centered on side effects and the mode of action of DMPA. Women were also provided information by means of an audiovisual set to educate them on the risks, benefits and overall characteristics of the injectable." ["summary"]=> string(924) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial was conducted at the Family Planning Clinic of the “Centro de Investigaciones Hideyo Noguchi” in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, with new contraceptive users who voluntarily chose their contraceptive methods. The study included 350 women: 175 received structured counseling (intervention group) and 175 received only routine counseling (control group). The trial found that more of the women who received structured counseling chose to continue DMPA treatment than women who received only routine counseling in spite of the collateral effects. At 12 months, the cumulative termination rates were 17.1% (30 out of 175) for the structured counseling groups, compared to 43.4% (76 out of 175) for the control group. Overall, the structured counseling group had a statistically significantly lower dropout rate than the routine counseling group (p = 0.05)." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(329) } array(1) { [0]=> int(282) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3502--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(213) " Ellertson, C.,Ambardekar, S.,Hedley, A.,Coyaji, K.,Trussell, J.,Blanchard, K.. Emergency contraception: Randomized comparison of advance provision and information only. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2001. 98:570-575" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002978440101506X " ["citation"]=> string(213) " Ellertson, C.,Ambardekar, S.,Hedley, A.,Coyaji, K.,Trussell, J.,Blanchard, K.. Emergency contraception: Randomized comparison of advance provision and information only. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2001. 98:570-575" ["intervention"]=> string(322) "Implemented in India, the intervention aimed to provide women with emergency contraceptives (EC) therapy and education. Participants received information about EC that included what the therapy is, where to obtain it and how to use it. Participants also received three courses of the Yuzpe regimen to keep in case of need." ["summary"]=> string(676) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial recruited 411 barrier method users at a large urban FP clinic in Pune, India. The study found that women who received information plus EC supplies were not significantly more likely than women who only received information to have had unprotected intercourse, even adjusting for differing average lengths of study participation. Women with advance EC supplies, however, were almost twice as likely (79% vs 44%) to use EC following unprotected intercourse. The difference was not, however, statistically significant, perhaps because of small numbers. No one used emergency contraception more than once." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(1) { [0]=> int(303) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3503--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(147) " Hakim, A.. Population policy shifts and their implications for population stabilisation in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review. 2001. 40:551-573" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(55) "http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/201/Volume4/551-573.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(147) " Hakim, A.. Population policy shifts and their implications for population stabilisation in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review. 2001. 40:551-573" ["intervention"]=> string(341) "The intervention in Pakistan aimed to accelerate the pace of fertility decline, improve reproductive health and promote gender equity. Activities included a contraceptive method (pills and condoms) distribution campaign, village-based FP worker and lady health worker training, mass media campaign and other supportive events and activities." ["summary"]=> string(556) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study analyzed data from four nationally representative surveys: Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey; Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey; Pakistan Fertility and Family Planning Survey; and Pakistan Reproductive Health and Family Planning Survey. The study found that the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) only reached 28% in 2000-01 with several decades of program implementation. The increase mainly occurred in the 1990s when CPR almost doubled." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(8) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(213) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3504--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(189) " Kim, Y. M.,Kols, A.,Nyakauru, R.,Marangwanda, C.,Chibatamoto, P.. Promoting sexual responsibility among young people in Zimbabwe. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2001. 27:11-19" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(78) "https://www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/pubs/journals/2701101.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(189) " Kim, Y. M.,Kols, A.,Nyakauru, R.,Marangwanda, C.,Chibatamoto, P.. Promoting sexual responsibility among young people in Zimbabwe. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2001. 27:11-19" ["intervention"]=> string(587) "The Promotion of Youth Responsibility Project in Zimbabwe aimed to increase reproductive health knowledge among young people, including HIV and pregnancy, and heighten approval of safer sexual behaviors and reproductive health service use. All campaign materials reinforced messages emphasizing the consequences of unprotected sex; negotiation skills; discussion with friends, family and providers; and safer sexual behaviors. The intervention included a multimedia campaign featuring posters, leaflets, a newsletter, a radio program, launch events, dramas, peer educators and a hotline." ["summary"]=> string(763) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample included male and female youth aged 10-24 years. The baseline survey was conducted among 1,426 youth three months before the campaign. The follow-up survey with 1,400 respondents was conducted one year later, which was approximately three months after the end of the campaign. The trial found that use of modern contraceptives increased significantly in campaign sites between the surveys. Among respondents who had had sex within the previous six months, the proportion who reportedly used a modern method during their last sexual encounter rose from 56% at baseline to 67% at follow-up (OR, 1.7, p<.05). Use of modern methods did not change significantly in comparison areas." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(292) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3505--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(169) " Kiyak, M.,Yolsal, N.,Erdal, S.. A study on the role of counseling service and follow-up in the use of family planning methods. Marmara Medical Journal. 2001. 14:232-237" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(84) "http://dspace.marmara.edu.tr/bitstream/handle/11424/4753/D20011404-7.pdf?sequence=1 " ["citation"]=> string(169) " Kiyak, M.,Yolsal, N.,Erdal, S.. A study on the role of counseling service and follow-up in the use of family planning methods. Marmara Medical Journal. 2001. 14:232-237" ["intervention"]=> string(514) "The intervention, based in Turkey, aimed to change women's attitudes toward modern contraceptive use and educate midwives to act as FP counsellors. Midwives were trained by role play techniques, posters and similar methods on FP and public education. The midwives provided education on topics such as general health care, prenatal care, labor, infant care, nutrition, development and education. Women were also educated on contraceptive methods available through the demonstration of devices, posters and booklets." ["summary"]=> string(1044) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample consisted of 455 women of reproductive age who did not use FP methods, 10 women for the intervention and 10 women for the control group for each chosen midwife. The trial participants were followed for two years. The program was then extended to the whole district, and data related to the use of FP methods for the last five years was evaluated. The trial found that, after one year, 67.4% of the intervention group, and 43.4% of the control group were using a modern FP method. Of those using a FP method in the intervention group, 37.7% were using an IUD (compared to 16.8% in the control), 8.4% oral contraceptives (compared to 7.6% in the control); 20.5% condoms (compared to 17.4% in the control), and 0.7% spermicides (compared to 0% in the control). Family planning method use in the whole district increased slightly from 76.3% to 79.5% between 1994 - 2000. There was an apparent increase in the rate of women using modern methods from 37% to 47.1%." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(330) } array(8) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(281) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(244) [3]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3506--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(170) " Speizer, I. S.,Tambashe, B. O.,Tegang, S. P.. An evaluation of the "Entre Nous Jeunes" peer-educator program for adolescents in Cameroon. Stud Fam Plann. 2001. 32:339-51" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2001.00339.x/full " ["citation"]=> string(170) " Speizer, I. S.,Tambashe, B. O.,Tegang, S. P.. An evaluation of the "Entre Nous Jeunes" peer-educator program for adolescents in Cameroon. Stud Fam Plann. 2001. 32:339-51" ["intervention"]=> string(577) "The intervention, Entre Nous Jeunes, is a peer educator program in Cameroon that aimed to increase contraceptive prevalence and reduce the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy among adolescents. Through discussion groups, one-on-one meetings and health and sports association gatherings, the peer educators worked within their community to inform and refer their peers to health or social centers for services. Project promotional materials were also distributed through the community including calendars, comic strips and posters." ["summary"]=> string(599) "The Entre Nous Jeunes Project was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. A randomly selected household sample of adolescents age 10-25 years was selected to be interviewed at baseline. At follow up, the sample surveyed was restricted to adolescents aged 12-25. The trial found that when looking at both the intervention and control communities at follow up, there was a significant increase in any modern method use as compared to baseline. There was also a significant increase in current use of any modern method and condom use due to exposure to the intervention compared to the control." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(294) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3507--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(167) " Turan, J. M.,Nalbant, H.,Bulut, A.,Sahip, Y.. Including expectant fathers in antenatal education programmes in Istanbul, Turkey. Reprod Health Matters. 2001. 9:114-25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968808001900989 " ["citation"]=> string(167) " Turan, J. M.,Nalbant, H.,Bulut, A.,Sahip, Y.. Including expectant fathers in antenatal education programmes in Istanbul, Turkey. Reprod Health Matters. 2001. 9:114-25" ["intervention"]=> string(663) "The intervention, implemented in Turkey, was designed to meet couples' information needs for information on a variety of health topics, and women's desire for communication and understanding from their partners. Emphasis was placed on describing the important role fathers can play supporting women during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum. The main components of the program were an information booklet, a telephone counseling service, and educational sessions. Couples' session topics included pregnancy, childbirth, infant feeding and care and postpartum women's health and FP. Additionally, women were invited to attend group sessions during their pregnancy." ["summary"]=> string(1183) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. A total of 333 pregnant women expecting their first child agreed to participate in the study. Of the four postpartum health behaviors examined, only the use of contraceptives offered through the medical system (IUD, pills, sterilization and condoms) was significantly higher in the intervention groups (62% in the couple group and 57% in the women-only group) as compared to the control group (47%). Logistic regression analysis was used to control for background characteristics and potential confounding variables when examining the relationship between study group and FP method use. This analysis revealed that use of modern methods in the couples' group was significantly higher than modern method use in both the control group and the women-only group. Participants in the couples group were 1.49 times as likely as control group members to use a modern FP method. The odds ratio for the women-only group versus the control group did not differ significantly from 1.0 (OR=.97, p=.865). The woman's source of postpartum health care and her past experience with FP methods retained significance in the final model." ["year"]=> int(2001) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(330) } array(5) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(275) [3]=> int(256) [4]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(214) [2]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3508--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(126) " Islam, M. M.,Hasan, A. H.. Mass media exposure and its impact on family planning in Bangladesh. J Biosoc Sci. 2000. 32:513-26" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(90) "https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/S0021932000005137 " ["citation"]=> string(126) " Islam, M. M.,Hasan, A. H.. Mass media exposure and its impact on family planning in Bangladesh. J Biosoc Sci. 2000. 32:513-26" ["intervention"]=> string(273) "In Bangladesh, the national FP program aimed to address unmet need for FP knowledge and use in the country. In order to increase public knowledge about contraceptives, the information, education and communication campaign included radio, television, billboards and posters." ["summary"]=> string(1926) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure known study design. The study used data extracted from the 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Data from a total of 9,640 ever-married women aged 10-49 was included in the study sample. The study found that, except for billboard exposure and radio ownership, all other mass media related variables had positive and significant effects on the odds of current use of modern contraceptive methods relative to never use of contraception. Women who were exposed to FP radio messages had a 13% higher chance of being a current users of modern contraceptive methods compared with those who have no exposure to FP radio messages. The probability of being a current user of modern contraceptive methods increased by 26% if women were exposed to FP TV messages and by 37% if women are exposed to FP poster messages, compared with those who were unexposed to FP TV messages and poster messages respectively. Women possessing a TV in their household had a 18% higher chance of being a current user of modern contraceptive methods compared with those possessing no TV in their household. The study also found that poster exposure and radio ownership have positive and significant effects on the odds of current use of traditional contraceptive methods relative to never use of contraception. The results indicate that the women who are exposed to FP poster messages have an 80% higher chance of being current users of traditional contraceptive methods than those who are unexposed to FP poster messages. The probability of being a current user of traditional contraceptive methods is increased by 21% if women have a radio in their household. The net effect of radio, TV and poster exposure on current use of modern methods also remains significant when the effect of other socioeconomic and demographic variables are simultaneously taken into account." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3509--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(161) " Kincaid, D. L.. Mass media, ideation, and behavior: A longitudinal analysis of contraceptive change in the Philippines. Communication Research. 2000. 27:723-763" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(63) "http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/009365000027006003 " ["citation"]=> string(161) " Kincaid, D. L.. Mass media, ideation, and behavior: A longitudinal analysis of contraceptive change in the Philippines. Communication Research. 2000. 27:723-763" ["intervention"]=> string(328) "The intervention, based in the Philippines, aimed to promote contraceptive use. Activities included broadcasts of eight television spots in which doctors or nurses discussed contraceptive methods and two spots in which small groups of men (carpenters, drivers, janitors, vendors, factory workers) discuss reasons to practice FP." ["summary"]=> string(1051) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study used a nationally representative, longitudinal (panel) sample survey of 2,000 women. The study found that modern contraceptive use increased from 29.6% to 31.7%, a gain of 2.1 % points in the six months period of the campaign. For every variable included in the construction of ideation, there was a significant difference in the continuation of modern contraceptive use. For overall ideation, those with low levels had a continuation rate of 14%, whereas those with high levels had a continuation rate of 35.1%. Level of message recall also had a significant dose-response effect on the continuation of modern method use: 18.3% for low levels, 24.7% for medium recall, and 30% for high levels of recall. With the lagged variables and the intervening variable excluded, the analysis revealed a significant direct effect of the mass media campaign on modern method use (OR, 1.08, p<0.01) after controlling for the effects of confounding factors." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(341) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3510--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(139) " Kincaid, D. L.. Social networks, ideation, and contraceptive behavior in Bangladesh: a longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2000. 50:215-31" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953699002762 " ["citation"]=> string(139) " Kincaid, D. L.. Social networks, ideation, and contraceptive behavior in Bangladesh: a longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2000. 50:215-31" ["intervention"]=> string(790) "Implemented in Bangladesh, this intervention aimed to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs) in delivering FP services in Bangladesh through a "social network approach." Rather than rely on private FWA visits to individual homes, the social network approach included training for FWAs on interpersonal communication, counseling and group leadership skills; identifying and employing existing village communication networks and influential "local link" individuals within those networks; establishing rotating peer discussion groups on health and FP topics in local link volunteers' houses; and providing FP methods during group discussions rather than at individual in-home visits. Audiovisual materials (e.g., audio cassette programs) were also used." ["summary"]=> string(1605) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. A longitudinal (panel) sample survey of women was conducted in three of seven thanas where the social network approach was being replicated. The final sample included 1,862 women overall and 1,313 married women age 14-49 years. Of these married women, 860 were interviewed at both points in time and comprise the intact panel used for statistical analysis. Although the prevalence of modern method use was initially greater among social network intervention participants (57.9%) than those visited at home (42.1%), the study found the rate of change among social network participants during the two-year period was greater. Prevalence among participants in the social network approach increased by 4.7 percentage points compared to 0.9 percentage points among women who continued to be visited at home, and declined 9.4 percentage points among women with no FWA contact at all. The odds of using a modern contraceptive among women who were visited at home by an FWA were 2.9 times greater than women with no FWA contact, and the odds of using a modern method were over five times greater among women participating in the social network approach than women with no FWA contact. The odds ratio for the social network approach was significantly greater than the odds ratio for FWA home visit (w 2=5.25; Pr0.02). The regression analysis confirmed the second hypothesis that the social network approach has a positive impact on modern contraceptive use that is greater than the impact of conventional FWA home visits." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3511--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(89) " Kincaid, D. L.. Mass media, ideation, and behavior. Communication Research. 2000. 27:723" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(63) "http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/009365000027006003 " ["citation"]=> string(89) " Kincaid, D. L.. Mass media, ideation, and behavior. Communication Research. 2000. 27:723" ["intervention"]=> string(391) "The intervention, implemented in the Philippines, aimed to increase contraceptive use. The intervention used a mass media campaign to distribute messages related to FP. The mass media campaign consisted of six method-specific television spots (developed for a previous campaign) and four additional spots - two to promote breastfeeding and injectables and two to involve men in FP decisions." ["summary"]=> string(1438) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. The longitudinal panel design was used to determine the impact of the mass media campaign on contraceptive intention and use. A nationally representative sample of 2,000 married women, age 15-49 years, were interviewed before the campaign, and 1,563 (78.2%) were reinterviewed six months later (after the campaign). The study found that modern contraceptive use increased from 29.6% to 31.7%, a gain of 2.1 percentage points during the six-month campaign. During the campaign, 24.3% of married women continued to use contraceptives, 36% continued as non-users, 7.4% adopted modern contraceptives, and 5.4% discontinued modern contraceptives. The odds ratio for campaign recall was 1.08, so for every additional message recalled, the odds of using a modern method increased 1.08 times (p<.001). Campaign recall was also significantly related to ideation and intention to use contraception. All seven elements of ideation were significantly related to campaign message recall, modern method use, and intention and use of contraceptives. The elements include: 1) knowledge of modern contraceptive methods, 2) attitudes towards the practice FP, 3) attitudes towards contraceptive methods, 4) discussion of FP with one’s husband, 5) encouragement of FP by one’s husband, 6) discussion of FP with other women, and (7) advocacy of FP to others." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(341) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3512--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(242) " Lazcano Ponce, E. C.,Sloan, N. L.,Winikoff, B.,Langer, A.,Coggins, C.,Heimburger, A.,Conde-Glez, C. J.,Salmeron, J.. The power of information and contraceptive choice in a family planning setting in Mexico. Sex Transm Infect. 2000. 76:277-81" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1744176/ " ["citation"]=> string(242) " Lazcano Ponce, E. C.,Sloan, N. L.,Winikoff, B.,Langer, A.,Coggins, C.,Heimburger, A.,Conde-Glez, C. J.,Salmeron, J.. The power of information and contraceptive choice in a family planning setting in Mexico. Sex Transm Infect. 2000. 76:277-81" ["intervention"]=> string(517) "The intervention in Mexico sought to help avoid IUD use by women with cervical infections. The intervention consisted of nurse training, interpersonal nurse-client counseling sessions, a physical exam and laboratory sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Nurses provided female clients with information about contraceptives, their benefits and risks, and information about STIs and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) using a flip chart before being asking clients to select their preferred contraceptive method." ["summary"]=> string(1571) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial sample included women who presented to the FP clinic and gave informed consent to participate in the study. Women were excluded from the study if they were currently using an IUD, coming for tubal ligation, were pregnant, had used a vaginal douche within 48 hours or had taken antibiotics that treat gonorrhea or chlamydia within 10 days of presentation. A sample of 2,107 women were assigned to study groups, 1,033 to the control group and 1,074 to the intervention group, by permuted randomization done in blocks of 50 to assure equal sample sizes between the groups. The trial found that only 44 of 2,107 study participants had gonorrhea (n=1) or chlamydia (n=43). Overall, fewer women in the intervention group selected the IUD compared with women recommended by physicians to use the IUD in the standard care group (58.2% v 88.2%, p=0.0000). The difference was even more pronounced in women with gonorrhea or chlamydia, where 47.8% of infected women in the intervention group inappropriately choose the IUD compared with 95.2% of infected women in the control group for whom physicians recommended the IUD (p=0.0006). Physicians recommended IUDs for 90.0% of all women in the intervention group (p=0.0000 v women’s choice) and for 87.0% of infected women in the intervention group (Yates’s corrected p=0.012 v women’s choice). More infected than uninfected women in the intervention group chose condoms as their method of contraception (21.7% v 15.5%), although not significantly more." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(329) } array(1) { [0]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3513--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(131) " Luck, M.,Jarju, E.,Nell, M. D.,George, M. O.. Mobilizing demand for contraception in rural Gambia. Stud Fam Plann. 2000. 31:325-35" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2000.00325.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(131) " Luck, M.,Jarju, E.,Nell, M. D.,George, M. O.. Mobilizing demand for contraception in rural Gambia. Stud Fam Plann. 2000. 31:325-35" ["intervention"]=> string(1144) "This intervention was implemented in rural Gambia, and was designed to mobilize demand for contraception to increase use of modern contraceptives. Three circuits were chosen: one circuit received demand-mobilization together with improved availability interventions; one circuit received demand-mobilization interventions only; and one circuit received no new interventions. Demand mobilization activities included: 1) selecting community women to serve on a health subcommittee, training them on topics such as at-risk pregnancy monitoring, FP, malaria and sanitation, and then the women sharing the information with other village women; and 2) meetings with imams and the community to discuss how the Koran supports FP through child spacing, maternal and child welfare and other themes. Improved-availability interventions consisted of giving stipends, gasoline, and other material assistance (e.g., health information management forms, notebooks, furniture) to community health nurses to help them travel to and successfully document their client meetings. All three circuits continued to receive the standard Ministry of Health FP services." ["summary"]=> string(1435) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The community trial was conducted in three primary health care circuits in the North Bank Division of The Gambia. Each circuit consisted of one key village where a Ministry of Health community health nurse resided and several satellite villages nearby. Surveys were administered to a random sample of women aged 15-49 residing in each of the three circuits; 420 respondents were selected randomly from lists of all women of reproductive age residing in the three circuits at baseline and endline. The trial found that, after controlling for parity and ethnicity, non-users living in the two intervention circuits had significantly higher odds of adopting modern contraceptives in the post-intervention period than did non-users living in the control circuit (OR 3.9 and OR 3.8 for the demand-mobilization + improved availability and demand mobilization-only circuits, respectively; p<0.05 for each circuit). No significant difference was found between the effects of the two interventions. The trial also found that contact with the health subcommittee was associated with increased current use of contraceptives. Having been visited by a subcommittee member doubled the likelihood of current use (RR 1.95; 95% CI 1.2- 3.1; p<0.05), whereas having discussed FP with a health subcommittee member tripled the likelihood of current use (RR 3.1; 95% CI 2.1-4.7; p<0.01)." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(342) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(244) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3514--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(145) " Ozgur, S.,Ihsan Bozkurt, A.,Ozcirpici, B.. The effects of family planning education provided to different gender groups. Bjog. 2000. 107:1226-32" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(79) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2000.tb11611.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(145) " Ozgur, S.,Ihsan Bozkurt, A.,Ozcirpici, B.. The effects of family planning education provided to different gender groups. Bjog. 2000. 107:1226-32" ["intervention"]=> string(629) "Based in Turkey, this project included two interventions -- one for men and one for women -- to determine if women or men should be preferred as the priority audience for FP changes in knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. In this intervention, FP education was given to women and men using standard family planning health education materials obtained from the local health office. Three treatments were implemented - 1) only women received FP education in the village of Atalar, 2) only husbands received FP education in the village of Isikli, and 3) both women and their husbands received FP education in the village of Yamaqoba." ["summary"]=> string(637) "The interventions were evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample consisted of currently married women aged between 15-49 years and their husbands. The study found that the rate of any contraceptive use among women was not changed in all intervention groups, but the rate of effective contraceptive use among women using any contraceptive method significantly increased in all intervention groups, especially the group where FP education was given to both women and their husbands. Usage of the withdrawal method decreased and use of the IUD increased. The study also measured couple/spousal communication about FP." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(330) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3515--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(269) " Peterson, A. E.,Perez-Escamilla, R.,Labboka, M. H.,Hight, V.,Von Hertzen, H.,Van Look, P.. Multicenter study of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) III: Effectiveness, duration, and satisfaction with reduced client-provider contact. Contraception. 2000. 62:221-230" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010782400001712 " ["citation"]=> string(269) " Peterson, A. E.,Perez-Escamilla, R.,Labboka, M. H.,Hight, V.,Von Hertzen, H.,Van Look, P.. Multicenter study of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) III: Effectiveness, duration, and satisfaction with reduced client-provider contact. Contraception. 2000. 62:221-230" ["intervention"]=> string(1352) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study recruited 302 women who chose to use LAM postpartum following counseling on the method. Each site recruited at least 10 and up to a maximum of 50 LAM acceptors. The study found that 36% of LAM acceptors had never used a FP method before. Of these women, 63% went on to use another method of FP when LAM no longer provided protection. Among all women in the study, 71.9% chose to use another FP method after they had discontinued LAM. Of those women who had switched to another method of FP, 79.5% did so within the first two weeks of discontinuing LAM, and 88% did so within four weeks of ending LAM. At three of the sites, Jos and Sagamu in Nigeria, and Sweden, 100% of the study participants used another FP method after discontinuing LAM. At two additional sites, the United Kingdom and the United States, continuation of FP was at or above 75%. Following the discontinuation of LAM, natural FP/periodic abstinence was the most commonly chosen method, with 19.7% of women opting for these methods. The other methods chosen include the IUD (16.4%), condom (15%), withdrawal (12.2%), combined oral contraceptive pills (5.2%), progestin pill, diaphragms and injectables (each accounted for under 5%), and jelly/foam and female sterilization (0.5%)." ["summary"]=> NULL ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(4) { [0]=> int(259) [1]=> int(312) [2]=> int(329) [3]=> int(341) } array(6) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(283) [5]=> int(256) } array(4) { [0]=> int(293) [1]=> int(313) [2]=> int(300) [3]=> int(320) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } string(131) "insertando The intervention in aimed to increase the efficacy and acceptability of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) in Egypt" string(17) "insertando Mexico" string(18) "insertando Nigeria" string(26) "insertando the Philippines" string(18) "insertando Germany" string(16) "insertando Italy" string(17) "insertando Sweden" string(114) "insertando the United Kingdom and the United States. Acceptors were counseled on the method and surrounding issues" string(46) "insertando as well as alternative forms of FP." array(9) { [0]=> int(462) [1]=> int(463) [2]=> int(464) [3]=> int(465) [4]=> int(466) [5]=> int(467) [6]=> int(468) [7]=> int(469) [8]=> int(470) } string(24) "-------POST 3516--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(212) " Routh, S.,Jahan, S. A.. Shifting away from doorstep distribution of contraceptives in urban Bangladesh: effects on discontinuation and acceptance of family planning. Warasan Prachakon Lae Sangkhom. 2000. 8:17-33" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(109) "http://www.ipsr.mahidol.ac.th/IPSR/Contents/Documents/Journal_Files/V8_2Jan00/FuTx2000V08No2Jan_Is02_Eng.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(212) " Routh, S.,Jahan, S. A.. Shifting away from doorstep distribution of contraceptives in urban Bangladesh: effects on discontinuation and acceptance of family planning. Warasan Prachakon Lae Sangkhom. 2000. 8:17-33" ["intervention"]=> string(390) "This operations research intervention in Bangladesh set out to motivate non-users of FP to become FP acceptors. Health workers delivered maternal and child health and FP services, and distributed FP methods through home visits and at the status primary health care clinic in one area, and through home visits and neighborhood community service points (e.g., schools, clubs) in another area." ["summary"]=> string(1125) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample included a cohort of pill/condom users supplied through door-to-door community-based distribution and modern FP method non-users. The intervention was implemented in two areas of Dhaka (Hazaribag and Gandaria) and two additional areas acted as controls (Wari and Siddiquebazar). The trial found that 31% of the modern contraceptive non-users in Hazaribag and 27% in Gandaria became acceptors of modern FP during the selective home visitation approach. The corresponding rates for the control areas were 8% in Wari and 9% in Siddiquebazar. Modern contraceptive acceptance rate under the new approach was significantly higher than that of the conventional doorstep strategy for both Hazaribag and Gandaria (p<0.05). The trial also found the absolute number of new acceptors was much higher than the corresponding dropout or discontinuance of a method. Shifting away from the conventional door-to-door community-distribution model did not appear detrimental in terms of discontinuance among the previously home-supplied pill and condom users." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3517--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(376) " Saowakontha, S.,Pongpaew, P.,Vudhivai, N.,Tungtrongchitr, R.,Sanchaisuriya, P.,Mahaweerawat, U.,Laohasiriwong, W.,Intarakhao, C.,Leelapanmetha, P.,Chaisiri, K.,Vatanasapt, V.,Merkle, A.,Schelp, F. P.. Promotion of the health of rural women towards safe motherhood--an intervention project in northeast Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2000. 31 Suppl 2:5-21" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(229) "https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rungsunn_Tungtrongchitr2/publication/11855695_Promotion_of_the_health_of_rural_women_towards_safe_motherhood_-_An_intervention_project_in_Northeast_Thailand/links/54b466090cf28ebe92e47d84.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(376) " Saowakontha, S.,Pongpaew, P.,Vudhivai, N.,Tungtrongchitr, R.,Sanchaisuriya, P.,Mahaweerawat, U.,Laohasiriwong, W.,Intarakhao, C.,Leelapanmetha, P.,Chaisiri, K.,Vatanasapt, V.,Merkle, A.,Schelp, F. P.. Promotion of the health of rural women towards safe motherhood--an intervention project in northeast Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2000. 31 Suppl 2:5-21" ["intervention"]=> string(379) "This intervention, implemented in Thailand, aimed to promote community health with an emphasis on women of reproductive age, their reproductive health and their agency in organizing themselves around specific health issues. Trained health officers and enhanced health education materials in the form of bulletins, cassettes, flip charts and videos were used to achieve this goal." ["summary"]=> string(364) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure assumed study design. A sample of approximately 700 women of reproductive age were randomly selected by a proportional multi-stage selection process. The study found that contraceptive use increased from 67.4% in 1991 to 96.4% in 1996. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001)." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(271) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3518--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(211) " Vaughan, P. W.,Regis, A.,St. Catherine, E.. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning and HIV prevention in St. Lucia. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2000. 26:148-57" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(78) "https://www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/pubs/journals/2614800.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(211) " Vaughan, P. W.,Regis, A.,St. Catherine, E.. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning and HIV prevention in St. Lucia. International Family Planning Perspectives. 2000. 26:148-57" ["intervention"]=> string(828) "The intervention, implemented in St. Lucia, aimed to promote FP use, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV, gender equity and other social development goals. The entertainment-education radio soap opera Apzve Plezi was designed to address 37 educational issues identified in formative research; including knowledge, attitudes and behavior related to FP, STI and HIV prevention, gender equity, relationship fidelity and domestic violence. The intervention collaborated on several other activities to augment the effects of the radio soap opera, including a television hotline and street theater production that used Apzve Plezi characters. Apzve Plezi story updates were regularly published in the local press, and posters, bumper stickers and billboards were used to advertise the radio program." ["summary"]=> string(1372) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study used data from nationally representative baseline and endline surveys conducted through personal interviews. A total of 753 men and women participated in the baseline survey, and 1,238 men and women participated in two endline surveys. Each survey included an independent quota sample that was representative of the country's sexually active population aged 15-54. The study found that 14% of listeners reported having adopted a FP method as a result of listening to the program. Six percent of regular listeners reported they had called a hotline or gone somewhere to obtain counseling. Twenty-nine percent had not changed their behavior as a result of listening to the program. Among women, current use of FP methods was slightly but non-significantly higher at the endline (54%) than at the baseline (53%). Analyses based on all respondents at endline showed that listeners were significantly more likely than non-listeners to be current users of a FP method (52% vs. 43%; OR, 1.6). Among men who were in a sexual union, the proportion currently using condoms was 21% at baseline and 24% at endline, but this increase was not statistically significant. Regular listeners were the most likely to report using condoms (31%), but the difference was not significant." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(343) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(328) } array(3) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(244) [2]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3519--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(174) " Vaughan, P. W.,Rogers, E. M.. A staged model of communication effects: evidence from an entertainment-education radio soap opera in Tanzania. J Health Commun. 2000. 5:203-27" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(61) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10810730050131398 " ["citation"]=> string(174) " Vaughan, P. W.,Rogers, E. M.. A staged model of communication effects: evidence from an entertainment-education radio soap opera in Tanzania. J Health Commun. 2000. 5:203-27" ["intervention"]=> string(167) "Twende na Wakati (Let's Go With the Times) sought to increase modern contraceptive use in Tanzania through a serial radio soap opera. The program promoted FP adoption." ["summary"]=> string(1737) "Twende na Wakati was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. The study sample included 2,652 personal interviews conducted during a pre-broadcast survey in 1993; 2,785 personal interviews in 1994; 2,801 personal interviews in 1995; 2,750 personal interviews in 1996; and 2,557 personal interviews in 1997. Approximately equal numbers of men and women were selected randomly from within 35 predesignated wards for interview in each year. These interviews were conducted with respondents in seven regions where broadcasts of Twende na Wakati could be heard (the treatment area) and with respondents in the Dodoma region where broadcasts of Twende na Wakati could not be heard prior to mid-1995 (the control area). The study found that, in 1995, 22% of Twende na Wakati listeners reported they adopted FP as a result of listening to the radio soap opera. The percentage of married women who reported using a FP method increased from 29% in 1993 to 39% in 1995 and then to 41% in 1997 in the treatment area. The percentage decreased from 65% in 1993 to 54% in 1995 but then increased to 70% in 1997 in the control area. Family planning use by married women showed a significant treatment effect (lLog-odds 5.40, p=.01; MLR; Beta 5.35; p=.05). Similarly, the percentage of sexually active men who reported using a FP method increased from 14% in 1993 to 21% in 1995 and then to 23% in 1997 in the treatment area, while the percentage decreased from 29% in 1993 to 19% in 1995 and then increased to 47% in 1997 in the control area. Male use of contraceptives shows a significant treatment effect (Logs odds: 5.68, p=.01; MLR; Beta 5.45; p=.01). The study also measured couple/spousal communication about FP." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3520--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(265) " Xiaoming, S.,Yong, W.,Choi, K. H.,Lurie, P.,Mandel, J.. Integrating HIV prevention education into existing family planning services: Results of a controlled trial of a community-level intervention for young adults in rural China. AIDS and Behavior. 2000. 4:103-110" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(58) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1009597026437 " ["citation"]=> string(265) " Xiaoming, S.,Yong, W.,Choi, K. H.,Lurie, P.,Mandel, J.. Integrating HIV prevention education into existing family planning services: Results of a controlled trial of a community-level intervention for young adults in rural China. AIDS and Behavior. 2000. 4:103-110" ["intervention"]=> string(562) "The intervention in China aimed to integrate HIV prevention into FP programs at the community level. Providers participated in a workshop on basic HIV/AIDS information, the intervention and developing the project's strategy further. The intervention itself consisted of multiple components: written materials (a reading handbook), videos, radio programs, workshops, small group discussions, home visits, personal counseling and a set of audio and video tapes. The messages emphasized sexual abstinence prior to marriage and condom use for sexually active people." ["summary"]=> string(965) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial used two-stage cluster sampling to recruit 800 young adults age 18-30 years from four townships in Kunshan county. Two townships were randomly assigned to the intervention and the control conditions. The trial found that although condoms were made available to all subjects in the intervention group, most subjects reported no condom use in the past year. A similar percentage in the control group reported no condom use. However, the percentage of intervention group subjects using condoms during the last episode of sexual intercourse increased significantly from 9% to 14% after the intervention (p = .05), while the percentage in the control group remained stable. Similarly, the proportion using condoms as their main contraceptive method increased significantly from 4% to 10% in the experimental group (p = .05), but declined non-significantly from 8% to 5% in the control group." ["year"]=> int(2000) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3521--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(203) " Bertrand, J. Guerra de Salazar, S.,Mazariegos, L.,Salanic, V.,Rice, J.,Kolars Sow, C.. Promoting birthspacing among the Maya-Quiche of Guatemala. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1999. 25:160" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(98) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/1999/promoting-birthspacing-among-maya-quiche-guatemala " ["citation"]=> string(203) " Bertrand, J. Guerra de Salazar, S.,Mazariegos, L.,Salanic, V.,Rice, J.,Kolars Sow, C.. Promoting birthspacing among the Maya-Quiche of Guatemala. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1999. 25:160" ["intervention"]=> string(416) "The intervention, implemented in Guatemala, aimed to increase knowledge and use of contraceptives, and improve attitudes toward birth spacing. The intervention employed volunteer promoters, provider training and supervisory visits, advocacy, information, education and communication approaches, including radio, television, community video displays, loudspeaker announcements and workshops with local radio stations." ["summary"]=> string(1480) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The effect of the intervention on married Mayan women of reproductive age (age 15-49 years) was assessed using program-based data (routine service statistics from the leading FP organization) and population-based data from a baseline and follow-up survey. Two-stage sampling was used for both surveys. A total of 846 women participated in the baseline survey and 958 women participated in the follow-up survey. The study found the percentage of women who had ever used a method increased between the baseline and follow-up surveys. While only 7% had ever used a contraceptive method at baseline (5% modern method, 3% traditional method), by follow-up, this proportion had increased to 25% (19% modern method, 14% traditional method). Several women reported they had used both types of methods. The prevalence of contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age increased significantly, from 5% to 18%. The gain in modern method use (from 4% to 14%) explains most of this increase in use overall. The methods with the largest percentage point increases were tubal ligation, rhythm and the injectable. The study found five significant predictors of contraceptive use, including visit to an APROFAM clinic, a mistimed pregnancy, exposure to birth spacing messages, the number of household amenities (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and a woman’s number of living children." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(337) } array(8) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(283) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) [7]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(3) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3522--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(134) " Chapman, K.,Gordon, G.. Reproductive health technologies and gender: Is participation the key?. Gender and Development. 1999. 7:34-44" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(53) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/741923126 " ["citation"]=> string(134) " Chapman, K.,Gordon, G.. Reproductive health technologies and gender: Is participation the key?. Gender and Development. 1999. 7:34-44" ["intervention"]=> string(892) "Based in Zambia, this intervention sought to increase the accessibility and acceptability of reproductive health services and increase the practice of safer sex in rural communities. Male and female community-based distribution agents were trained to counsel on the use of contraceptives and spermicide; refer clients for injectables, sterilizations, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and to carry out information, education and communication work. The intervention used non-directive counselling, interactive approaches (songs, drama and forum theatre), picture cards, interactive drama techniques, participatory learning and action methods and participatory monitoring and evaluation. The agents also facilitated single-sex groups of adolescents to draw pictures related to sexual and reproductive health. Peer groups also included role play, games and discussions." ["summary"]=> string(704) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study was conducted using participatory learning and action techniques with peer groups, analysis of data collected routinely by community-based distribution (CBD) agents and government staff and focus group discussions with users of the CBD services, non-users and those who had stopped using services. The study found that the contraceptive prevalence rate more than doubled in areas where the project had been operating since 1996. Community-based distribution agents who were trained in 1996 had about 700 clients registered. On average, 40% of clients use oral contraceptives, 7% foam and 53% condoms." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(291) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(275) [2]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) [3]=> int(244) [4]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3523--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(260) " Fitzgerald, A. M.,Stanton, B. F.,Terreri, N.,Shipena, H.,Li, X.,Kahihuata, J.,Ricardo, I. B.,Galbraith, J. S.,De Jaeger, A. M.. Use of Western-based HIV risk-reduction interventions targeting adolescents in an African setting. J Adolesc Health. 1999. 25:52-61" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X98001207 " ["citation"]=> string(260) " Fitzgerald, A. M.,Stanton, B. F.,Terreri, N.,Shipena, H.,Li, X.,Kahihuata, J.,Ricardo, I. B.,Galbraith, J. S.,De Jaeger, A. M.. Use of Western-based HIV risk-reduction interventions targeting adolescents in an African setting. J Adolesc Health. 1999. 25:52-61" ["intervention"]=> string(454) "The My Future is My Choice (MFMC) aimed to improve HIV/AIDS and safe sex knowledge, attitudes and practices among youth in Namibia. The intervention used face-to-face, after school sessions to emphasize abstinence and safer sex among youth. The curriculum included information on HIV/AIDS, basic facts about reproductive biology and pregnancy and other risk behaviors. Each session contained a variety of narratives, games, facts and different exercises." ["summary"]=> string(1168) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial sample included youth in Grades 9 or 11, between age 15-18 years, who were attending one of the 10 study secondary schools in Caprivi or Omusati were invited to enroll. Over 80% of eligible youth enrolled. The trial found that the difference in condom use between intervention and control youth at follow-up (78% compared to 64%) was very similar to that at baseline (78% compared to 67%), although the difference at follow-up reached statistical significance (p<.05). Among intervention youth, the percentage of youth reporting frequent use of condoms (“always”/“ usually”) increased 16% (from 61% at baseline to 77% at follow-up) compared to only a 4% increase (from 64% to 68%) among control youth (p=not significant). Compared to sexually active boys in the control group, sexually active boys in the intervention group reported higher rates of condom use during their last episode of intercourse at baseline (87% compared to 68%; p<.05). At follow-up, the condom use rates remained higher among intervention boys (79% compared to 67%), although the difference was not significant." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(344) } array(1) { [0]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(311) } array(2) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(264) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3524--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(206) " Jain, S. C.,Barkat, A.,Lundeen, K.,Faisel, A. J.,Ahmed, T.,Islam, M. S.. Improving family planning program performance through management training: the 3Cs paradigm. J Health Popul Dev Ctries. 1999. 2:1-25" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(35) "http://www.popline.org/node/282121 " ["citation"]=> string(206) " Jain, S. C.,Barkat, A.,Lundeen, K.,Faisel, A. J.,Ahmed, T.,Islam, M. S.. Improving family planning program performance through management training: the 3Cs paradigm. J Health Popul Dev Ctries. 1999. 2:1-25" ["intervention"]=> string(560) "This article describes an action research intervention, which aimed to train FP service providers in order to improve FP service delivery and management in Bangladesh, and, ultimately, improve FP outcomes. Service providers from 19 thanas (sub-administrative districts) underwent training to improve their FP knowledge, concern for FP as an issue, commitment to address FP issues, and competence for transferring these feelings into action on the job. The main channel used was interpersonal communication with providers, and, presumably, then with FP clients." ["summary"]=> string(833) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample included 5% of current FP users from 19 thanas. The study found that during the 5 month period of follow-up the average increase in contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for all 19 thanas, according to the reports submitted by the trainees, was 5.47 percentage points. A second evaluation found that CPR during the nine month period covered by that study, went up by 9.8 percentage points, from 50% to 59.8%. According to the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, the CPR for the country as a whole in 1994 was 44.6%, and it rose to 49.7% by late 1996. This was an increase of 5.1 percentage points in less than two years or approximately three percentage points per year, the net increase was 6.8 points in nine months." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(247) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(231) [3]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3525--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(212) " Jakobsen, M. S.,Sodemann, M.,Molbak, K.,Alvarenga, I.,Aaby, P.. Promoting breastfeeding through health education at the time of immunizations: a randomized trial from Guinea Bissau. Acta Paediatr. 1999. 88:741-7" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(79) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1651-2227.1999.tb00035.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(212) " Jakobsen, M. S.,Sodemann, M.,Molbak, K.,Alvarenga, I.,Aaby, P.. Promoting breastfeeding through health education at the time of immunizations: a randomized trial from Guinea Bissau. Acta Paediatr. 1999. 88:741-7" ["intervention"]=> string(328) "The intervention in Guinea Bissau, promoted breastfeeding through mothers' routine immunization visits at local health centers. Health workers provided mothers with health education information verbally; messages centered around breastfeeding and FP information, including the use of condoms and possibilities for IUD insertion." ["summary"]=> string(809) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial. The study area was divided into 86 clusters with approximately 20 houses in each cluster. Each cluster of houses was randomly allocated to an intervention group or a control group. A total of 1,226 pregnant mothers were enrolled, and 1,250 children were born into the study; 659 in the intervention group and 591 in the control group. The trial found that 45 women, 31 from the intervention group and 14 from the control group, reported to have had an IUD inserted in the time between birth of the study child and end of the study period. Controlling for ethnic group, mother’s age, birth order and sex, significantly more mothers in the intervention group had had an IUD inserted (rate ratio=2.45(1.27-4.70)) compared with the control group." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(345) } array(1) { [0]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3526--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(236) " Lush, L.,Cernada, G. P.,Rob, A. K.,Arif, M. S.,ul Haq, M.,Ahmad, M. S.. Operations research on the female village-based family planning worker program of Pakistan. International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 1999. 18:283-305" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(64) "http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.2190/GW33-R03W-8188-7W51 " ["citation"]=> string(236) " Lush, L.,Cernada, G. P.,Rob, A. K.,Arif, M. S.,ul Haq, M.,Ahmad, M. S.. Operations research on the female village-based family planning worker program of Pakistan. International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 1999. 18:283-305" ["intervention"]=> string(706) "The intervention, implemented in Pakistan, aimed to deliver FP appropriately in a society in which rural women's mobility is severely limited. Activities included female village-based FP workers (VBFPWs) visiting women in their villages to provide information and FP services. The workers were trained in FP and basic primary health care at local training centers, and were then responsible for registering and visiting regularly all married couples of reproductive age in their village eligible for using contraception. The workers were trained to deliver oral contraceptive pills, condoms and basic medicines, and to refer women to nearby clinics for injectables, IUD insertion and contraceptive surgery." ["summary"]=> string(1811) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study consisted of community surveys, interviews with VBFPWs and direct observations of VBFPWs. First, data was collected using a set of three community surveys, each survey took a sample of 10% of all households from each of the twenty-one villages in the study area - for a total 426, 378 and 385 women interviewed in the first, second, and third rounds of the survey, respectively. Second, VBFPWs completed self-administered questionnaires on their knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to FP and the reproductive process. The questionnaires were self-administered before their training (n = 766) and after their training (n = 683). And third, direct observation was conducted with 76 VBFPW during home visits. The study found that, if a woman had been visited by the VBFPW in her village in the last two months, the odds of her using contraception was 1.83 times higher that if she had not been visited (p < 0.001). Other factors which were positively and significantly associated with contraceptive use included: number of children, with an odds ratio of 1.42 for each additional child borne (p<0.001); women’s age, with an odds ratio of 0.97 (p=.06); and women’s and husband’s years of education, with an odds ratio of 1.06 (p=.01). There was a robust relationship between the number of times a woman had been visited and whether or not she was using contraception. In the first round of the community survey, 13.2% of women who had been visited once were using contraception compared to 44.4% of those who had been visited four or more times (p=0.006). This strong relationship remained throughout the community surveys as the overall contraceptive prevalence rate rose in the population." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(252) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3527--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(205) " Rogers, E. M.,Vaughan, P. W.,Swalehe, R. M.,Rao, N.,Svenkerud, P.,Sood, S.. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning behavior in Tanzania. Stud Fam Plann. 1999. 30:193-211" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.1999.00193.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(205) " Rogers, E. M.,Vaughan, P. W.,Swalehe, R. M.,Rao, N.,Svenkerud, P.,Sood, S.. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning behavior in Tanzania. Stud Fam Plann. 1999. 30:193-211" ["intervention"]=> string(281) ""Twende na Wakati" (Let's Go with the Time), implemented in Tanzania, sought to promote the interrelated health issues of FP and HIV prevention through an eight-episode radio drama. Episodes were followed by epilogues meant to stimulate related, topical discussion among listeners." ["summary"]=> string(917) "Twende na Wakati was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. The study sample included females age 15-49 years and males age 15-60 years. Each district had an average sample size of 214 respondents, and each ward had an average sample size of 71 respondents. The study found the proportion of married women who practice FP ("always use" and "sometimes use" are combined) increased by ten percentage points in the treatment area and decreased by 11 percentage points in the control area from 1993 to 1995. All three statistical tests support a significant effect of exposure to "Twende na Wakati" from 1993 to 1995 on married women's use of contraceptives. This effect was replicated in the Dodoma control area from 1995 to 1997, where the proportion of respondents reporting such use increased by 16 percentage points. The study also measured couple/spousal communication about FP." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(263) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3528--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(175) " Soliman, M. H.. Impact of antenatal counseling on couples' knowledge and practice of contraception in Mansoura, Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 1999. 5:1002-1013" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(78) "http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/118791/1/emhj_1999_5_5_1002_1013.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(175) " Soliman, M. H.. Impact of antenatal counseling on couples' knowledge and practice of contraception in Mansoura, Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 1999. 5:1002-1013" ["intervention"]=> string(576) "The intervention, based in Egypt, aimed to determine the impact of antenatal counseling on couples' contraceptive knowledge and practice. Women were given three consecutive counseling sessions. The sessions included the anatomy and function of the female reproductive system, the purpose of FP and follow-up visits, FP benefits and different FP methods and the advantages, disadvantages, side effects, warning signs and complications of each method. Audiovisual aids were used during counselling sessions such as flip charts, posters, contraceptive methods and a pelvic model." ["summary"]=> string(1487) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The study was conducted at the maternity hospital at the University of Mansoura as well as the homes of defaulters. A sample of 200 women randomly selected newcomers to the outpatient clinic, who were in their second trimester of pregnancy, were recruited. Half of the women’s husbands (n = 50) were also recruited. Women were randomly allocated to one of two groups where individual FP counseling sessions were given in three consecutive sessions (intervention group) and the other group was given the routine care (control group). The trial found that all (100%) of the women with high-risk pregnancies and 86.8% of women with normal pregnancies in the intervention group had practiced contraception compared with 64.5% of women with high risk and 33.3% with normal pregnancy in the control group respectively. Of these, 35.3% and 28.1% with normal and high-risk pregnancies of the intervention group preferred IUD, compared with 7.2% and 12.9% in the control group respectively. The same results were observed in those who used lactational amenorrhea method (17.6% and 25%, compared with 7.2% and 16.1% of women with normal and high-risk pregnancy in the intervention and control group respectively) and barrier method (11.8% and 6.3%, compared to 2.9% and 3.2% of women with normal and high-risk pregnancy in the study and control group respectively). There were significant differences between both groups (p<0.01)." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(312) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(275) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(283) } array(1) { [0]=> int(313) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3529--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(190) " Solo, J.,Billings, D. L.,Aloo-Obunga, C.,Ominde, A.,Makumi, M.. Creating linkages between incomplete abortion treatment and family planning services in Kenya. Stud Fam Plann. 1999. 30:17-27" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(77) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4465.1999.00017.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(190) " Solo, J.,Billings, D. L.,Aloo-Obunga, C.,Ominde, A.,Makumi, M.. Creating linkages between incomplete abortion treatment and family planning services in Kenya. Stud Fam Plann. 1999. 30:17-27" ["intervention"]=> string(546) "This intervention implemented three different approaches to providing postabortion FP services with the uniform goal of making FP services more accessible in Kenya. The three models included: FP services provided on the gynecological ward by ward staff; FP services provided on the gynecological ward by FP staff; and FP services provided in a FP clinic by staff. Across these three scenarios, the intervention included the same components: training of staff in postabortion FP; provision of equipment and supplies and reorganization of services." ["summary"]=> string(366) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample consisted of women who presented at the hospital with incomplete abortions, without serious complications, and with gestations of 16 weeks or less from their last menstrual period. The trial found that post-intervention 70% of the women used contraception, up from 7% at baseline." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(4) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) [2]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3530--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(170) " Storey, D.,Boulay, M.,Karki, Y.,Heckert, K.,Karmacharya, D. M.. Impact of the integrated Radio Communication Project in Nepal, 1994-1997. J Health Commun. 1999. 4:271-94" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(59) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/108107399126823 " ["citation"]=> string(170) " Storey, D.,Boulay, M.,Karki, Y.,Heckert, K.,Karmacharya, D. M.. Impact of the integrated Radio Communication Project in Nepal, 1994-1997. J Health Commun. 1999. 4:271-94" ["intervention"]=> string(551) "The Radio Communication Project (RCP) aimed to satisfy the large unmet need for contraception, improve quality of services and service delivery and increase service utilization and contraceptive use in Nepal. The intervention included wall hangings, posters and leaflets on contraceptive methods in health posts, and two entertainment education radio series -- one for health workers and one for the general public. RCP also held workshops on interpersonal communication to complement the print and radio components that occurred during the same time." ["summary"]=> string(637) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. A sample of 2,716 married women age 15 - 49 years participated in the study. The study found that the gain in FP adoption due to exposure was 11.7%, while the gain in continuation due to exposure was 7.4%. Of the 1,905 women in the panel survey, 41% were non-users of contraception at both points in time (continual nonusers), 20% were non-users in 1994 but had adopted FP by 1997 (adopters), 14% were using contraception in 1994 but had discontinued use in 1997 (discontinuers), and 24% were users at both points in time (continual users)." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(2) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(3) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) [2]=> int(278) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3531--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(180) " Van Rossem, R.,Meekers, D.. An evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent and young adult reproductive health in Cameroon. 1999. [3], 32 p." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(61) "http://search.proquest.com/docview/198016065?accountid=11752 " ["citation"]=> string(180) " Van Rossem, R.,Meekers, D.. An evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent and young adult reproductive health in Cameroon. 1999. [3], 32 p." ["intervention"]=> string(807) "The Horizon Jeunes Project, implemented in Cameroon, aimed to improve adolescent reproductive health in urban areas. The main project approach included: 1) youth-focused behavior change communication and promotion, and 2) youth-focused Prudence Plus brand condom and, to a lesser extent, Novelle oral contraceptive distribution. Other activities included youth-oriented promotional events, peer education and counseling, radio talk shows, brochures, youth clubs, posters, and community meetings. Peer educators were trained in techniques of social marketing and interpersonal behavior change communications. Activities included messages on reproductive health, prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, abstinence, condom use and dialogue with parents about sexuality, among other topics." ["summary"]=> string(1309) "The project was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. A baseline and follow-up survey were conducted with youth age 12-22 years. The baseline survey was conducted with a random sample of 1,606 youth (805 in the intervention site and 801 in the control site) and the follow-up survey was conducted with 1,633 youth (811 in the intervention site and 822 in the control site). The trial found that although some youth claimed contact with the Horizon Jeunes Project influenced them to start or increase condom and contraceptive use, the behavioral data provided only limited support for this. Although significant increases were observed in the proportion of youth reporting use of condoms, pills and other forms of contraceptive for birth control, it cannot be argued that the project was responsible for most of the changes, as they occurred in both the intervention and control sites. The three exceptions are the reported use of other modern contraceptives (IUD or injectables) among male youths, and the reported use of condoms for pregnancy prevention, which increased more rapidly in the intervention compared to the control site. In the intervention site, the proportion of female youths who reported to have ever used a condom rose from 58% to 76%; no such change occurred in the control site." ["year"]=> int(1999) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(294) } array(4) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(7) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(335) [4]=> int(213) [5]=> int(244) [6]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(386) [1]=> int(265) [2]=> int(321) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3532--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(166) " Kane, T. T.,Gueye, M.,Speizer, I.,Pacque-Margolis, S.,Baron, D.. The impact of a family planning multimedia campaign in Bamako, Mali. Stud Fam Plann. 1998. 29:309-23" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(43) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/172277.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(166) " Kane, T. T.,Gueye, M.,Speizer, I.,Pacque-Margolis, S.,Baron, D.. The impact of a family planning multimedia campaign in Bamako, Mali. Stud Fam Plann. 1998. 29:309-23" ["intervention"]=> string(400) "The intervention in Mali aimed to improve contraceptive knowledge, attitudes and practices. Throughout the campaign, FP messages were distributed using information, education and communication (IEC) components through radio, television and songs. The campaign was part of a larger traditional and modern (mass) media project. The project also launched a FP logo during the first week of the campaign." ["summary"]=> string(1546) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. Two independent two-stage, stratified, random- sample surveys of adult men and women of reproductive age living in Bamako were conducted. The baseline sample included 402 men and 422 women. The endline sample included 418 men and 450 women. The study found a consistent increase in current modern contraceptive use among married couples during the study period. Changes in current use of modern contraceptives were less pronounced in the unmarried population, although the overall prevalence of modern contraception was generally higher among unmarried men and women of reproductive age than among married men and women. Although married men reported a substantial increase in condom use between baseline and endline, married women reported no such increase. Unmarried men and women living in Bamako were more likely to use a modern contraceptive method to prevent pregnancy than were married men and women. The study also found that as the number of IEC interventions heard or seen increased, the prevalence of current use of modern contraceptives rose significantly and dramatically for both men and women. Men who heard or saw all ten IEC interventions were six times more likely to be using modern contraceptives than were men who were exposed to none of the interventions; women who heard or saw all ten interventions were about nine times more likely to be using a modern method than were women who did not hear or see any of the intervention." ["year"]=> int(1998) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(289) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(244) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3533--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(206) " Katz, K. R.,West, C. G.,Doumbia, F.,Kané, F.. Increasing access to family planning services in rural Mali through community-based distribution. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1998. 24:104-110" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(128) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/1998/09/increasing-access-family-planning-services-rural-mali-through-community-based " ["citation"]=> string(206) " Katz, K. R.,West, C. G.,Doumbia, F.,Kané, F.. Increasing access to family planning services in rural Mali through community-based distribution. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1998. 24:104-110" ["intervention"]=> string(631) "The intervention integrated FP services within the existing primary health care system and aimed to improve contraceptive use in Mali. The intervention had three arms. In selected villages, community health agents (family trainers) and nurses provided FP education, but not supplies. In a second group of villages, male and female FP promoters were trained to provide FP education through group talks and home visits, to sell contraceptives and to track the money they received from the sales. Male promoters were supplied with only condoms and female promoters only with spermicides. A third sub-district received no intervention." ["summary"]=> string(937) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. The study recruited women age 15-49 years and men age 18-60 years. A total of 1,495 women and 1,499 men were interviewed at baseline and 1,289 women and 1,262 men were interviewed at endline. The study found that women's current use of modern method of FP increased significantly in all study groups (p<0.001). The largest increase was in the community-based distribution (CBD) group, which increased from 1% at baseline to 31% at endline. The control group experienced the second largest increase, from 2% to 14%. All three groups also showed significant increases in their use of the oral pill (p<0.001). Again the largest increase occurred in the CBD group (from less than 1% to 16%). This group was the only one to significantly increase its use of spermicides. There were no significant changes in any groups' use of any other methods." ["year"]=> int(1998) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(289) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) [3]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3534--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(156) " Mi Kim, Y.,Marangwanda, C.. Stimulating men's support for long-term contraception: A campaign in Zimbabwe. Journal of Health Communication. 1997. 2:271-297" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(59) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/108107397127590 " ["citation"]=> string(156) " Mi Kim, Y.,Marangwanda, C.. Stimulating men's support for long-term contraception: A campaign in Zimbabwe. Journal of Health Communication. 1997. 2:271-297" ["intervention"]=> string(345) "This campaign, implemented in Zimbabwe, aimed to increase the use of women's contraceptive methods, as well as men's methods, especially long-term and permanent methods. The campaign included 10 main elements, grouped into three categories: mass media, print materials and community events. Couples were encouraged to have discussions around FP." ["summary"]=> string(1041) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study consisted of household surveys of randomly selected men age 18-54 years and women age 15-49 years who were interviewed both before and after the campaign. A baseline survey of 1,019 respondents was conducted in July 1993, two months before the campaign was launched, and an endline survey of 1,016 respondents was conducted in May 1994, two months after the campaign was concluded. Multistage random sampling was used. The study found that exposure to the campaign was associated with the use of modern contraceptives in the endline survey. The percentage of respondents using a modern contraceptive method rose steadily, from 30% to 66%, with increasing exposure to the campaign. Women and men exhibited similar patterns. Individuals exposed to three or more campaign elements were 1.6 times more likely to use a modern FP method, even when controlling for gender, marital status, residence, age, education, and socioeconomic status." ["year"]=> int(1997) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(292) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(390) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(394) [3]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3535--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> NULL ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(149) "Ozvaris, S. B.,Akin, A.,Yildiran, M.. Acceptability of postpartum contraception in Turkey. Advances in Contraceptive Delivery Systems. 1997. 13:63-71" ["citation"]=> NULL ["intervention"]=> string(367) "This intervention in Turkey aimed to increase effective method use in the early postpartum period. One-hour education programs, led by a health educator, focused on the relationship between postpartum and FP, lactation and contraception and the methods which can be used in this period. Brochures on "Postpartum Family Planning" were also distributed to participants." ["summary"]=> string(743) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. The study recruited pregnant women age 15-49 years from a maternity hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Family planning information, education, and counseling (IEC) was given to 197 women during antenatal care, and method acceptance in the early and late postpartum period was compared to a control group of 201 women. The study found that 11% of the women in the intervention group and 2% of the women in the control group accepted a FP method during the early postpartum period. The provision of FP IEC materials during the antenatal period effects the use of an effective method mainly in the early, and to a lesser extent, the late postpartum period." ["year"]=> int(1997) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(330) } array(4) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(275) [3]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3536--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(147) " Hossain, M. B.,Phillips, J. F.. The impact of outreach on the continuity of contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Stud Fam Plann. 1996. 27:98-106" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(132) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14488661_The_Impact_of_Outreach_on_the_Continuity_of_Contraceptive_Use_in_Rural_Bangladesh " ["citation"]=> string(147) " Hossain, M. B.,Phillips, J. F.. The impact of outreach on the continuity of contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Stud Fam Plann. 1996. 27:98-106" ["intervention"]=> string(456) "The Bangladesh Family Planning project aimed to sustain contraceptive behavior among existing contraceptive users. The program launched a national initiative of FP outreach services. The outreach services initiative hired and trained young married women, known as family welfare assistants (FWAs), to visit women in their homes and explain contraceptive methods, encourage uptake and support ongoing use with resupply, information and referral to services." ["summary"]=> string(1462) "The program was evaluated using a prospective/pre-post, exposure-known study design. Data was collected from rural women through interviews in a 90-day (one round) cycle. Nearly 32 rounds (eight years) of longitudinal data on rural women's contraceptive use and programmatic variables (number of FWA visits, nature of discussion with the women and type of service provided to the client while visiting) were incorporated in the analysis. The study found that household outreach had a pronounced effect on the continuity of contraceptive use throughout the study period and that the magnitude of this effect has increased with time. The odds associated with contact suggested the 90-day odds of discontinuation were reduced. This finding supported the hypothesis that FWA visits sustained contraceptive use beyond levels of practice that would arise in the absence of household outreach. Effects increased markedly from the early to middle period, and the middle to recent period. In the early period, reproductive preferences exerted a pronounced effect: Discontinuation odds were 43% less among women who wanted no more children than among women who wanted more. By the recent period, this role of preferences dropped to insignificance, suggesting that motivation as a determinant of use diminishes if the role of contact is held constant. These findings suggested that the importance of contact with a FWA grows as the proportion of committed users diminishes." ["year"]=> int(1996) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3537--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(231) " Kincaid, D. L.,Merritt, A. P.,Nickerson, L.,De Castro Buffington, S.,De Castro, M. P. P.,De Castro, B. M.. Impact of a mass media vasectomy promotion campaign in Brazil. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1996. 22:169-175" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(104) "https://www.guttmacher.org/journals/ipsrh/1996/12/impact-mass-media-vasectomy-promotion-campaign-brazil " ["citation"]=> string(231) " Kincaid, D. L.,Merritt, A. P.,Nickerson, L.,De Castro Buffington, S.,De Castro, M. P. P.,De Castro, B. M.. Impact of a mass media vasectomy promotion campaign in Brazil. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1996. 22:169-175" ["intervention"]=> string(646) "The intervention, based in Brazil, aimed to increase knowledge and awareness of vasectomy and to increase the number of vasectomies obtained. Activities included pre-campaign public relations events; a television spot, broadcast before and during the campaign; a press conference and a following mini-campaign of a magazine ad, an electronic billboard and direct mailing of pamphlets. The television spot featured a pair of animated hearts - one male, one female - that depicted the purpose of a vasectomy, its safety and its noninterference with sexual intercourse. A companion radio piece also featured a father explaining vasectomy to his son." ["summary"]=> string(871) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study included data from clinic records and brief interviews conducted with male callers, male visitors to the clinics, and male patients. The study found that the number of vasectomies peaked during the month immediately after the campaign, when 689 vasectomies were performed, compared with an average of 310 operations during the period before the campaign. The monthly average after the campaign was 401 vasectomies. One-way analysis of variance revealed that this difference was statistically significant at p<.01. The analysis of the mean differences before and after the campaign does not take into account changes in the slope, however. After the dramatic increase in vasectomies, there was a gradual decline until performance leveled off at pre-campaign levels." ["year"]=> int(1996) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(1) { [0]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(3) { [0]=> int(390) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3538--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(257) " Lei, Z. W.,Wu, S. C.,Garceau, R. J.,Jiang, S.,Yang, Q. Z.,Wang, W. L.,Vander Meulen, T. C.. Effect of pretreatment counseling on discontinuation rates in Chinese women given depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception. Contraception. 1996. 53:357-61" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(69) "http://www.contraceptionjournal.org/article/0010-7824(96)00085-6/pdf " ["citation"]=> string(257) " Lei, Z. W.,Wu, S. C.,Garceau, R. J.,Jiang, S.,Yang, Q. Z.,Wang, W. L.,Vander Meulen, T. C.. Effect of pretreatment counseling on discontinuation rates in Chinese women given depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception. Contraception. 1996. 53:357-61" ["intervention"]=> string(466) "The intervention, based in China, aimed to prevent discontinuation of Depo-Provera through pretreatment counseling. The intervention included structured counseling, an educational video on DMPA and a booklet and diary cards where clients could record menstrual changes and side effects. Women at two health centers received structured counseling (intervention group), and women at two centers received only routine counseling practiced in the clinic (control group)." ["summary"]=> string(1340) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample included women of childbearing age, including postpartum and breastfeeding mothers, attending four FP centers in Sichuan province. To be eligible, women had to be between 18 and 40 years old; use only DMPA as a contraceptive during the course of the study (condoms were permitted for prevention of sexually transmitted infections); were willing to return to the clinic every three months; had regular menstrual cycles during the previous six months (unless due to recent pregnancy, abortion, or hormone treatment); and were able to keep a daily menstrual diary card. In total, 421 women participated in the trial (214 women in the intervention group and 217 women in the control group). The trial found that more women in the intervention group chose to continue DMPA than women in the control group. Within three months after receiving one DMPA dose, six women (3%) dropped out of the intervention group, compared to 54 women (25%) from the control group. At 12 months, the cumulative termination rates were 11% (23 out of 204) for the intervention group, compared to 42% (92 out of 217) for the control group. Overall, the structured counseling group had a statistically significantly lower drop-out rate than the routine counseling group (p < 0.0001)." ["year"]=> int(1996) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(274) } array(1) { [0]=> int(282) } array(1) { [0]=> int(304) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3539--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(171) " Phillips, J. F.,Hossain, M. B.,Arends-Kuenning, M.. The long-term demographic role of community-based family planning in rural Bangladesh. Stud Fam Plann. 1996. 27:204-19" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2137954.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(171) " Phillips, J. F.,Hossain, M. B.,Arends-Kuenning, M.. The long-term demographic role of community-based family planning in rural Bangladesh. Stud Fam Plann. 1996. 27:204-19" ["intervention"]=> string(362) "The Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning Extension Project (MCH-FP) aimed to improve FP use through household visits in Bangladesh, and understand the role outreach can play in generating new demand. To implement the intervention, village women were recruited, hired and trained to conduct home visits to discuss FP services and other health related issues." ["summary"]=> string(801) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. Data for the analysis was acquired from the Sample Registration System, a stratified random sample of approximately 19% of the households in the two study districts, as well as three reproductive preference surveys that have been administered among a panel of women. In total, data from 4,236 respondents was available for the analysis. The study findings suggest that program outreach plays a continuing role in fostering contraceptive use and sustaining contraceptive practice, even after a decade of household encounters. The possibility remains, however, that effects estimated are artifacts of general exposure to various components of the Bangladesh program rather than a discrete outcome of outreach." ["year"]=> int(1996) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(278) } array(1) { [0]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3540--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(174) " Valente, T. W.,Poppe, P. R.,Merritt, A. P.. Mass-media-generated interpersonal communication as sources of information about family planning. J Health Commun. 1996. 1:247-65" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(59) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/108107396128040 " ["citation"]=> string(174) " Valente, T. W.,Poppe, P. R.,Merritt, A. P.. Mass-media-generated interpersonal communication as sources of information about family planning. J Health Commun. 1996. 1:247-65" ["intervention"]=> string(675) "The intervention, implemented in Peru, aimed to increase contraceptive use, heighten FP method awareness, reduce method misinformation, and support FP services by promoting methods and institutions that provided such services. The intervention used a multimedia campaign consisting of mass media and interpersonal communication. Mass media activities included: television spots and radio spots broadcasted nationally; condom and pill brand-name promotions spots; sketches followed by panel discussions on a leading television talk show; other mass media - such as posters, banners, flyers, and print advertisements; and a street theater play (which was evaluated separately)." ["summary"]=> string(927) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. Urban probability household surveys were conducted in April 1993, September 1993, and April 1994. Stratified random probability interviews were conducted among approximately 1,500 men and women in the five largest cities of Peru (Lima, Arequipa, Trujillo, Cusco, and Piura). Two-stage random sampling was used to select women and men age 15-45 years. The study found that adoption-of-behavior stage was significantly associated with message recall and with social and medical network scores. Contraceptive users, both new and continuing, recalled more messages and talked to more people in their interpersonal network of family members and friends about those messages. Persons who had not yet tried contraceptives recalled fewer messages, spoke to fewer people about those messages, and contacted technical personnel less frequently." ["year"]=> int(1996) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(323) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(3) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(244) [2]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3541--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(206) " Halawa, M.,Bashay, M. F.,Eggleston, E.,Hardee, K.,Kafafi, L.,Brown, J. W.. Assessing the impact of a family planning nurse training program in Egypt. Population Research and Policy Review. 1995. 14:395-409" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(53) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01074350 " ["citation"]=> string(206) " Halawa, M.,Bashay, M. F.,Eggleston, E.,Hardee, K.,Kafafi, L.,Brown, J. W.. Assessing the impact of a family planning nurse training program in Egypt. Population Research and Policy Review. 1995. 14:395-409" ["intervention"]=> string(395) "The intervention aimed to improve nurses' skills in FP education and counseling in order to increase contraceptive knowledge and foster more favorable client attitudes toward FP in Egypt. The nurse training program was restructured to place a greater emphasis on counseling and education skills. The new program devoted over one-third of the training to information, education and communication." ["summary"]=> string(1154) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial used purposeful sampling to recruit women attending eight randomly selected clinics - four clinics that received the intervention (intervention group) and four clinics that acted as a comparison (control group). A total of 1,005 women were interviewed as part of the trial. The study found that use of contraception among the women in the study population was very high, even before the implementation of the new nursing training. Oral contraceptives and IUDs accounted for nearly all the contraceptive use by women in the study group. Forty three percent reported that they currently used the pill, and 55% used the IUD. Despite the already high contraceptive prevalence among study participants, change was evident in IUD use. There was a significantly higher proportion of women using the IUD among the intervention group compared to the control group. The increase in IUD use occurred mainly in Assiout, where prevalence in the intervention group rose from 39% to 46%. Conversely, IUD use among women in Assiout in the control group decreased during the same time period." ["year"]=> int(1995) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(312) } array(2) { [0]=> int(251) [1]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(313) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3542--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(189) " Amatya, R.,Akhter, H.,McMahan, J.,Williamson, N.,Gates, D.,Ahmed, Y.. The effect of husband counseling on NORPLANT contraceptive acceptability in Bangladesh. Contraception. 1994. 50:263-73" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(66) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010782494900728 " ["citation"]=> string(189) " Amatya, R.,Akhter, H.,McMahan, J.,Williamson, N.,Gates, D.,Ahmed, Y.. The effect of husband counseling on NORPLANT contraceptive acceptability in Bangladesh. Contraception. 1994. 50:263-73" ["intervention"]=> string(561) "A pilot intervention to improve Norplant contraceptive acceptability through husband counseling was conducted at four FP clinics in Bangladesh. Counseling of husbands used an informational brochure, which men were given to take home. It contained information on the method itself, its duration of effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages, availability, the follow-up requirements and the supportive role husbands can play in decision-making. The counselor reviewed a flip-chart on Norplant and then encouraged the couple to ask questions regarding their use." ["summary"]=> string(1459) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial sample included 617 women between 18 and 40 years of age who were: sexually active, previously pregnant, not fully breastfeeding, had not used injectable contraceptives in the six months prior to admission, was within the first seven days of her menstrual cycle at the time of insertion and readily accessible and willing to return to the clinic for regularly scheduled follow-up visits. Women self-selected into the husband-counseled (HC) group (intervention group; n = 408) or husband-not counseled (HNC) group (control group; n = 209) by virtue of whether they brought their husband to the clinic for counseling. The trial found that at 36 months the discontinuation rates were lower for implant acceptors in the HC group than for acceptors in the HNC group. The discontinuation rate at 36 months was 32 per 100 women (± 2.4) for the acceptors in the HC group versus 42 per 100 women (± 3.8) for the acceptors in the HNC group. The difference in discontinuation rates between the two groups neared statistical significance (p=0.07). The hazard for discontinuation among the acceptors in the HC group was 0.81 times the hazard for those in the HNC group. The results showing that the acceptors whose husbands were counseled were less likely to discontinue than acceptors whose husbands were not counseled held true after controlling for sociodemographic variables and clinics." ["year"]=> int(1994) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(281) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3543--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(144) " Edwards, S.. Husband's involvement boosts contraceptive use among Ethiopian couples. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1994. 20:39-40" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2133341.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(144) " Edwards, S.. Husband's involvement boosts contraceptive use among Ethiopian couples. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1994. 20:39-40" ["intervention"]=> string(509) "The intervention, implemented in Ethiopia, aimed to increase contraceptive use among married couples. Accompanied by birth attendants who made initial contact, trained female health assistants known in the community conducted home visits with married women and their husbands to discuss the family's health, the woman's reproductive history, education about the advantages of FP, modern contraceptive methods (including the pill, IUD and condoms) and the advantages of modern methods over traditional methods." ["summary"]=> string(1427) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known design. The study collected data using baseline and endline surveys. Married women, age 15-49 years, who were living with their husbands, but who were not pregnant nor currently using a contraceptive method were surveyed. A total of 527 women were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 266), in which both the husband and the wife were visited and educated about contraceptives, or the control group (n = 261), in which only the woman was visited. The study found that, after the home visit, 47% of the women in the intervention group and 33% of women in the control group decided to start using a modern contraceptive method; most of them (90%) chose the pill. Two months after the home visits, about half of the couples who had said they intended to use a modern contraceptive had not yet started using it; 25% of the intervention group and 15% of the control group were using a modern method. Compared with the control group, participants in the intervention group were about half as likely to have stopped using a modern method by 12 months (RR, 0.55), but were nearly 60% more likely to have delayed starting use of the method at least two months (RR, 1.58). At 12 months after the intervention, intervention couples were twice as likely as control couples (33% compared to 17%) to be using a modern contraceptive method." ["year"]=> int(1994) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(219) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3544--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(208) " Hindin, M. J.,Kincaid, D. L.,Kumah, O. M.,Morgan, W.,Mi Kim, Y.,Ofori, J. K.. Gender differences in media exposure and action during a family planning campaign in Ghana. Health Communication. 1994. 6:117-135" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(61) "http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327027hc0602_3 " ["citation"]=> string(208) " Hindin, M. J.,Kincaid, D. L.,Kumah, O. M.,Morgan, W.,Mi Kim, Y.,Ofori, J. K.. Gender differences in media exposure and action during a family planning campaign in Ghana. Health Communication. 1994. 6:117-135" ["intervention"]=> string(505) "The intervention, based in Ghana, aimed to improve contraceptive prevalence rates. A two-phase multimedia campaign was introduced. The first phase prioritized women and the second phase, men. The program included three radio programs that were broadcast weekly, eight posters on display in health centers and other prominent sites, three leaflets about the pill, condoms and foaming tablets, three video dramas that were shown in towns and villages, one television drama and a theme song for the campaign." ["summary"]=> string(1529) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post study design. The study measured the campaign impact on exposure and FP-related actions among women and men age 20-45 years. A total of 2,120 respondents, 1,113 women and 1,007 men, participated in the study. The study found that, during the campaign, men were more likely than women to talk to a partner (42% vs. 25%) and begin contraceptive use (11% vs. 4%), whereas women were more likely than men to talk to service providers (30% vs. 26%). Men and women exposed to the campaign were significantly more likely to take action regarding FP than those who had little or no exposure. When the media were combined, there was a significant relation between exposure and beginning use however, the adjusted odds ratios showed no significant associations between exposure to each of the campaign media and starting to use FP during the campaign period. Women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources were more likely to take action than those who were not exposed or exposed to fewer sources. The relation was less strong among men. Among men, higher levels of exposure were associated with a higher proportion of men talking to a partner and beginning use, but not with talking to a service provider. Based on the interaction odds ratios, women who were exposed to the campaign media were more likely than men who were exposed to the campaign media to talk to a partner or service provider, whereas there was no significant difference in beginning use." ["year"]=> int(1994) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(287) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3545--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(140) " Huntington, D.,Aplogan, A.. The integration of family planning and childhood immunization services in Togo. Stud Fam Plann. 1994. 25:176-83" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2137943.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(140) " Huntington, D.,Aplogan, A.. The integration of family planning and childhood immunization services in Togo. Stud Fam Plann. 1994. 25:176-83" ["intervention"]=> string(500) "This intervention, implemented in Togo, aimed to improve access to quality FP services by linking them to child immunization services - the Expanded Program of Immunizations (EPI) - through a referral messaging system. During each childhood-immunization session, the EPI service provider emphasized key messages with the child's mother before immunizing the child, including encouraging her to seek FP services, informing her that the clinic provided FP services and encouraging FP for child spacing." ["summary"]=> string(1454) "The intervention was evaluated using a cluster randomized trial in 16 urban and rural maternal and child health and FP clinics in the two regions where FP services were most active. The sample was randomly divided into two groups - intervention and control clinics. Pre- and post-test exit interview surveys with 1,000 randomly selected women who had just had their children immunized were conducted to measure changes in FP knowledge and practices among immunization clients. During the intervention, the mean number of new acceptors per month in the intervention group increased significantly from 200 to 307 (p<.001), and in the control group from 144 to 167 (not significant). The difference between the two groups' mean number of new acceptors per month thus increased from 56 to 140 clients per month during the intervention period. This increase was significant (p<.003). In the nine months prior to the giving of individual referrals during EPI consultations, the control group received an average of 704 FP clients; after the intervention, the same clinics received an average of 768 clients (not significant). The clinics in the intervention group had a significant increase (27%) in overall FP use during the same period; the average monthly number of FP clients increased from 1,035 to 1,311 (p<.0001). The difference in the average number of overall FP users between the intervention and control clinics is also highly significant (p<.0001)." ["year"]=> int(1994) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(338) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(391) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3546--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(210) " Kambo, I. P.,Gupta, R. N.,Kundu, A. S.,Dhillon, B. S.,Saxena, H. M.,Saxena, B. N.. Use of traditional medical practitioners to delivery family planning services in Uttar Pradesh. Stud Fam Plann. 1994. 25:32-40" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2137987.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(210) " Kambo, I. P.,Gupta, R. N.,Kundu, A. S.,Dhillon, B. S.,Saxena, H. M.,Saxena, B. N.. Use of traditional medical practitioners to delivery family planning services in Uttar Pradesh. Stud Fam Plann. 1994. 25:32-40" ["intervention"]=> string(647) "This pilot intervention aimed to gauge the potential impact of traditional medical practitioners delivering FP services in India. After a brief training period, practitioners participated in the intervention for two years to increase contraceptive knowledge and use in rural communities. Specifically, they counseled potential acceptors to adopt a suitable method; distributed condoms and oral contraceptives; referred clients who chose an IUD or sterilization; followed up the acceptors; treated for minor side effects or referred them for major complications; and maintained simple records of FP acceptors and a stock register of contraceptives." ["summary"]=> string(1851) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. Two cross-sectional community surveys designed to be representative of women of reproductive age (15-45 years) were conducted - one at baseline and one at endline after the two-year intervention period. Fifty households were selected by systematic random sampling from the intervention and control villages. From each selected household, one married woman aged 15-45 years was administered a questionnaire. The trial found a dramatic increase in contraceptive prevalence in the intervention villages. Contraceptive use almost doubled, from 34% to 64%, as compared with an increase from 37% to 49% in the control villages. While permanent method use increased significantly irrespective of the intervention in both intervention and control village, acceptance of reversible methods increased only in the villages where the trained practitioners worked; the control villages showed comparatively less change. In the intervention villages, the percentage increase in use rates of reversible methods was significantly higher than that in the control villages (130% and 25%, respectively). Acceptors of reversible methods increased from 40% to 49% of all acceptors, while no change (38-37%) occurred in the control villages. The greater use of the pill was largely responsible for the shift. The increase in contraceptive use in the control villages (from 37 to 49%) is significant (p< .01), though much smaller. While this increase resulted from greater use of permanent methods, and may have come about because of the official emphasis on sterilization, other factors may have played a part in the increase. Since the intervention and control sites were selected purposively, initial and unknown differences or other unknown program activities may have existed in the control villages." ["year"]=> int(1994) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(256) [5]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3547--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(120) " Valente, T.,et al., Radio promotion of family planning in The Gambia. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1994." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2133511.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(120) " Valente, T.,et al., Radio promotion of family planning in The Gambia. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1994." ["intervention"]=> string(974) "The IEC (Information, Education and Communication) and Training Materials Project, implemented in Gambia, aimed to improve awareness and knowledge of FP and sexually transmitted infections, to increase the number of new and continuing contraceptive users, and to increase the couple years of protection. The project developed a comprehensive FP provision training manual, trained fieldworkers and clinic assistants in FP counseling, reprinted five booklets for clients on FP methods, regularly broadcast five 30-second radio spot announcements, broadcast Fakube Jarra a 39-episode radio drama series and organized nine Fakube Jarra listening groups. Messaging emphasized that modern contraceptive methods are a safe and acceptable way to space births. Radio materials were designed to convey the belief that Islam supports the use of modern methods, that the modern methods are safe, that FP service providers are knowledgeable and caring and that couples should discuss FP." ["summary"]=> string(1194) "The impact of Fakube Jarra was evaluated using an FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study consisted of a baseline survey conducted prior to the broadcast of newly expanded episodes of Fakube Jarra, and a follow-up survey conducted after Fakube Jarra had been on the air for eight months. A total of 399 men ages 16-64 years and women ages 15-44 years participated in the baseline survey, and 402 men and women participated in the follow-up survey. In addition, interviews were conducted with 721 new clients attending eight Gambia Family Planning Association clinics around the country. The study found the proportion of modern method users increased from 19% at baseline to 30% at follow-up (p<.05). The increase occurred almost exclusively among women and was mostly an increase in use of the pill, the most readily available modern method in The Gambia. Those who had heard the radio program were more likely to use a modern method than those who had not (35% vs. 16%). The effect was greatest among uneducated individuals: Program exposure was associated with an increase in contraceptive users from 10% to 27%. The study also measured couple/partner communication." ["year"]=> int(1994) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(342) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3548--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(160) " Wade, K. B.,Sevilla, F.,Labbok, M. H.. Integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method into a family planning program in Ecuador. Stud Fam Plann. 1994. 25:162-75" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(138) "https://www.researchgate.net/publication/15257859_Integrating_the_Lactational_Amenorrhea_Method_into_a_Family_Planning_Program_in_Ecuador " ["citation"]=> string(160) " Wade, K. B.,Sevilla, F.,Labbok, M. H.. Integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method into a family planning program in Ecuador. Stud Fam Plann. 1994. 25:162-75" ["intervention"]=> string(469) "This program documented the process of integrating the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) into a multiple-method FP service-delivery organization in Ecuador. To support the intervention, counselors developed educational materials for clients, including two posters, a booklet and a flip chart. LAM-eligible women were counseled regarding all available FP methods including LAM, and concerning the recommended breastfeeding practices for child health and child spacing." ["summary"]=> string(881) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. A prospective clinical study of LAM was conducted among 422 mother-infant pairs in a breastfeeding support program in Chile. The mothers were informed that LAM could be followed as a method of FP and they could choose to follow LAM for up to six months postpartum. The study found that there were 2,905 visits by new clients in the four study clinics. Of these, 431, or about 15%, were from the broad target group, women less than six months' postpartum. One hundred thirty-three women who met all three LAM criteria selected LAM from all the methods available to them, representing almost 31% of new postpartum clients and 5% of all new clients. There was considerable variation among the clinics in the proportions of LAM acceptance among postpartum clients, ranging from 8% to 70%." ["year"]=> int(1994) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(318) } array(1) { [0]=> int(283) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3549--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(193) " Foreit, K. G.,Foreit, J. R.,Lagos, G.,Guzman, A.. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of postpartum IUD insertion in Lima, Peru. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1993. 19:19-24, 33" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2133378.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(193) " Foreit, K. G.,Foreit, J. R.,Lagos, G.,Guzman, A.. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of postpartum IUD insertion in Lima, Peru. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1993. 19:19-24, 33" ["intervention"]=> string(617) "The intervention, implemented in Peru, aimed to provide cost-effective postpartum IUD insertions to women during the immediate postpartum period (prior to hospital discharge). The intervention consisted of contraceptive counseling and the offer of all contraceptive methods but sterilization immediately after in-hospital delivery. Health educators were trained to provide in-hospital FP counseling. Health educators attended a training course on contraceptive methods, counseling techniques and special aspects of the postpartum period. Health care providers were also trained in postpartum IUD insertion techniques." ["summary"]=> string(1617) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. Two randomly selected maternity wards participated in the study. One implemented the intervention (intervention group) and the other acted as a control. Interviews were conducted with postpartum women at 40 days and six months after delivery. Independent random samples were drawn from each monthly cohort to constitute four groups - experimental women at 40 days and at six months, and control women at the same intervals. A total of 1,560 women were interviewed - 639 women from the intervention ward interviewed at 40 days and 238 interviewed at six months, and 482 women from the control ward interviewed at 40 days and 201 at six months. The trial found statistically significant differences in contraceptive prevalence between intervention and control groups, both at 40 days (X2=48.44, two degrees of freedom, p<.01) and at six months postpartum (X2=12.98, two degrees of freedom, p<.01). This relationship was caused almost entirely by the higher use of IUDs among the intervention group: Six months after delivery, 40% of women in the intervention group were using IUDs, compared with 27% of controls. Total contraceptive prevalence was also 13 percentage points higher in the intervention group. Because in-patient IUD insertion was estimated to cost $9.38 per woman, compared with $24.16 for an interval insertion, implementing postpartum FP services in all relevant hospitals could save 3-5% of the annual projected Peruvian Social Security Institute (IPSS) FP budget for Lima and free up 6% of the current outpatient delivery capacity." ["year"]=> int(1993) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(323) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3550--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(157) " Phillips, J. F.,Hossain, M. B.,Simmons, R.,Koenig, M. A.. Worker-client exchanges and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Stud Fam Plann. 1993. 24:329-42" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2939243.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(157) " Phillips, J. F.,Hossain, M. B.,Simmons, R.,Koenig, M. A.. Worker-client exchanges and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Stud Fam Plann. 1993. 24:329-42" ["intervention"]=> string(376) "This intervention in Bangladesh aimed to improve contraceptive use through household visits by FP workers. Young, married and educated women were hired as FP workers, and trained on FP methods, communication themes and basic reproductive physiology. The workers went house-to-house promoting contraceptive use and supplied condoms and oral contraceptives to women upon demand." ["summary"]=> string(1448) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure known study design. The data used in the analysis was derived from a study conducted by the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in 1984-86 in which a sample of rural households was visited in 90-day cycles by trained interviewers. Questionnaires elicited information about encounters with FP workers and respondents' current contraceptive status. This analysis comprises results from six cycles, comprising 18 months of interviewing. The study suggested the magnitude of the client-worker exchanges was substantial. A woman contacted by a female worker was 2.8 times more likely to be using a method 90 days later than was a woman who was not contacted (eW 03 = 2.80); a client contacted by a male worker was 1.4 times more likely to be using a method (e+037 = 1.45). Coefficients for the joint effect of male and female worker contacts were significant and negative. This situation arises because joint effects are appraised by summing male and female workers' main effects with the interaction effect. The negative "both" effect suggests that frequent contacts are not neatly additive in their behavioral impact, and that there are diminishing returns from intensifying the frequency of encounters. Thus, the cumulative effect of closely spaced visits is not equivalent to the same number of visits spaced at appropriate intervals." ["year"]=> int(1993) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(305) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(265) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3551--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(197) " Pick De Weiss, S.,Givaudan, M.,Givaudan, S.. Planeando Tu Vida: sex and family life education: fundamentals of development, implementation, and evaluation. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 1993. 6:211-24" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(35) "http://www.popline.org/node/336205 " ["citation"]=> string(197) " Pick De Weiss, S.,Givaudan, M.,Givaudan, S.. Planeando Tu Vida: sex and family life education: fundamentals of development, implementation, and evaluation. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 1993. 6:211-24" ["intervention"]=> string(526) "In Mexico, Planeando Tu Vida set out to develop a comprehensive sex education course for adolescents to determine the sexual and contraceptive behavior of adolescents and effectively address their needs. Groups of adolescent girls were given a regular sex education course (covering sexuality, reproductive anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and contraception), the Planeando Tu Vida course, which included participatory exercises (games and dramatizations) and a coursebook, or they were given no course." ["summary"]=> string(767) "The Planeando Tu Vida intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial sample included 1,632 adolescents in enrolled in public high schools. Adolescents were divided into two groups; an intervention group that received the Planeando Tu Vida course (n = 1076) and a control group that did not receive any sex education course (n = 556). The trial found that students who participated in the Planeando Tu Vida course demonstrated an increased knowledge of reproduction and contraception. Adolescents, especially boys, who took the course before their sexual debut were much more likely to use contraceptives, as compared to the control group. Students who took the course after their sexual debut showed no increase in their use of contraceptives." ["year"]=> int(1993) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(329) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(2) { [0]=> int(264) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3552--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(145) " Terefe, A.,Larson, C. P.. Modern contraception use in Ethiopia: does involving husbands make a difference?. Am J Public Health. 1993. 83:1567-71" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(54) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1694882/ " ["citation"]=> string(145) " Terefe, A.,Larson, C. P.. Modern contraception use in Ethiopia: does involving husbands make a difference?. Am J Public Health. 1993. 83:1567-71" ["intervention"]=> string(491) "This intervention, implemented in Ethiopia, aimed to initiate and sustain modern contraceptive use among married couples. The intervention consisted of a FP education intervention using home visitation, with and without husband participation. Health assistants meeting with clients were trained to maintain an informal environment and to permit spontaneous communication. They provided health education on FP and modern contraceptive methods to either the wife alone or the wife and husband." ["summary"]=> string(1887) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial sample included urban Kotebe female residents between the ages of 15 and 49 years who were married and living with her husband. Excluded from eligibility were women currently using modern contraception, pregnant women, and women with a chronic physical or mental illness. The initial sample consisted of 527 women (266 intervention, 261 control), and 476 women at 12-month follow up (244 intervention, 232 control). The trial found that, following the home visit intervention, 47.0% (n=125) of intervention women versus 33.0% (n=86) of control women decided to start using modern contraception (RR=1.42, 95% CI=1.15, 1.76). At two months following the home visit intervention, it was confirmed that approximately one-half of all couples who had stated their intention to initiate modern contraception were not using it. The practice of contraception at two months was verified in only 24.7% (n=66) intervention and 15.3% (n=40) control subjects (RR=1.61, 95% CI=1.13, 2.30). This analysis was further stratified by the presence or absence of husband support for FP. Relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals remained above 1 and favored the intervention subjects with and without husband support. No significant interaction was found (Woolf' sx 20.14, P=.71). Women in the intervention group were less likely to have defaulted from modern contraceptive use by 12 months (RR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.37, 0.81) and more likely to have delayed starting it (RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.01, 2.46). At 12 months, twice as many women in the intervention group were using modern contraception as women in the control group (RR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.36, 2.66). Overall, 25.2% of couples were using it at 12 months, and the majority of these (55.8%) initiated the practice two or more months after the home visit intervention." ["year"]=> int(1993) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(226) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(1) { [0]=> int(278) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3553--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(186) " Vernon, R.,Lopez-Canales, J. R.,Carcamo, J. A.,Galindo, J.. The impact of a perinatal reproductive health program in Honduras. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1993. 19:103-9" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2133244.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(186) " Vernon, R.,Lopez-Canales, J. R.,Carcamo, J. A.,Galindo, J.. The impact of a perinatal reproductive health program in Honduras. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1993. 19:103-9" ["intervention"]=> string(703) "The intervention, implemented in Honduras, aimed to improve perinatal service delivery for postpartum women in a hospital setting. The intervention consisted of a client-centered reproductive health program that included five key components: a prenatal education program, a reproductive health counseling service, an expansion of contraceptive options offered in the postpartum period, a postpartum clinic for women to visit on the 40th day after birth, and improved perinatal data collection. Six topics were included in the prenatal education program: reproductive risk factors, FP, prenatal care, breastfeeding, labor and baby care. The intervention included one brochure and one video on each topic." ["summary"]=> string(2376) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. Data was collected daily and analyzed quarterly to test the effects of the five program components on contraceptive acceptance rates, knowledge of reproductive health and client satisfaction. The study used five main data collection instruments: 1) the improved perinatal information system; 2) three rounds of surveys conducted among hospitalized women who had recently given birth, with 614, 344 and 482 women, respectively; 3) attendance logbooks from counseling and educational sessions; 4) a small survey to assess the impact of the 40-day clinic, consisting of 203 exit interviews with women attending the clinic during a 40-day period and 5) several mini-surveys, qualitative studies and evaluations of different activities during the course of the program. The study found rates of acceptance of postpartum FP increased significantly and rapidly following the prenatal education program, from 9% of women who delivered in December 1990 to 47% in February 1992. Over a 10-month period, the number of women seeking FP and reproductive health counseling increased from 33 to 296 per month. The proportion of women who in their prenatal visits requested that they be given a method immediately after delivery increased from 19% to 49%. Regarding method mix, during most of the project, IUD acceptance rates varied from 6% to 9%, and sterilization acceptance rates between 5% and 8%; however, after the introduction of the minipill in 1991, oral contraceptives rapidly increased in popularity, and was accepted by 29% of women at discharge in 1992. Thirty nine percent of all women delivering at the Honduran Social Security System (IHSS) hospital attended the 40-day clinic, and the estimates for the acceptance of methods at the 40-day clinic ranged from 41% to 61%. These estimates indicate that the 40-day clinic provided contraceptives to about 20% of all women delivering at the hospital, in addition to the average of 25% of postpartum women who received a method before discharge during the intervention's period (a proportion that increased substantially in the final six months). Thus, the reproductive health program would have provided contraception in the first 40 postpartum days to about 45% of all women delivering at the IHSS hospital in Tegucigalpa during 1991." ["year"]=> int(1993) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(346) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3554--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(156) " Axinn, W. G.. Rural income-generating programs and fertility limitation: evidence from a microdemographic study in Nepal. Rural Sociology. 1992. 57:396-413" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(79) "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1549-0831.1992.tb00472.x/abstract " ["citation"]=> string(156) " Axinn, W. G.. Rural income-generating programs and fertility limitation: evidence from a microdemographic study in Nepal. Rural Sociology. 1992. 57:396-413" ["intervention"]=> string(348) "The Small Farmers Development Project (SFDP), implemented in Nepal, aimed to increase contraception use and reduce fertility. The project incorporated a population-education component on contraceptive use into a small loan program for small groups of poor, rural Nepalese. Groups adopt FP goals, for which group members hold each other responsible." ["summary"]=> string(835) "The SFDP was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study used a combination of ethnographic and survey methods to test the effects of participating in the SFDP on fertility behavior. A total of 433 women age 25-44 years were interviewed. The study found that, among women age 25-34 years, 28.6% of the non-SFDP members had used contraception, while 31.8% of the SFDP members had used contraception. Of the SFDP members who were exposed to the population-education program, 54.5% used contraception compared to only 9.1% of the other members. Among women aged 35-44 years, 66.7% of the SFDP members used contraception while only 23.3% the non-SFDP members used contraception. Among women 25-44 years of age, SFDP membership had a significant positive effect on the odds of using contraceptives." ["year"]=> int(1992) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(262) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3555--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(180) " Kim, Y. M.,Rimon, J.,Winnard, K.,Corso, C.,Mako, I. V.,Lawal, S.,Babalola, S.,Huntington, D.. Improving the quality of service delivery in Nigeria. Stud Fam Plann. 1992. 23:118-27" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1966541.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(180) " Kim, Y. M.,Rimon, J.,Winnard, K.,Corso, C.,Mako, I. V.,Lawal, S.,Babalola, S.,Huntington, D.. Improving the quality of service delivery in Nigeria. Stud Fam Plann. 1992. 23:118-27" ["intervention"]=> string(515) "This intervention, implemented in Nigeria, aimed to improve FP service delivery quality, and increase the likelihood that clients will return for follow-up visits. Certified nurses received FP technical training and a course in counseling skills. Information on communication and media/materials development was incorporated into the training sessions, as well as practical steps and exercises. Participatory activities, small and whole group discussions and role playing were the primary means of imparting skills." ["summary"]=> string(1418) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The trial included data comparing the performance of trained and untrained nurses in eight selected clinics in Ogun State as assessed by 480 women who were questioned directly after their FP consultations; 242 women who had consulted with trained nurses (intervention group), and 238 women who had consulted with untrained nurses (control group). The trial found that clients of trained nurses were almost twice as likely as clients of untrained nurses to return to the clinic for follow-up visits, with 84% of the clients attended by trained nurses compared with 44% of the clients attended by untrained nurses returning for their scheduled follow-up visit (X2 = 178.1, p<0.001). Among a subgroup of IUD and pill users, the difference between clients attended by trained and untrained nurses was even more dramatic. Of the 621 clients who chose the IUD at their initial visit, 85% of those seen by trained nurses, compared with only 30% of those seen by untrained nurses, returned for follow-up appointments (X 2 = 199.3, p< 0.001); of the 269 clients who chose the pill during their initial visit, 91% of those attended by trained nurses, compared with 70% of those seen by untrained nurses, returned for follow-up (X 2 = 18.4, p<0.001). The trial also measured quality/skill of provider communication with clients and client/patient satisfaction." ["year"]=> int(1992) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(275) [2]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(3) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(244) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3556--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(260) " Piotrow, P. T.,Kincaid, D. L.,Hindin, M. J.,Lettenmaier, C. L.,Kuseka, I.,Silberman, T.,Zinanga, A.,Chikara, F.,Adamchak, D. J.,Mbizvo, M. T.,et al.,. Changing men's attitudes and behavior: the Zimbabwe Male Motivation Project. Stud Fam Plann. 1992. 23:365-75" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1966894.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(260) " Piotrow, P. T.,Kincaid, D. L.,Hindin, M. J.,Lettenmaier, C. L.,Kuseka, I.,Silberman, T.,Zinanga, A.,Chikara, F.,Adamchak, D. J.,Mbizvo, M. T.,et al.,. Changing men's attitudes and behavior: the Zimbabwe Male Motivation Project. Stud Fam Plann. 1992. 23:365-75" ["intervention"]=> string(417) "The Male Motivation Project was implemented in Zimbabwe to promote FP among men. The campaign sought to increase awareness of FP methods, change attitudes toward male involvement, increase discussion of FP with one's spouse and encourage taking action and initiating the practice of FP. The campaign consisted of a 52-episode semi-weekly radio soap opera, motivational talks and pamphlets about contraceptive methods." ["summary"]=> string(1432) "The Male Motivation Project was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. Changes over time were measured by comparing a subset of a follow-up survey conducted in 1989 to a baseline survey conducted in 1988. A representative sample of men exposed to the campaign (intervention group) were compared to men who were not (control group). The study found that men who were exposed to the project were more likely to use a modern FP method. Current use of a modern method was significantly higher among men exposed to the project media than among men who were not, 62% compared to 51%, respectively. The largest difference in method use was seen with condoms. A total of 42% of men exposed to the campaign reported using condoms, in contrast to 30% of men who were not. About 13% of respondents reported using condoms in conjunction with other modern methods - most often pills. Reported condom use among single men was almost twice as high (52%) as that among married men (27%). A majority of the single men (52%) were using condoms as their most effective method, while only 12% of the married men were doing so. After controlling for four sociodemographic variables and radio ownership, exposure to the campaign still had a statistically significant effect on both modern contraceptive use and condom use. The study also measured client/patient satisfaction and couple/spousal communication about FP." ["year"]=> int(1992) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(292) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3557--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(158) " Bulut, A.,Uzel, N.,Kutluay, T.,Neyzi, O.. Experiences of a health team working in a new urban settlement area in Istanbul. J Community Health. 1991. 16:251-8" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(53) "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01320333 " ["citation"]=> string(158) " Bulut, A.,Uzel, N.,Kutluay, T.,Neyzi, O.. Experiences of a health team working in a new urban settlement area in Istanbul. J Community Health. 1991. 16:251-8" ["intervention"]=> string(596) "The intervention aimed to create a model for comprehensive maternal and child health care for urban underdeveloped areas in Turkey. Health teams were trained with an emphasis on communication and counseling skills, risk concept, familiarization with the client's perspective, requirements related to job performance and practical aspects of health education. A mobile health unit was established, and health teams provided services to women and children that were primarily preventative. Home visits were not included in the original intervention, but because of poor attendance, they were added." ["summary"]=> string(627) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample included all households in the intervention district which had women of reproductive age. Women of reproductive age were interviewed to gather data about the health status of their families. After the interview women were given an appointment card for herself and her child/ren. The study found that modern method use increased significantly from 23% at baseline to 34% at endline (t=11, p<0.01). IUDs were the most favored modern method, with use increasing from 12.3% to 19.8% of married women of reproductive age." ["year"]=> int(1991) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(330) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(317) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3558--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(149) " Perez, A.,Valdes, V.. Santiago Breastfeeding Promotion Program: preliminary results of an intervention study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991. 165:2039-44" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(67) "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002937811905766 " ["citation"]=> string(149) " Perez, A.,Valdes, V.. Santiago Breastfeeding Promotion Program: preliminary results of an intervention study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991. 165:2039-44" ["intervention"]=> string(358) "The Breastfeeding Promotion Program was undertaken in Chile to promote the acceptance and use of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) for natural child spacing. Mothers were interviewed about breastfeeding habits, use of FP methods, vaginal bleeding, supplementary feeding and frequency of sexual intercourse, and counseled on using LAM for child spacing." ["summary"]=> string(668) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study included data from a group of 422 mother-child pairs of urban, lower middle class whose pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care were delivered at the hospital (intervention group) and 313 mother-child pairs who followed the usual postpartum and infant feeding routines (control group). The study found that LAM usage was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (52% compared to 10%). At the end of the six month period, 91% of mothers in the intervention group and 78% of mothers in the control group were using any FP method, including LAM." ["year"]=> int(1991) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(347) } array(4) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(296) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(283) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3559--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(178) " Piotrow, P. T.,Lettenmaier, C.,Hindin, M.,Kuseka, I.,Silberman, T.,Zinaga, A.,Chikara, F.,Adamchak, D.,Lewis, G.,Huntington, D.. The Zimbabwe male motivation project. 1991. 5 p." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(35) "http://www.popline.org/node/340671 " ["citation"]=> string(178) " Piotrow, P. T.,Lettenmaier, C.,Hindin, M.,Kuseka, I.,Silberman, T.,Zinaga, A.,Chikara, F.,Adamchak, D.,Lewis, G.,Huntington, D.. The Zimbabwe male motivation project. 1991. 5 p." ["intervention"]=> string(507) "The Zimbabwe Male Motivation Program aimed to increase knowledge and promote more favorable attitudes about FP methods among men of reproductive age, increase modern FP method use between men and their sexual partners and promote male involvement and joint decision-making between spouses about contraception and family size. The program used a multimedia communication campaign, including a 52-episode semi-weekly radio soap opera, approximately 60 motivational talks and two pamphlets about contraception." ["summary"]=> string(1644) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective/pre-post, exposure-known study design. Changes in contraceptive use over time were measured by comparing the results from the 1988 Male Fertility Survey (baseline) to the results from a follow-up survey, known as the Male Motivation Impact Evaluation Survey, which measured exposure to the campaign and the impact of the campaign on the audience. The sample for the study was designed to be nationally representative of men age 18-55 years. Men exposed to the campaign were compared to men who were not exposed. The study found that men who were exposed to the Male Motivation Project were more likely to use a modern contraceptive method. Current use was significantly higher among men exposed to the media campaign (62%) than among men who were not (51%). The largest difference in method use was seen with condoms. A total of 42% of men exposed to the campaign reported using condoms, in contrast to 30% of men who were not exposed. About 13% of men reported using condoms in combination with other modern methods - most often pills. Reported condom use among single men was almost twice as high (52%) as that among married men (27%). Among married Shona-speaking men, modern contraceptive method use increased from about 56% to 59% during the campaign. Among this group, condom use increased from about 5% to 10%. This increase of 3.6 percentage points over the 16-month interval was equivalent to an annual increase of 2.7 percentage points. The average annual percentage point increase from 1984 to 1988 was 2.25, so the 1988-89 increase was about 20% greater during the campaign period." ["year"]=> int(1991) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(292) } array(3) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3560--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(140) " Vernon, R.,Ojeda, G.,Vega, A.. Making vasectomy services more acceptable to men. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1991. 17:55-60" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2133555.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(140) " Vernon, R.,Ojeda, G.,Vega, A.. Making vasectomy services more acceptable to men. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1991. 17:55-60" ["intervention"]=> string(678) "The intervention, implemented in Colombia, aimed to increase vasectomy use. The intervention provided male-oriented services such as vasectomy, treatment of sexually transmitted infections, general medical services, urology services and minor ambulatory surgery. The program included a mass media promotional campaign, which included radio spots, newspaper ads, leaflets and brochures, workplace talks and home visits by clinic counselors. The intervention was delivered in three different environments: 1) clinics where men and women received services concurrently, 2) clinics where special hours were held at a traditional clinic for men only, or 3) male-only clinic premises." ["summary"]=> string(1457) "The intervention was evaluated using non-randomized control trial. Four intervention clinics (two mixed-gender clinics, one clinic offering male-only hours, and one male-only clinic) were compared to two control clinics. To explore the levels of satisfaction with the clinic personnel and the different service delivery models, all male clients at the intervention clinics were asked to complete a survey questionnaire after they received care. Vasectomy patients also responded to a second method satisfaction questionnaire administered at follow-up. Compared with the two control clinics, results showed the four intervention clinics performed twice as many vasectomies per month (10 vs. 5, p<.01). Similarly, while the intervention clinics increased their monthly average by six during the project period, only two more operations per month were performed in the control clinics during the same period, a statistically significant difference (p<.01). In addition, the monthly increase in female sterilizations was also greater in the intervention clinics than in the controls (21 vs. 2, p<.05). The number of vasectomies performed during the project increased by nearly 120% in the intervention clinics and by 59% in the control clinics. However, contrary to expectations, clients of the exclusively male clinics were no more satisfied with the services they received or with their vasectomy than were clients of the mixed clinics or the control clinics." ["year"]=> int(1991) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(348) } array(2) { [0]=> int(256) [1]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3561--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(91) " Murray, S. A.. Family planning in rural Africa: can it work?. Family Practice. 1990. 7:5-8" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(72) "https://academic.oup.com/fampra/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/fampra/7.1.5 " ["citation"]=> string(91) " Murray, S. A.. Family planning in rural Africa: can it work?. Family Practice. 1990. 7:5-8" ["intervention"]=> string(607) "Based in Kenya, this intervention aimed to reduce high fertility by increasing the use of modern contraceptive methods. Activities included establishing a network of clinics and implementing a community-based distribution and volunteer health worker model to provide health education and contraceptives to villagers in facilities and in their own homes. Volunteer health workers were trained in primary health care and provided general health education, motivated people to use FP, and distributed selected contraceptive methods or referrals for additional FP services (i.e. implants, IUDs, tubal ligation)." ["summary"]=> string(1142) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study used data from the 1985 Chogoria Community Health Survey to assess contraceptive practice in the intervention area. Data from the 1984 Kenya Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, a nationally representative survey, served as a comparison. The study found that contraceptive use in Chogoria was higher compared to the national average in Kenya. In Chogoria, 43% of married women of reproductive age practiced FP, with 34% using modern contraceptive methods; compared to a national average of 17% and 10%, respectively, for married women of reproductive age in Kenya. Among women in Chogoria, the leading method of contraception was the oral contraceptive pill (16%), followed by the IUD (11%). The total fertility rate for the entire intervention catchment area, based on births reported to have occurred during the two years preceding the survey was 5.2 births per woman. While this is still a high fertility rate, it was lower than the national total fertility rate of 7.7 births per woman for Kenya as a whole and 8.1 in rural areas of Kenya." ["year"]=> int(1990) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(224) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3562--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(191) " Piotrow, P. T.,Rimon, Jg D.,Winnard, K.,Kincaid, D. L.,Huntington, D.,Convisser, J.. Mass media family planning promotion in three Nigeria cities. Studies in Family Planning. 1990. 21:265-74" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1966506.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(191) " Piotrow, P. T.,Rimon, Jg D.,Winnard, K.,Kincaid, D. L.,Huntington, D.,Convisser, J.. Mass media family planning promotion in three Nigeria cities. Studies in Family Planning. 1990. 21:265-74" ["intervention"]=> string(645) "Implemented in Nigeria, the intervention aimed to increase contraception use in three cities. The interventions used information, education and communication (IEC) activities, including radio and television spots, television dramas, FP skits, posters, newspaper advertisements, singing of FP songs by nurses in markets and by mothers in clinic waiting rooms; and community outreach by fieldworkers. Ministry of Health staff received on-the-job training in how to develop IEC materials and how to work with radio and television professionals to plan and design a media campaign. A different combination of activities was implemented in each city." ["summary"]=> string(669) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The interventions in the three cities (Ilorin, Enugu and Ibadan) were not designed as research studies, therefore a rigorous research protocol was not part of the program design. Data for the study was collected using service statistics, referral tracking, and recall surveys. The study found that, following the media promotion, the number of new clinic clients per quarter in Ilorin increased almost fivefold (in the original clinics evaluated); in Enugu, the number of new clients per month more than doubled; and in Ibadan, the number of new clients increased three-fold." ["year"]=> int(1990) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(4) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(244) [3]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3563--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(138) " Rao, K. S.. The influence of a community-based distribution programme on contraceptive choice. Journal of Family Welfare. 1990. 36:86-106" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(35) "http://www.popline.org/node/375417 " ["citation"]=> string(138) " Rao, K. S.. The influence of a community-based distribution programme on contraceptive choice. Journal of Family Welfare. 1990. 36:86-106" ["intervention"]=> string(733) "The Family Planning Association of India Community-Based Distribution (FPAI CBD) Project, implemented in India, aimed to increase contraceptive use through increased access and community-based distribution (CBD). Activities included information, education and communication activities; linkages of FP and health services with other development programs at the community level, community mobilization around FP and integrating FP service provision with other maternal and child health initiatives. CBD agents were trained in FP motivation, oral contraceptive pill client eligibility screening using a job aid, screening clients for oral contraceptive pill user side effects, managing minor side-effects and referrals and other topics." ["summary"]=> string(1486) "The FPAI CBD Project was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. Data was collected using surveys conducted over a 10 year period, from 1980 to 1989. Results suggested that the CBD approach led to the recruitment of a large number of new acceptors of contraceptive methods, with condoms being the most popular method of choice (55.8% of new acceptance), followed by the oral pill (22.8% new acceptance). A small percentage of acceptors also opted for foam tablets (0.6%), which were introduced in the CBD program but were not available in the government’s regular FP program. When compared to the control area, the performance in the CBD Project areas showed a higher level of FP performance. While each neighborhood block in the project area recruited 4,674 new acceptors on average in 1989, only 1,539 new acceptors were recorded per neighborhood block in the control area. Furthermore, the average increase in contraceptive prevalence rate during 1989 in the project area (2.1%) was higher than that in the control area (0.4%). A higher level of acceptance of temporary methods, which likely covered more younger couples, was observed in the project area (70.9%) than in the control area (38.7%), which was in line with the project’s objective. The total efforts of the government program and the CBD program resulted in an estimated contraceptive prevalence rate of 54.44% in the project area; of this, the input from the CBD program was 17.25%." ["year"]=> int(1990) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(5) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(275) [3]=> int(256) [4]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(4) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(224) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3564--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(163) " Foreit, K. G.,de Castro, M. P.,Franco, E. F.. The impact of mass media advertising on a voluntary sterilization program in Brazil. Stud Fam Plann. 1989. 20:107-16" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1966465.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(163) " Foreit, K. G.,de Castro, M. P.,Franco, E. F.. The impact of mass media advertising on a voluntary sterilization program in Brazil. Stud Fam Plann. 1989. 20:107-16" ["intervention"]=> string(442) "The intervention aimed to increase the awareness of vasectomy in the general population through mass media promotion in Brazil, and increase the number of new clients and vasectomies performed. A local advertising agency designed the mass media promotional campaign which included weekly and monthly insertions in magazines. A pre-campaign component also included news reports and interviews that appeared on radio, television and newspapers." ["summary"]=> string(1627) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study design was a simple before-and-after time-series analysis utilizing service data from the Pro-Pater Sao Paulo clinic and a single intervention, the mass media promotional campaign. Service statistics for the years 1984-85 provided the baseline; clinic performance was continuously monitored during the intervention and for a 12-month post-intervention period. The study found that clinic performance, both in terms of new clients and vasectomies performed, was positively and significantly affected by the advertising campaign. The mean daily number of new clients doubled during the campaign as compared to the baseline period, and remained 60% higher in the post-campaign period. Similarly, the mean daily number of vasectomies performed rose 76% from baseline during the campaign period and stabilized at a level 54% higher than baseline during the post-campaign period. Eighteen percent of the new clients attending the clinic during the campaign reported having seen a magazine ad, as opposed to 4% of the new clients in the post-campaign period (x2 = 338, degrees of freedom = 1, p<.01). Whereas 74% of the new clients during the campaign had spoken with a clinic patient, 88% of new clients in the post-campaign period had done so (x2 = 161, degrees of freedom = 1, p<.01). Finally, 36% of new clients attending the clinic during the campaign reported having spoken with friends or relatives about vasectomy, compared with 52% of new clients in the post- campaign period (x2 = 120, degrees of freedom = 1, p<.01)." ["year"]=> int(1989) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(1) { [0]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3565--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(228) " Omu, A. E.,Weir, S. S.,Janowitz, B.,Covington, D. L.,Lamptey, P. R.,Burton, N. N.. The effect of counseling on sterilization acceptance by high-parity women in Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1989. 15:66-71" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(43) "http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNABG084.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(228) " Omu, A. E.,Weir, S. S.,Janowitz, B.,Covington, D. L.,Lamptey, P. R.,Burton, N. N.. The effect of counseling on sterilization acceptance by high-parity women in Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1989. 15:66-71" ["intervention"]=> string(483) "The intervention in Nigeria aimed to increase acceptability of postpartum FP by taking the time to educate and inform women at risk of pregnancy complications because of high parity. Women were counseled to make an informed, free choice. The counselor's responsibility was threefold: to determine the readiness of the woman to end her fertility, provide complete information about risks associated with surgical contraception and inform her of the availability of reversible methods." ["summary"]=> string(1308) "The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control trial. The trial was conducted with all high-parity women who were scheduled to deliver at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and who had attended its prenatal clinic during a 19-month trial period, except women for whom a physician had recommended sterilization for medical reasons. Women were randomly assigned to either receive four individualized counseling sessions on FP and health risks associated with high parity (intervention group) or standard FP information at the prenatal clinic (control group). The trial found that women in the intervention group were more likely to choose sterilization than were women in the control group (13% and 3%, respectively). The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Sixty-six women in the intervention group underwent sterilization following childbirth. Although 63 women reported at the end of the first counseling session that they wanted to be sterilized, only 45 of those women carried through with their decision. An additional 24 women selected sterilization at later counseling sessions, and 21 of them had the operation. Although 68% of the women who chose sterilization made their decision in the first counseling session, the later sessions may have been of greater benefit." ["year"]=> int(1989) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(259) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) } array(1) { [0]=> int(222) } string(24) "-------POST 3566--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(161) " Sirikulchayanonta, C.. A study of the use of model mothers as family planning motivators in a Thai rural village. Warasan Prachakon Lae Sangkhom. 1989. 1:241-58" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12282232 " ["citation"]=> string(161) " Sirikulchayanonta, C.. A study of the use of model mothers as family planning motivators in a Thai rural village. Warasan Prachakon Lae Sangkhom. 1989. 1:241-58" ["intervention"]=> string(444) "The intervention, conducted in Thailand, aimed to use Model Mothers as FP motivators to determine alternative strategies to help improve the performance of the FP program. Model Mothers were trained in motivation and communication skills with a special emphasis on FP. Model Mothers conducted home visits to provide information and education about FP to women and encourage them to use contraceptives, and provided referrals via referral cards." ["summary"]=> string(615) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study sample included women of reproductive age in two rural villages; an intervention village and a control village. Model mothers were used as FP motivators in the intervention villages. In total, 237 women of reproductive age living in the intervention village and 262 living in the control village participated. The study found that contraceptive prevalence rates among previous non-users in the intervention village (65%) were significantly higher than in the control village (47%) (chi square= 3.04, p<=0.1)." ["year"]=> int(1989) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(271) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(4) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) [3]=> int(224) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(388) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3567--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(189) " Bertrand, J. T.,Santiso, R.,Linder, S. H.,Pineda, M. A.. Evaluation of a communications program to increase adoption of vasectomy in Guatemala. Studies in Family Planning. 1987. 18:361-370" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1966602.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(189) " Bertrand, J. T.,Santiso, R.,Linder, S. H.,Pineda, M. A.. Evaluation of a communications program to increase adoption of vasectomy in Guatemala. Studies in Family Planning. 1987. 18:361-370" ["intervention"]=> string(695) "The program in Guatemala aimed to increase vasectomy knowledge, improve attitudes and dispel rumors and increase the number of male sterilizations. Three different communication strategies were implemented: radio spots and a male promoter, radio spots only, and a male promoter only. Radio spots used a dialogue format and aired daily. Micro-programs were also included that consisted of general information on health and FP, interviews with doctors who perform vasectomy and a question and answer period for vasectomy. The trained male promoters were responsible for organizing groups of men in the community to discuss FP, the operation and arrange for interested men to undergo the operation." ["summary"]=> string(977) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study was implemented in three semi-rural towns in the southern coastal region of Guatemala, while a fourth community served as a control. Four sources of data were used to evaluate the intervention: a baseline and follow-up survey among men in the four communities, service statistics on the number of vasectomies performed in the four communities, and data on the cost of producing and implementing the communications program. For each survey, a randomly selected sample of 400 men, age 25-50 years, was taken in each of the four locations, for a total of 1,600 respondents. The surveys were conducted in independent random samples, not as a panel. The study found that the number of vasectomies performed in all three intervention areas increased significantly. The strategy employing the male promoter alone generated the greatest number of operations and at the lowest cost." ["year"]=> int(1987) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(337) } array(1) { [0]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3568--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(173) " Coeytaux, F. M.,Kilani, T.,McEvoy, M.. The role of information, education, and communication in family planning service delivery in Tunisia. Stud Fam Plann. 1987. 18:229-34" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1966874.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(173) " Coeytaux, F. M.,Kilani, T.,McEvoy, M.. The role of information, education, and communication in family planning service delivery in Tunisia. Stud Fam Plann. 1987. 18:229-34" ["intervention"]=> string(541) "The intervention, undertaken in Tunisia, sought to increase contraceptive prevalence. An information, education and communication (IEC) outreach component (including pictoral educational materials for illiterate populations) was implemented in one region and medical services were increased in another region via mobile teams. A third region received no additional services. A local health worker collaborated with leaders and social services to conduct home visits to women who had recently given birth to inform them of services available." ["summary"]=> string(1986) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. In the intervention areas, IEC outreach was added in one region where it had not previously been provided (Bou Merdez) and increasing medical services in another region to compare the impact of the two strategies on the use of FP services (El Djem). The other two regions served as controls, one region that received no special interventions (East), and the other region receiving both interventions - IEC outreach and added services through the use of a mobile clinic (West). Service statistics were used to measure program impact. The trial found that the increase in new acceptors varied significantly across regions, with every region registering a greater increase than the 57% registered in the East. The greatest increases in the number of new acceptors were found in the two regions where IEC was implemented, Bou Merdez and the West. Bou Merdez showed a 125% increase, over twice as large as the increase registered in the East, and the West registered a 298% increase, a fivefold greater increase than the East. The region of El Djem, where a service center had been added, showed an increase of only 8% more new acceptors than the East (65% as compared with 57%). The finding that Bou Merdez registered a much higher percent increase in new acceptors than did El Djem, where only the medical services were increased (125% as compared to 65%) suggests that the strategy of adding IEC was more effective than that of increasing the number of service sites. The results, when measured by the number of new acceptors show: 1) the regions in which any intervention took place fared better than did the control region; 2) the highest increase was found in the region in which both the medical services and outreach activities were intensified (West); and 3) the provision of IEC outreach services had a more positive impact on increasing the number of new acceptors than did the creation of a new service center." ["year"]=> int(1987) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(349) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(313) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3569--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(146) " El Tom, A. R.,Farah, A. A.,Lauro, D.,Fenn, T.. Community and individual acceptance: family planning services in the Sudan. Ahfad J. 1987. 4:12-30" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(35) "http://www.popline.org/node/360191 " ["citation"]=> string(146) " El Tom, A. R.,Farah, A. A.,Lauro, D.,Fenn, T.. Community and individual acceptance: family planning services in the Sudan. Ahfad J. 1987. 4:12-30" ["intervention"]=> string(521) "The intervention, undertaken in Sudan, trained midwives to provide maternal and child health and birth spacing services and promote the use of contraceptives in their communities. Midwives were trained and conducted household visits, introducing four initiatives in the villages including oral rehydration therapy, nutrition information, immunization and birth spacing through FP. Medical assistants were also trained to provide counseling and general support for the midwives and to supply them with oral contraceptives." ["summary"]=> string(690) "The intervention was evaluated using an FP incidence over time, exposure-known study design. The study included baseline and endline surveys on contraceptive knowledge and use among currently married women who were not pregnant and 15-49 years of age. In total, 2,112 women were interviewed at baseline and 2,420 women were interviewed at endline. The study found that, among women who were contacted by a midwife about FP, the overall percentage of contraceptive use (15.7%) at endline was significantly higher than the percentage of contraceptive use at baseline. There was a significant magnitude of effect of contact with village midwives on the likelihood of current contraceptive use." ["year"]=> int(1987) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(350) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(313) } array(3) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3570--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(164) " Bertrand, J. T.,Mangani, N.,Mansilu, M.. Strategies for family planning service delivery in Bas Zaire. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1986. 12:108-115" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2947981.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(164) " Bertrand, J. T.,Mangani, N.,Mansilu, M.. Strategies for family planning service delivery in Bas Zaire. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1986. 12:108-115" ["intervention"]=> string(340) "The objectives of this intervention, implemented in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire at time of intervention), were to increase women's knowledge of modern contraceptive methods, improve attitudes toward FP and increase the number of women who use contraceptives. The intervention included home visits and contraceptive distribution." ["summary"]=> string(921) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study consisted of a baseline and follow-up survey involving a representative sample of women age 15-49 years living in the urban area of Matadi and in the neighboring rural area of Songololo. A total of 3,501 interviews were completed for the baseline survey, and 3,285 interviews were completed for the follow-up survey. The study found that before the intervention only 4-5% of urban women and 2-5% of rural women age 15-44 year who were living in unions were using modern contraceptive methods. Within two years, this proportion had increased to 10-19% in four study areas. At the same time, use of traditional methods decreased, suggesting that many women substituted modern methods for traditional ones. Prevalence in the areas that received outreach was only 2-3% higher than that in areas that received no outreach." ["year"]=> int(1986) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(314) } array(7) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(218) [2]=> int(211) [3]=> int(282) [4]=> int(251) [5]=> int(275) [6]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(316) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3571--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(128) " Fisher, A. A.,de Silva, V.. Satisfied IUD acceptors as family planning motivators in Sri Lanka. Stud Fam Plann. 1986. 17:235-42" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1966973.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(128) " Fisher, A. A.,de Silva, V.. Satisfied IUD acceptors as family planning motivators in Sri Lanka. Stud Fam Plann. 1986. 17:235-42" ["intervention"]=> string(689) "The intervention aimed to address a decline in IUD use in Sri Lanka and increase the number of new IUD acceptors. Satisfied IUD acceptors were teamed with midwives to increase motivational and recruitment efforts in the field. Additionally, midwives, physicians, registered medical practitioners, assistant medical practitioners and public health nurses received training on IUD insertion, and adjustments were made to clinic rooms (e.g., providing cots, room dividers) to assure a more comfortable and private setting. Midwife training was more detailed, and included information on how the IUD works, how to discuss side effects, and the importance of pre- and post-insertion counseling." ["summary"]=> string(1050) "The intervention was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The survey was conducted among a sample of women who had an IUD insertion, with a systematic one-third sample of new IUD acceptors selected. A total of 1,217 IUD users were interviewed in the intervention and control areas. Additional data was collected through service statistics. The trial found that, after adjusting for autocorrelation, on average, there was a statistically significant difference (p < .001) between the intervention and control areas of 117 new IUD acceptors each month. The time series regression analysis suggested that in the intervention areas, midwives working with satisfied IUD users and midwives given refresher training but working alone were more effective in recruiting new acceptors than they had been in the past and in comparison to the control areas. Midwives working with satisfied acceptors recruited, on average, two-thirds more new acceptors than midwives working alone and two-and-a-half times as many as the midwives in the control areas." ["year"]=> int(1986) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(325) } array(1) { [0]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(247) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3572--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(130) " Wawer, M. J.,Lassner, K. J.,Hanff, B. B.. Contraceptive prevalence in the slums of Rio de Janeiro. Stud Fam Plann. 1986. 17:44-52" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1966954.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(130) " Wawer, M. J.,Lassner, K. J.,Hanff, B. B.. Contraceptive prevalence in the slums of Rio de Janeiro. Stud Fam Plann. 1986. 17:44-52" ["intervention"]=> string(813) "The intervention in Brazil aimed to increase contraceptive prevalence in urban slums. The program consisted of promotional home visits by nurses, condom distribution and the installation of small FP distribution depots (miniposts). Selected contraceptive methods were available in the miniposts; referral services were available for those interested in additional methods and services. There were three project sites: one implemented miniposts only; the second had miniposts and two rounds of home visits for the promotion of FP; and the third had miniposts, two rounds of home visits and household condom distribution. Promotion of FP consisted of giving a summary of the advantages of birth spacing and FP, a description of modern contraceptive methods and information regarding the availability of the methods." ["summary"]=> string(1680) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure assumed study design. All women currently or ever in union (married women and women in stable consensual union) and between the ages of 15 and 44 years were eligible for interview. Systematic visits were made to every eligible woman residing in each dwelling in the blocks immediately around each of the three minipost sites, until a sample size of approximately 600 had been achieved per site, for a total of 1,200 women per treatment. The study found that contraceptive prevalence at endline was 4.6 percentage points higher (absolute change) than at baseline. The largest absolute difference (6.1 percentage point increase in reported prevalence) occurred for women who had access to miniposts but received no home promotions. The smallest difference (2.7 percentage points) occurred in the areas receiving home promotions were but no new service delivery sites were provided. Standardization for age and number of living children did not eliminate the differences in contraceptive prevalence noted between the baseline and endline. The distribution of individual method use remained relatively stable between baseline and endline. The greatest increase occurred for female sterilization, with an additional 3.2% of women in unions stating at endline that they had been sterilized. The data are suggestive of a small switch from a temporary to a permanent method of FP, associated in part with the increases in age and parity between baseline and endline. Slightly higher use of the condom was reported in all areas, but there was no evidence of additional usage associated with home condom distributions." ["year"]=> int(1986) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(326) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3573--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(116) " Perez, A. E.,Cabigon, J. V.. Contraceptive practice in the Philippines: a synthesis. Philipp Popul J. 1985. 1:36-57" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(66) "http://116.50.242.171/PSSC/index.php/ppj01/article/view/2437/1709 " ["citation"]=> string(116) " Perez, A. E.,Cabigon, J. V.. Contraceptive practice in the Philippines: a synthesis. Philipp Popul J. 1985. 1:36-57" ["intervention"]=> string(417) "The Philippine National Family Planning Program was designed to extend contraceptive information and services to rural couples to increase their contraceptive use. Outreach workers set up service points to distribute oral contraceptive pills and condoms, conducted home visits and made referrals. Comic books were also distributed to couples, and information about the program was spread through radio and television." ["summary"]=> string(752) "The program was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study used contraceptive prevalence data from national demographic surveys to measure the impact of the National Family Planning Program in the Philippines. The study found the overall contraceptive prevalence rate sharply increased from 16% to 37% during the decade of 1968-1978. The use of modern program methods rose consistently throughout this period. Over the years, the use of program methods rose from 8% in 1968 to 28.4% in 1983. In contrast, the use of non-program methods fluctuated over time. The prevalence of sterilization increased by 75%, while the use of the rhythm method and condoms was reduced by 27% and 50%, respectively, from 1978-1980." ["year"]=> int(1985) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(341) } array(6) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(5) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(228) [2]=> int(245) [3]=> int(213) [4]=> int(224) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3574--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(149) " Noor Laily Abu, B.,Tan, B. A.,Tey, N. P.,Yusuf, Y.. Effectiveness of publications in family planning program. Malays J Reprod Health. 1983. 1:109-19" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(35) "http://www.popline.org/node/406597 " ["citation"]=> string(149) " Noor Laily Abu, B.,Tan, B. A.,Tey, N. P.,Yusuf, Y.. Effectiveness of publications in family planning program. Malays J Reprod Health. 1983. 1:109-19" ["intervention"]=> string(484) "The intervention, based in Malaysia, aimed to increase contraceptive use and discussion about FP. To achieve this, the program distributed a variety of information, education and communication (IEC) publications on contraceptive methods at intervention dialogue sessions. The IEC publications included a booklet on methods of contraception; pamphlets on the pill, IUD, condom, rhythm method, tubal ligation and vasectomy; a booklet on responsible parenthood; flip charts; and posters." ["summary"]=> string(1191) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study sample for the analysis of current use of contraceptives included 579 currently married respondents who attended dialog sessions. The study found that about 50% of the currently married respondents were using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey. Of those who had not been exposed to IEC materials, only 34.4% were using a method, compared to 53-60% of those who had been exposed. Analysis of variance shows that ethnic exposure index, place of residence, education and income were statistically significant in explaining the differentials in contraceptive usage. The proportion currently using contraception was 35% for Malays, 54% of Chinese, and 67% for Indians. Exposure to IEC materials was strongly associated with the current use of contraception for Malays (28% among non-exposed and 41% among exposed), and particularly Chinese (31% among non-exposed and 68% among exposed). Adjusting for other variables had the effect of increasing the ethnic exposure differentials instead of attenuating it, indicating the significant independent effect of this combined variable." ["year"]=> int(1983) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(351) } array(5) { [0]=> int(246) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(1) { [0]=> int(245) } array(4) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(235) [3]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3575--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(154) " Bertrand, J. T.,Zelaya, J. D.,Cisneros, R. J.,Morris, L.. Evaluation of family planning communications in El Salvador. Int J Health Educ. 1982. 24:183-94" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7090578 " ["citation"]=> string(154) " Bertrand, J. T.,Zelaya, J. D.,Cisneros, R. J.,Morris, L.. Evaluation of family planning communications in El Salvador. Int J Health Educ. 1982. 24:183-94" ["intervention"]=> string(400) "The intervention aimed to reduce population growth through a variety of information, education and communication activities in El Salvador. Messages about FP were distributed through six mass media channels (radio, TV, newspaper, movie theatres, posters and pamphlets) and through three interpersonal channels (discussions with health personnel, home visits from a FP worker or public meeting on FP)." ["summary"]=> string(997) "The intervention was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study sample included a total of 4,076 households which were randomly selected, including 2,962 women aged 15-49 years. Survey interviews were conducted with 2,340 women. The study found that exposure to the campaign increased contraceptive use. The results of the contraceptive prevalence survey show that 34.4% of Salvadorian women, married or in union, age 15-44 years were currently using contraceptives. Women who had yet to begin to adopt FP had not even heard of one method and had the lowest exposure scores - via mass media or interpersonal channels. These scores are higher for those who are at the knowledge-awareness stage, and they continue to rise monotonically with each stage in the adoption process. Although it is not possible to interpret the relationship, this data does provide evidence of a strong association between FP communication and the adoption of a contraceptive method." ["year"]=> int(1982) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(336) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3576--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(127) " Progress report on a multi-service family planning mobile unit September, 1981. J Thai Assoc Volunt Steriliz. 1981. Dec:97-101" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12311584 " ["citation"]=> string(127) " Progress report on a multi-service family planning mobile unit September, 1981. J Thai Assoc Volunt Steriliz. 1981. Dec:97-101" ["intervention"]=> string(291) "The Mobile Vasectomy Project in Thailand aimed to increase the supply of contraceptives. Nurses and physicians traveled to remote villages to deliver clinical and non-clinical FP services and supplies. Promotional billboards also advertised the services, methods available and related costs." ["summary"]=> string(422) "The Mobile Vasectomy Project was evaluated using a retrospective/post-only, exposure-known study design. The study used service data in the analysis. The study found that new acceptors as a percentage of married women of reproductive age in the provinces which had billboards compared to those that did not showed significant positive change. In total, there were 9,579 new acceptors of FP, with half selecting injectable." ["year"]=> int(1981) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(271) } array(6) { [0]=> int(211) [1]=> int(282) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) [4]=> int(256) [5]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(213) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(400) } string(24) "-------POST 3577--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(138) " Bertrand, J. T.,Bertrand, W. E.. Health education among the economically deprived of a Colombian city. Int J Health Educ. 1979. 22:102-12" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(43) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/473920 " ["citation"]=> string(138) " Bertrand, J. T.,Bertrand, W. E.. Health education among the economically deprived of a Colombian city. Int J Health Educ. 1979. 22:102-12" ["intervention"]=> string(492) "Vivamos Mejor, implemented in Colombia, aimed to educate individuals on a series of health topics, including sex education, FP, the care of young children, preventative medicine and nutrition. Activities comprised a series of short talks, discussion periods, movies, slides and a puppet show. At the end of a presentation, a booklet was distributed to each family that contained a summary of the material covered. To encourage attendance, outreach workers made home visits to invite families." ["summary"]=> string(887) "The Vivamos Mejor Program was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The sample included 300 women age 15-49 years old. The sampling design yielded three groups of 100 respondents each - 1) individuals exposed to the program in the Sileo target area, 2) individuals not exposed to the program in the Sileo target area and 3) individuals who live in a Terron Colorado where the program was not implemented. The trial found that a large percentage of the women exposed to the Vivamos Mejor Program reported using birth control (39%) than in either of the unexposed groups (33% in both). Moreover, of those using some contraceptive method, the proportion using the more reliable method (sterilization, pill, or IUD) was higher for the women who were exposed to the Program in Sileo (36/39, 0.92), than for the other women in Siloe (26/33, 0.79) or in Terron Colorado (27/33, 0.82)." ["year"]=> int(1979) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(348) } array(4) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(275) [3]=> int(256) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(5) { [0]=> int(390) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(244) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(278) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3578--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(86) " Williamson, N. E.. The Bohol project and its impact. Stud Fam Plann. 1979. 10:195-210" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1965625.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(86) " Williamson, N. E.. The Bohol project and its impact. Stud Fam Plann. 1979. 10:195-210" ["intervention"]=> string(401) "The Bohol Project, implemented in the Philippines, aimed to improve maternal and child health and regulate fertility. The intervention included outreach activities through home visits in rural villages, mother's classes and community participation in program-related projects. Rural clinics were set up and staffed by trained midwives to do home IUD insertions and introduce injectable contraceptives." ["summary"]=> string(839) "The Bohol Project was evaluated using a non-randomized control trial. The northwestern half of Bohol Island was randomly selected as the project area; while the other half received the usual national health services and served as a control area. The trial used data on married women aged 15-44 from midwife service statistics and household survey data. The trial found that the use of four highly effective methods - IUD, female and male sterilization, and Depo-Provera - increased in the 27-month period. According to service statistics, the number of IUD users increased from 369 to 2,322; of female sterilization from 112 to 534; of male sterilization from 59 to 369; and of Depo-Provera from 0 to 280. Use of the pill, condoms, and rhythm method also increased, but data on those methods are less accurate than those for other methods." ["year"]=> int(1979) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(341) } array(7) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(282) [3]=> int(251) [4]=> int(275) [5]=> int(256) [6]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(398) [2]=> int(231) } array(1) { [0]=> int(270) } string(24) "-------POST 3579--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(184) " Bertrand, J. T.,Bogue, D. J.,Mendoza Tobar, S.. A communication experiment to increase the demand for voluntary surgical contraception in El Salvador. Fam Plann Resume. 1978. 2:135-41" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(35) "http://www.popline.org/node/445698 " ["citation"]=> string(184) " Bertrand, J. T.,Bogue, D. J.,Mendoza Tobar, S.. A communication experiment to increase the demand for voluntary surgical contraception in El Salvador. Fam Plann Resume. 1978. 2:135-41" ["intervention"]=> string(553) "The intervention in El Salvador sought to increase the demand for voluntary surgical contraception and to increase the utilization of less-used FP services at the national Social Security Institute (ISSS) facilities. Various activities were introduced to help meet this goal, including: orientation for staff, training for a cadre of social workers, radio spots, distribution of print materials about FP methods, slides for local theatre, posters on sterilization, a film on sterilization and materials mailed to factory workers and relevant affiliates." ["summary"]=> string(1508) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study analyzed service data on the number of sterilization operations performed on men and women at the ISSS facilities in metropolitan San Salvador during the study period. The study found that, in the Department of Preventive Medicine, the overall number of female sterilizations increased with the start of the communication program. Whereas the average number of laparoscopies performed in the months prior to the program was 47, the average from its onset was 85. This increase represented a change of 81% over the previous level. In terms of vasectomy, there was a similar increase in the number of operations performed: from an average of 14 to an average of 19 operations. However the absolute numbers remained low and similar results were obtained for some months prior to the campaign. In the General Hospital, the number of laparoscopies fluctuated markedly throughout the months reported; however, in comparing the mean number of operations prior to and after the start of the communication program, there is a slight increase from 62 to 71 operations per month (an increase of 14%). At the same time, the postpartum program at the hospital reported a sharp drop in the number of sterilization operations, from an average of 96 per month before the communication program to an average of 61. The increase in laparoscopies was counterbalanced by an even greater decrease in postpartum operations." ["year"]=> int(1978) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(336) } array(2) { [0]=> int(256) [1]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(320) } array(4) { [0]=> int(247) [1]=> int(213) [2]=> int(244) [3]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(389) [2]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3580--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(152) " Lamptey, P.,Nicholas, D. D.,Ofosu-Amaah, S.,Lourie, I. M.. An evaluation of male contraceptive acceptance in rural Ghana. Stud Fam Plann. 1978. 9:222-6" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1965867.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(152) " Lamptey, P.,Nicholas, D. D.,Ofosu-Amaah, S.,Lourie, I. M.. An evaluation of male contraceptive acceptance in rural Ghana. Stud Fam Plann. 1978. 9:222-6" ["intervention"]=> string(349) "The Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project in Ghana aimed to provided FP services and other health services. A mobile FP team delivered family panning services every two weeks at health centers, satellite clinics and health posts and every four months at villages in more remote locations. Services were offered free of charge." ["summary"]=> string(1513) "The Danfa Project was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample included 300 male FP acceptors. The sample frame was a computer listing of all men who accepted FP in the Danfa Project in the first two year, from which 100 men were selected from each of the three project areas. This sample represented 47% of all male acceptors in the first two years. Half of the male respondents in the study accepted condoms, and half accepted vaginal foam for use by their partners. According to the survey, 16% of those accepting foam and 6% of those accepting condoms never used them. The high percentage of foam acceptance by males is an interesting finding, and the fact that 84% of those who accepted it also reportedly used it suggests the importance of the male partner's influence on a couple's adoption of FP methods. The percentage of male acceptors (n = 227) who continued to use any contraceptive method following acceptance was 87% at three months follow up, 79% at six months follow up, 69% at 12 months follow up and 50% at 18 months follow up. The study found that only 19% of the male respondents reported ever using contraception prior to accepting FP in the Danfa Program. The methods they had used included condoms, spermicides, rhythm method, and non-contraceptive drugs such as purgatives. This was a greater percentage than that reported by female acceptors, only 5% of whom reported any prior use of contraception other than abstinence and breastfeeding." ["year"]=> int(1978) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(287) } array(2) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) } array(1) { [0]=> int(293) } array(1) { [0]=> int(278) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3581--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(193) " Rushwan, H. E.,Ferguson, J. G., Jr.,Bernard, R. P.. Hospital counseling in Khartoum: a study of factors affecting contraceptive acceptance after abortion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1978. 15:440-3" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(42) "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28980 " ["citation"]=> string(193) " Rushwan, H. E.,Ferguson, J. G., Jr.,Bernard, R. P.. Hospital counseling in Khartoum: a study of factors affecting contraceptive acceptance after abortion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1978. 15:440-3" ["intervention"]=> string(216) "The intervention, based in Sudan, aimed to increase contraceptive acceptance among women who were hospitalized for treatment of an incomplete abortion. To achieve this, contraceptive counseling was provided to women." ["summary"]=> string(1051) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample included patient data collected from 3,263 women who were treated for incomplete abortions at the Omdurman Hospital, Khartoum General Hospital, and Khartoum North Hospital. The study found that after receiving contraceptive counseling 47% of postabortion women accepted contraception. High parity and a desire for fewer additional children were clearly related to increased acceptance of contraceptives. Among all women with parity five or greater, 66.1% had accepted a method at follow-up. Women with a parity of four were almost as frequently contraceptive acceptors (59.8%) as the parity five (plus) group. The lower the parity the lower the rate of contraceptive acceptance so that only 17.9% of the zero parity women accepted a method. Women desiring no additional children were the most frequent acceptors of oral contraceptives, IUDs or sterilization (69.3%). Those desiring one additional child were next in frequency of acceptance." ["year"]=> int(1978) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(350) } array(5) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(251) [2]=> int(275) [3]=> int(256) [4]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(313) } array(1) { [0]=> int(219) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(396) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3582--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(130) " Black, T. R.,Harvey, P. D.. A report on a contraceptive social marketing experiment in rural Kenya. Stud Fam Plann. 1976. 7:101-8" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1965042.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(130) " Black, T. R.,Harvey, P. D.. A report on a contraceptive social marketing experiment in rural Kenya. Stud Fam Plann. 1976. 7:101-8" ["intervention"]=> string(438) "This intervention in Kenya aimed to promote the Kinga condom and create awareness of the benefits of child spacing to generate a degree of sustained FP. Messages advocating the health and economic benefits of child spacing were disseminated through leaflets, radio, village cinema spots, metal shop signs and shelf signs. A mobile field education unit provided FP information and distributed pamphlets and free samples in village markets." ["summary"]=> string(1627) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study included data from two baseline surveys. The first survey involved interviews with 60 of the known 1,200 retail outlets that sold condoms in Meru. The second survey involved interviews with 506 respondents from Meru (intervention group) and 350 from Kirinyaga (control group) - all in the 16-45 age group-using a three-stage random area and route method of household sampling with quotas on sex. Follow-up surveys were conducted after six and twelve months of marketing in both the test and control districts. The endline survey sample consisted of 499 respondents from Meru and 350 from Kirinyaga. Two hundred of the Meru and 105 of the Kirinyaga respondents were interviewed at baseline and endline. The study found that the promotional campaign had a significant impact on contraceptive practice, FP knowledge, and to a lesser extent, attitudes. In Meru, respondents claiming to be contraceptive users rose from 21% prior to the program to 35% twelve months later. By contrast, contraceptive use in Kirinyaga, the control district, showed little change. The statistically significant increase in Meru was almost entirely due to greater use of condoms. Prior to the program, 4% of the sample reported using condoms. Condom use rose to 14% within six months after Kinga's launch and to 15% at the twelve-month mark. Of special significance is that this rise was due largely to increased use among young married males, who reported that they had bought condoms as a contraceptive for use with both wives and girlfriends." ["year"]=> int(1976) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(210) } array(4) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(285) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3583--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> NULL ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(88) "Concepcion, M. B.. East Asia Review, 1973. 6. Philippines. Stud Fam Plann. 1974. 5:160-2" ["citation"]=> NULL ["intervention"]=> string(611) "The Philippines Population Program aimed to create new strategies for motivating clients and training personnel to adopt or promote FP. The main focus of the communication program consisted of trained FP motivators who provided FP information to potential acceptors. Information and motivation teams equipped with projectors, films and printed literature traveled to villages to organize community assemblies. The intervention also integrated population education into curricula across elementary and secondary schools. Out-of-school youth also received population and FP education by youth-development workers." ["summary"]=> string(844) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study included a comparison of the programs of the Department of Social Welfare with other FP programs run by the Responsible Parenthood Council, the Department of Local Government and Community Development, and rural health units. The study found that social workers significantly contributed to increased awareness and knowledge of FP concepts. Social workers have been less successful, however, in motivating respondents to adopt FP techniques. Results showed that when the number of FP agencies operating in an area remained the same, the knowledge, attitude, and practice levels of respondents in communities serviced by Department of Social Welfare programs did not differ significantly from those in communities serviced by other programs." ["year"]=> int(1974) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(341) } array(4) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(300) } array(6) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(228) [3]=> int(264) [4]=> int(213) [5]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3584--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(110) " Krishnakumar, S.. Ernakulam's third vasectomy campaign using the camp approach. Stud Fam Plann. 1974. 5:58-61" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1965386.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(110) " Krishnakumar, S.. Ernakulam's third vasectomy campaign using the camp approach. Stud Fam Plann. 1974. 5:58-61" ["intervention"]=> string(322) "This intervention in India aimed to further increase acceptance of FP. Camps were set up to perform vasectomies and hospitals in intervention areas performed tubectomies and IUD insertions. Family planning workers and opinion leaders did intensive publicity and motivated individuals to attend in rural and urban villages." ["summary"]=> string(1054) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample included service data on the number of vasectomies performed at 15 decentralized camps, and tubal ligations and IUD insertions performed at seven local hospitals and other selected health institutions. The study found that 291 tubal ligations were performed, contributing to a total of 15,576 sterilizations, and 1,120 IUDs were inserted. The camps have set a world record for the number of vasectomies performed for a given population group in a given length of time. The camps show that large masses of people can be motivated to accept FP in a short span of time through a massive community effort and that the demand for contraception, far from being immutable, is immediately and exceedingly responsive to appropriate modifications in program approach and strategy. It was roughly estimated that during the campaign at least 10,000 couples with fewer than two children were motivated to become regular users of condoms for spacing births." ["year"]=> int(1974) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(3) { [0]=> int(276) [1]=> int(256) [2]=> int(251) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(390) } array(1) { [0]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3585--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> NULL ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(78) "Poddar, A. K.. Surgical sterilization in a hospital. J Popul Res. 1974. 1:70-2" ["citation"]=> NULL ["intervention"]=> string(350) "Implemented in India, this intervention sought to increase demand for and uptake of male and female sterilization. Activities included sterilization and other FP method training and orientation courses for health personnel, educational programs for patients and other hospital visitors, and prompt clinic-level sterilization and FP service provision." ["summary"]=> string(546) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study sample included service data on men and women who sought sterilization at the Safdarjung Hospital in New Delhi. The study found that the number of male and female sterilization performed in the hospital increased, particularly during the latter part of the study phase and during the follow up phase. The number of tubectomies went on increasing, but the number of vasectomies rapidly decreased to the base level after the intervention ended." ["year"]=> int(1974) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(241) } array(2) { [0]=> int(256) [1]=> int(276) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(1) { [0]=> int(247) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3586--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(156) " Stycos, J. M.,Mundigo, A.. Motivators versus messengers: a communications experiment in the Dominican Republic. Studies in Family Planning. 1974. 5:130-133" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1965296.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(156) " Stycos, J. M.,Mundigo, A.. Motivators versus messengers: a communications experiment in the Dominican Republic. Studies in Family Planning. 1974. 5:130-133" ["intervention"]=> string(223) "This study, conducted in the Dominican Republic, sought to increase the number of FP acceptors and decrease the number of dropouts. Motivators were trained to conduct home visits and pass out FP literature at local clinics." ["summary"]=> string(1260) "The intervention was evaluated using a FP incidence over time, exposure-assumed study design. The study was conducted in three neighborhoods in Santo Domingo where motivators distributed coupons to women and urged them to attend neighborhood FP clinics. Women were considered eligible if they were under 50 years of age, not enrolled in a FP clinic, and not pregnant or sterilized. Data on the coupons was subsequently matched with clinic records, and the combined file was coded for analysis. The study found that, in each of the three Santo Domingo clinics, the number of new acceptors was greater immediately after the intervention, an increase of almost one-third in two of the intervention clinics. At the same time, there was no increase in new acceptors at other clinics in the country. Between baseline and intervention period, there was a 25% increase in new acceptors in the intervention group, compared to a decrease of 8% in other clinics in the country. For the other clinics outside the capital, the decline in new acceptors during the intervention period was followed by an increase in caseloads during the post-intervention period. In the two months following the campaign, the rate of new acceptors in the intervention clinics sharply reduced." ["year"]=> int(1974) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(327) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(1) { [0]=> int(328) } array(3) { [0]=> int(278) [1]=> int(247) [2]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(248) } string(24) "-------POST 3587--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(115) " Bailey, J.. An evaluative look at a family planning radio campaign in Latin America. Stud Fam Plann. 1973. 4:275-8" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(45) "https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1964742.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(115) " Bailey, J.. An evaluative look at a family planning radio campaign in Latin America. Stud Fam Plann. 1973. 4:275-8" ["intervention"]=> string(407) "This Profamilia intervention, based in Colombia, aimed to make FP a more open topic of discussion and increase acceptance of FP. Radio spots were broadcast several times a day and focused on desired fertility, FP benefits (responsible parenthood, better family life, better future and health), who was eligible for FP (any woman), and where and when to seek services (Profamilia clinic locations and hours)." ["summary"]=> string(758) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The study sample includes data derived from the clinical history records of women who accepted a contraceptive method at 16 Profamilia clinics. The study found that the total number of contraceptive acceptors shows a substantial increase that coincided with the beginning of the radio campaign in both 1971 and 1972. This indicates that the initiation of the radio campaign was associated with an increase in the number of acceptors in the 16 clinics. The average monthly number of acceptors each year tended to be lower after the radio campaign than during the campaign, suggesting that the radio campaign increased the number of women who came to the clinics." ["year"]=> int(1973) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(348) } array(1) { [0]=> int(218) } array(1) { [0]=> int(324) } array(1) { [0]=> int(213) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3588--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(116) " Lieberman, S. S.. Family planning in Iran: results of a survey and a mass media campaign. Iran Stud. 1972. 5:149-80" ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(44) "http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4310118.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(116) " Lieberman, S. S.. Family planning in Iran: results of a survey and a mass media campaign. Iran Stud. 1972. 5:149-80" ["intervention"]=> string(352) "The intervention, implemented in Iran, sought to increase the number of contraceptive acceptors. The campaign consisted of radio spots, booklets, leaflets, films, banners, newspaper inserts and a poster. Dissemination and constant reiteration allowed the goals of the FP program to be publicized. The messages were tailored separately to men and women." ["summary"]=> string(1767) "The intervention was evaluated using a prospective cohort/pre-post, exposure-known study design. The baseline study sample included 1,000 married individuals; 424 interviews were conducted in Isfahan City and the remaining 576 interviews were conducted among towns and villages in proportion to the total number of residents. The endline sample included 968 married individuals. The study found a tangible and significant increase in acceptances of contraceptive use at the clinics. Three months prior to the project there were, on average, 1,273 new pill acceptors per month; during the radio programming this figure rose by 36% to 1,731 per month; and during the intensive campaign the monthly total was 1,960, an increase of 54% from before the campaign. The number of women returning for pills increased from 8,155 per month, at the start of the campaign, to a monthly average of 11,465 during the final three months. IUD acceptors increased from 69 per month, before the campaign, to 98 per month at the close of the campaign. Condom acceptors increased by 71% from a pre-campaign monthly average of 670 to a monthly average of 1,184 during the last phase. In addition, the number of condoms issued each month more than doubled from 7,345 at the beginning to 15,496 at the end of the campaign. The net increase in new acceptors of all methods was 54% from the three months prior to the campaign to the three months at the end of the campaign. Following the media campaign, withdrawal was still the most commonly used method of contraception, but fewer couples reported using it. Those who rejected the use of withdrawal seemed to adopt the pill and condoms. The net increase of 4% in reported use of the pill implied an increase in new acceptors of about 11,000." ["year"]=> int(1972) } } } array(1) { [0]=> int(302) } array(4) { [0]=> int(218) [1]=> int(211) [2]=> int(251) [3]=> int(275) } array(1) { [0]=> int(452) } array(2) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(245) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(394) } array(1) { [0]=> int(387) } string(24) "-------POST 3589--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(184) " Arrowsmith ME, Aicken CR, Majeed A, Saxena S. Interventions for increasing uptake of copper intrauterine devices: systematic review and meta-analysis. Contraception. 2012;86(6):600-5." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(76) "https://www.contraceptionjournal.org/article/S0010-7824(12)00264-8/fulltext " ["citation"]=> string(184) " Arrowsmith ME, Aicken CR, Majeed A, Saxena S. Interventions for increasing uptake of copper intrauterine devices: systematic review and meta-analysis. Contraception. 2012;86(6):600-5." ["intervention"]=> string(381) "9 studies were included in the systematic review. The aim was to systematically review which interventions increased the use of copper IUDs. Reviewed studies' interventions included community worker contraceptive counselling and referrals, antenatal contraceptive counselling, postnatal contraceptive counselling, postnatal home visits, and post abortion contraceptive counselling." ["summary"]=> string(281) "Significant increase in IUD use was found with community-based contraceptive counselling and referral and pre- and post-natal contraceptive counselling. When community workers provided at home counseling for the IUD, uptake doubled based on a meta-analysis of three of the studies." ["year"]=> int(2012) } } } string(13) "insertando UK" array(9) { [0]=> int(375) [1]=> int(252) [2]=> int(326) [3]=> int(302) [4]=> int(241) [5]=> int(471) [6]=> int(274) [7]=> int(260) [8]=> int(312) } array(1) { [0]=> int(251) } array(5) { [0]=> int(377) [1]=> int(452) [2]=> int(324) [3]=> int(300) [4]=> int(313) } array(2) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(245) } array(1) { [0]=> int(220) } array(1) { [0]=> int(378) } string(24) "-------POST 3590--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(235) " Belaid L, Dumont A, Chaillet N, Zertal A, De Brouwere V, Hounton S, et al. Effectiveness of demand generation interventions on use of modern contraceptives in low- and middle-income countries. Trop Med Int Health. 2016;21(10):1240-54." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(59) "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/tmi.12758 " ["citation"]=> string(235) " Belaid L, Dumont A, Chaillet N, Zertal A, De Brouwere V, Hounton S, et al. Effectiveness of demand generation interventions on use of modern contraceptives in low- and middle-income countries. Trop Med Int Health. 2016;21(10):1240-54." ["intervention"]=> string(562) "20 papers met inclusion criteria, of those, 13 were used in a meta-analysis. The aim of this review was to examine the evidence for implementation, cost, and effectiveness of demand generation activities on uptake of modern contraception. Interventions were both community and facility based and included involving family members during counseling, providing educational activities and increasing exposure of those activities, mass media campaigns, social mobilization through the use of influencers and combining mobilization by male promoters with radio spots." ["summary"]=> string(330) "Involving family members in counselling and providing educational activities increased demand for modern contraceptive use. Demand generation not only increased current modern contraceptive use, but also improved knowledge and attitudes as well as discussion about family planning with partners about modern contraceptive methods." ["year"]=> int(2016) } } } array(15) { [0]=> int(252) [1]=> int(330) [2]=> int(337) [3]=> int(422) [4]=> int(342) [5]=> int(289) [6]=> int(268) [7]=> int(302) [8]=> int(263) [9]=> int(241) [10]=> int(312) [11]=> int(267) [12]=> int(287) [13]=> int(226) [14]=> int(271) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(7) { [0]=> int(452) [1]=> int(377) [2]=> int(320) [3]=> int(293) [4]=> int(285) [5]=> int(313) [6]=> int(300) } array(5) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(219) [2]=> int(278) [3]=> int(245) [4]=> int(390) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(378) } string(24) "-------POST 3591--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(144) " HC3. Influencing the sexual and reproductive health of urban youth through social and behavior change communication: a literature review. 2014." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(133) "https://healthcommcapacity.org/hc3resources/influencing-sexual-reproductive-health-urban-youth-social-behavior-change-communication/ " ["citation"]=> string(144) " HC3. Influencing the sexual and reproductive health of urban youth through social and behavior change communication: a literature review. 2014." ["intervention"]=> string(475) "29 SBCC interventions were reviewed that were focused on influencing SRH behavior of urban youth . Approaches described in the literature ranged from interventions at the individual level, to the family and community level, to the societal level. Most interventions targeted school and community settings. The interventions included peer education, scripted sessions, use of positive role-models and a curriculum teaching decision-making skills and using a holistic approach." ["summary"]=> string(436) "Though program design differed, many interventions showed success in achieving positive behavior change toward family planning use. Some of the key recommendations for designing successful SBCC for youth activities include: creating an enabling environment; involving young people in the design; segmenting audiences; engaging secondary audiences, addressing the audiences lives holistically and developing multi-component interventions" ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(17) { [0]=> int(329) [1]=> int(226) [2]=> int(241) [3]=> int(274) [4]=> int(239) [5]=> int(292) [6]=> int(291) [7]=> int(210) [8]=> int(263) [9]=> int(250) [10]=> int(326) [11]=> int(262) [12]=> int(233) [13]=> int(259) [14]=> int(330) [15]=> int(379) [16]=> int(260) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(8) { [0]=> int(377) [1]=> int(285) [2]=> int(316) [3]=> int(317) [4]=> int(320) [5]=> int(324) [6]=> int(300) [7]=> int(311) } array(6) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(278) [2]=> int(264) [3]=> int(390) [4]=> int(219) [5]=> int(228) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(378) } string(24) "-------POST 3592--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(72) " ICRW. Understanding the Adolescent Family Planning Evidence Base. 2014." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(122) "https://www.icrw.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/FINAL-Understanding-the-Adolescent-Family-Planning-Evidence-Base-7.30.pdf " ["citation"]=> string(72) " ICRW. Understanding the Adolescent Family Planning Evidence Base. 2014." ["intervention"]=> string(294) "24 systematic reviews were explored. Literature was reviewed to understand adolescent demand for family planning. A conceptual framework was used to guide the review in which adolescents achieve five demand and supply side objectives in order to sustainably and effectively use family planning." ["summary"]=> string(384) "Interventions that included adolescents during design proved more effective. Effective programs included educational interventions, mass media approaches, peer to peer communication, and conditional cash transfers. Interventions were found to better achieve improvements in knowledge and attitudes than behaviors. Where behavior was affected, interventions impacted contraceptive use." ["year"]=> int(2014) } } } array(19) { [0]=> int(226) [1]=> int(347) [2]=> int(262) [3]=> int(254) [4]=> int(319) [5]=> int(263) [6]=> int(241) [7]=> int(239) [8]=> int(287) [9]=> int(267) [10]=> int(268) [11]=> int(210) [12]=> int(383) [13]=> int(291) [14]=> int(292) [15]=> int(271) [16]=> int(337) [17]=> int(254) [18]=> int(274) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(7) { [0]=> int(311) [1]=> int(285) [2]=> int(293) [3]=> int(324) [4]=> int(320) [5]=> int(277) [6]=> int(300) } string(37) "insertando Outreach (peer/lay worker)" array(5) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(213) [3]=> int(472) [4]=> int(264) } array(1) { [0]=> int(386) } array(1) { [0]=> int(378) } string(24) "-------POST 3593--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(173) " Mwaikambo L, Speizer I, Schurmann A, Morgan G, Fikree F. What works in family planning interventions: A systematic review of the evidence. Stud Fam Plann. 2011;42(2):67-82." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(73) "https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2011.00267.x " ["citation"]=> string(173) " Mwaikambo L, Speizer I, Schurmann A, Morgan G, Fikree F. What works in family planning interventions: A systematic review of the evidence. Stud Fam Plann. 2011;42(2):67-82." ["intervention"]=> string(284) "63 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were divided into supply and demand with 2/3 of studies focused on demand-generation programs for family planning methods. Approaches for demand included in the review were mass media, interpersonal communication and development approaches." ["summary"]=> string(199) "Mass media was found to have a positive impact on contraceptive use. Significant improvements in knowledge, attitudes, discussions regarding family planning as well as increasing family planning use." ["year"]=> int(2011) } } } array(37) { [0]=> int(305) [1]=> int(287) [2]=> int(263) [3]=> int(210) [4]=> int(329) [5]=> int(319) [6]=> int(346) [7]=> int(252) [8]=> int(382) [9]=> int(260) [10]=> int(268) [11]=> int(210) [12]=> int(341) [13]=> int(332) [14]=> int(294) [15]=> int(217) [16]=> int(292) [17]=> int(381) [18]=> int(262) [19]=> int(291) [20]=> int(323) [21]=> int(259) [22]=> int(424) [23]=> int(233) [24]=> int(330) [25]=> int(347) [26]=> int(380) [27]=> int(326) [28]=> int(379) [29]=> int(344) [30]=> int(273) [31]=> int(241) [32]=> int(274) [33]=> int(287) [34]=> int(312) [35]=> int(375) [36]=> int(338) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(9) { [0]=> int(377) [1]=> int(285) [2]=> int(293) [3]=> int(311) [4]=> int(313) [5]=> int(452) [6]=> int(300) [7]=> int(320) [8]=> int(324) } array(4) { [0]=> int(213) [1]=> int(219) [2]=> int(390) [3]=> int(472) } array(2) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) } array(1) { [0]=> int(378) } string(24) "-------POST 3594--------" array(4) { ["post_title"]=> string(152) " Phiri M, King R, Newell JN. Behavior change techniques and contraceptive use in low and middle income countries: a review. Repro'd Health. 2015;12:100." ["post_type"]=> string(6) "family" ["post_status"]=> string(7) "publish" ["meta_input"]=> array(1) { ["family-info"]=> array(5) { ["url"]=> string(89) "https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-015-0091-y " ["citation"]=> string(152) " Phiri M, King R, Newell JN. Behavior change techniques and contraceptive use in low and middle income countries: a review. Repro'd Health. 2015;12:100." ["intervention"]=> string(142) "6 studies met the review criteria. The review article aimed to identify behavior change methods to increase modern contraceptive use in LMICs." ["summary"]=> string(425) "Male partner involvement in the decision to initiate contraceptive use was found to be most effective along with interventions that utilized multiple behavior change techniques. Immediate on-site access to contraceptives in the community, rather than referrals, also increased use as well as interventions that provided on site materials. The authors posit that when information and contraceptives are provided, use improves." ["year"]=> int(2015) } } } array(6) { [0]=> int(375) [1]=> int(226) [2]=> int(291) [3]=> int(267) [4]=> int(262) [5]=> int(268) } array(1) { [0]=> int(246) } array(4) { [0]=> int(377) [1]=> int(285) [2]=> int(311) [3]=> int(452) } array(4) { [0]=> int(219) [1]=> int(390) [2]=> int(278) [3]=> int(245) } array(3) { [0]=> int(220) [1]=> int(235) [2]=> int(236) } array(1) { [0]=> int(378) }